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"Yale University Library 

The Gift of 
JAf. andMrs.William Fowler )-fopsoi\ 

Lithograph by John S. Sargent 





Chief, Art and Prints Divisions, New York Public Library 
Author of "How to Appreciate Prints," etc. 






Copyright, 1912, 


Published October. 1912 


The history of American painting and sculpture has 
been written more than once in recent years. That of 
the reproductive graphic arts as a whole remains to be 
told. There are such monographs as W. J. Linton's 
excellent and partly polemical record of American 
wood-engraving and Ripley Hitchcock's very useful vol- 
ume on etching in the United States, both published in 
the eighties of the last century. There is, too, D. McN. 
Stauffer's alphabetical record of our engravers on copper, 
an invaluable book of reference. But the only connected 
and comprehensive account of American graphic art ap- 
peared, strange to say, in German. In the last decade of 
the nineteenth century, the Gesellschaft filr Vervielfalti- 
gende Kunst, of Vienna, issued its monumental four- 
volume work on " contemporary reproductive art," the 
history of the achievement of the nineteenth century. In 
this, the American section was covered by the late S. R. 
Koehler for etching and wood-engraving and by the pres- 
ent writer for lithography. The story is one worth tell- 
ing in English. And it should be carried back to the 
early products of our art, of such a strong historical in- 
terest, and down to the most recent efforts at original 
expression, as we see them in the present revival of painter- 
etching, and in the individual adoption of the wood block 
and the lithographic stone as painter-media. 


The object of the present book is to group scattered 
facts in a brief but clear review of the whole field of 
American graphic art. It is not intended to present a 
detailed list including every artist who may have practised 
any of these arts in this country, but to offer a survey 
that will bring out salient or characteristic personalities 
and tendencies. 

In place of a formal bibliography, citation of literature 
on special topics is made at the proper places in the body 
of the book. 

Thanks are due to Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons for 
permission to reprint certain paragraphs from my con- 
tributions to their magazine. F. W. 



A Word of Explanation v 

I Etching: Early Attempts and the New York Etching Club 

Period i 

II Etching: The Present Revival 38 

III Engraving in Line and Stipple: The Eighteenth Century 51 

IV Line and Stipple in the Nineteenth Century .... 75 
V Mezzotint (The Art of Rocker and Scraper) .... 107 

VI Aquatint and Some Other Tints ....... 123 

VII Wood-Engraving 137 

VIII The "New School" of Wood-Engraving 154 

IX Painter-Wood-Engraving . . 171 

X Lithography: A Business, an Art 180 

XI The Illustrators 205 

XII Caricature 240 

XIII The Comic Paper 266 

XIV The Book-Plate 291 

XV Applied Graphic Art: From Business Card to Poster . .312 

Index 343 


Study. Lithograph by John S. Sargent Frontispiece 


Mud Boats on Thames. Etching by Charles A. Platt ... 14 

{Courtesy of F. Keppel & Co.) 
Theatre Royal, Haymarket. Etching by Joseph Pennell ... 20 

(Courtesy of F. Keppel & Co.) 
Summer at Easthampton. Etching by Mrs. Mary Nimmo Moran . 24 
{Courtesy of F. Keppel & Co.) 

Mother and Baby. Dry-point by Mary Cassatt 34 

A Bit of Mount Vernon St., Boston. Etching by Charles Henry 

White 40 

(Courtesy of Harper & Brothers.) 
Ralph Waldo Emerson. Etching by Otto J. Schneider ... 44 
Japanese Priest. Dry-point by Cadwallader Washburn ... 44 
The Poe Cottage, Fordham, New York. Etching by C. F. W. Mielatz 48 
Jonathan Mayhew. Line-engraving on copper by Paul Revere . 62 
Andrew Jackson, after Sully. Stipple engraving by J. B. Longacre 76 
Ariadne. Line-engraving, from a painting by John Vanderlyn, by 

A. B. Durand 90 

Cotton Mather. Mezzotint by Peter Pelham 108 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, after a painting by himself. Mezzotint by 

John Sartain 116 

New York from Governor's Island. Aquatint, after W. G. Wall, 

by John Hill 126 

Old Mills, Coast of Virginia. Soft-ground etching by James D. 

Smillie 133 

Old Dam. Aquatint by James D. Smillie 132 

Richard Mather, by John Foster. The first known wood-engraving 

executed in the colonies 140 

The Last Arrow. Wood-engraving after J. G. Chapman by J. A. 

Adams 140 

The Haywain, after John Constable. Wood-engraving by Timothy 

Cole 154 

(Courtesy of the Century Co.) 




Girl and Peonies, after Irving R. Wiles. Wood-engraving by 

Henry Wolf i(,6 

(Courtesy of Harper & Brothers.) 

The New York Public Library. Black key-block of a two-color 

wood-engraving by Rud. Ruzicka 1 yn 

The two earliest known lithographs produced in the United States. 

Both by Bass Otis 180 

Washington. Lithograph by Rembrandt Peale 184 

One of the " Campagne Sketches," a series of lithographs by Win- 
slow Homer 190 

Flower-girl. Lithograph by William M. Hunt 196 

View on the Seine. Lithograph by H. W. Ranger .... 200 

Limehouse. Lithotint by J. A. M. Whistler 202 

A Scene from " Oliver Twist." A Scene from Cooper's " Leather 
Stocking Tales." Illustrations, engraved on steel, from designs 

by Felix O. C. Darley 210 

" There never was anything the least serious between us." Illustra- 
tion for Henry James's " Julia Bride," by W. T. Smedley . 222 
(Courtesy of Harper & Brothers.) 
Viewing the Battle of Bunker Hill, by Howard Pyle .... 230 

(Courtesy of Harper & Brothers.) 
Illustration for " To-morrow's Tangle," by Arthur I. Keller . . 238 

(Courtesy of Bobbs-Merrill Co.) 
A Caricature of the War of 1812, by William Charles . . . 250 
One of the Anti-Tweed caricatures in Harper's Weekly, by Thomas 

Nast 274 

Cartoon, Puck, April 28, 1886, by Joseph Keppler .... 274 
(Courtesy of Puck.) 

Book-plate of George Washington 294 

A Group of Modern Book-plates by E. A. Abbey, W. E. Fisher, 

W. F. Hopson, E. D. French, S. L. Smith, G. W. Edwards . 310 
(Courtesy of Charles Scribner's Sons.) 





The first strong impulse toward the practice of painter- 
etching in this country came at the time of the founding 
of the New York Etching Club in 1877. There was a 
preliminary period of preparation extending over a dozen 
years, marked by the efforts of such men as Falconer, 
Cole, Warren and Forbes. Still earlier sporadic efforts 
take us back into the eighteenth century. 

According to W. S. Baker, Joseph Wright's portrait 
of Washington (1790) was probably the first etching 
executed by a painter. This profile, done " with much 
taste and freedom," said Baker, enthusiastically, was evi- 
dently copied in the similar one by Joseph Hiller, Jr. 
( 1794) . The latter was described in a pamphlet ( 1907) 
by Charles H. Hart, who saw four impressions, all on 
the backs of playing cards, and found the original plate. 
It is recorded also that St. Memin etched two large views 
of New York City, and a business card for Peter Mour- 
geon, copper-plate printer from Paris. And one may 
go farther and extract from the pages of Dunlap^s " His- 
tory of the Arts of Design in the United States," or 
Stauffer's useful work, or Ripley Hitchcock's little vol- 


ume on " Etching in America " (1886), packed with in- 
formation, names such as that of Pigalle (1797), who 
did title-pages, or John Rubens Smith (like D. C. Johns- 
ton, Hugh Bridport and others, he practised various 
methods), or Francis Kearny (said to have studied the 
soft-ground process as well). Dunlap himself was ini- 
tiated by Peter Maverick into whatever the latter might 
know of etching and executed a frontispiece for a " dra- 
matic trifle," published in 1797 or 1798 (a portrait of 
Wignell, the actor, in the role of Darby). As for oppor- 
tunity to study the technique of the art, printed directions 
existed here at least as early as 1794. In that year there 
was reprinted in Philadelphia the sixth edition of an 
English work entitled " The artist's assistant in draw- 
ing, perspective, etching, engraving, mezzotinto-scrap- 
ing, painting on glass, &c," of which Chapter III, pages 
33-37, is devoted to etching. A copy of the little book, 
bound up with seven other pamphlets into one volume, 
was in Washington's library. 

A picture of the Theatre in Chestnut Street, Philadel- 
phia, signed Gilbert Fox Aquafortis, was presumably 
done about 1800. And we cross over into the new cen- 
tury with Alexander Lawson, the engraver, who " had 
points made for etching and tried that." He found em- 
ployment with Thackara and Vallance, whose " attempts 
at etching miscarried." W. Birch's " Country Seats of 
the United States" (1808) are also to be noted, as is 
the crude view of the Battle of New Orleans, signed 
Francis Scacki. And William Charles executed in 
soft-ground etching and roulette, for Rees' Cyclopedia, 


two facsimiles of drawings by Poussin. At this time, 
also, Dr. John Rodman Coxe experimented in etching on 
glass with fluoric acid, executing a little landscape which 
was published in the " Emporium of Arts and Sciences " 
(Philadelphia) for 18 12. 

But all of this early history is little more than a record 
of names and attempts. Excepting possibly a few pro- 
ductions, such as those with which Benjamin West ( 1801- 
2) is credited, or those signed by Thomas Middleton, an 
amateur (1814), there is hardly anything of that time 
that can be regarded as painter-etching. Not only was 
most of it a matter of application of the art to portraiture 
and other practical ends, as in John Baker's plates of 
The Battle of Bunker's Hill, and of Washington Cross- 
ing the Delazvare, done early in the thirties, but etching 
was, furthermore, usually not employed in its purity, but 
as a basis for line-engraving. 

There was an early attempt to use etching as a repro- 
ductive art; that, too, came to nothing. Robert W. 
Weir said that about 1820 he "copied some of Rem- 
brandt's etchings so close as to be with difficulty de- 
tected," and he " was on the eve of turning my attention 
seriously to the publication of etchings from various old 
pictures in the possession of different gentlemen in New 
York, but ... it fell through after the first or second 
plate was finished." 

England, from which so much of our art influence 
came in those days, furnished models for us also in the 
fields of caricature and book-illustration by etching. In 
the first few decades of the nineteenth century, etched 


caricature of the period of the third and fourth Georges 
had a weak reflection here in the productions of William 
Charles; and, later, George Cruikshank was imitated, in 
manner and choice of subject, in the " Scraps," which 
were issued periodically for a time in the thirties and 
forties, by David Claypoole Johnston. The Dickens 
period of illustration by etching, in England, had likewise 
its imitation here. Yeager re-etched the Cruikshank 
plates for the American editions of " Harry Lorrequer " 
and other books, and Frank Bellew illustrated the 1853 
edition of John T. Irving's " The Attorney " in the man- 
ner of Phiz. All of which is recorded here, not because 
of any noteworthy influence on the development of orig- 
inal etching, but simply on account of its historical interest. 

One must not look in this early work for any of the 
characteristics of etching that we have learned to appre- 
ciate and prize. As Hitchcock points out, the etchings 
shown at the early Academy exhibitions in New York 
no more deserved the name than did the engravings of 
Smillie. Dunlap spoke of etching as a mere " auxiliary 
to engraving," and that is precisely what it was in his 
day and for a generation and more afterward. The fact 
that etching was used as a first stage in line-engraving 
on steel would not necessarily promote original produc- 
tion. (Nevertheless, etching in its role of a handmaid 
to line-engraving was used with knowledge and delicacy 
by such men as James Smillie, A. H. Ritchie and R. 

In one case, that of John Gadsby Chapman (painter 
of the Pocahontas picture in the rotunda of the Capitol 


at Washington), a natural predisposition to a measured 
precision of statement, joined to a liberal use of the ruling 
machine for the skies, resulted in plates of a delicate, 
neat execution that have much of the formality of bank- 
note art. And in the occasional etchings of a profes- 
sional engraver such as Joseph Yeager, who etched por- 
traits and closely copied Cruikshank's plates for Ameri- 
can editions of some books illustrated by him, one ex- 
pects even less to find the freedom and swing of the 
needle used as a means of direct personal expression. 
Even George Loring Brown, who did a series of nine 
etchings in Rome (1853-55), published here in i860 
with the title " Etchings of the Campagna," was influ- 
enced by the conventions of the time. Like Chapman 
he affected finish and tone; but his effects are richer. 
Emanuel Leutze and E. J. Kuntze are listed among those 
who did some etchings at about this period. Hermann 
Carmiencke, who came to this country in 1851, executed 
plates with the completeness of effect of a Waterloo, or 
Dietrich ("Etchings of American, Italian and German 
Views," published by Emil Seitz, New York). T. F. 
Hoppin pictured the Escape of Captain Wharton and the 
Rescue of John Smith in peculiar, heavy outlines for the 
American Art Union (1848-50). The fact that the vol- 
umes on "Tuscan Sculptors" (1864) and "Italian 
Sculptors" (1868), by Charles C. Perkins, were illus- 
trated in etching by the author, is noted simply on ac- 
count of this somewhat unusual use of the medium. 

A highly valuable historical review of this introductory 
period was offered in the exhibition of nearly six hundred 


plates by about a hundred American artists, held in the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts in 1881. It included work 
by Dunlap, D. C. Johnston, R. W. Weir, W. Franquinet 
(1845), W. W. Weeks (1845), Thomas G. Appleton 
(1847), Henry B. Gay (1849), J- G. Chapman, Wil- 
liam Wilson (1849) an d Edwin White (1849). And 
so we come to about the middle of the century, when 
painters began to interest themselves in the art. 

Whistler had begun his French set as early as 1858, 
and his Thames set in 1859, but there was no immediate 
response here to the appeal that his works constituted. 
It remained for the next generation to appreciate fully 
such works as his Kitchen, Vieille anx Loques and Black 
Lion Wharf. After them came his Venice plates, of a 
vivacity, a sureness of vision, a sense of adjustment of 
means, a pre-eminent mastery in selection, an exquisite- 
ness of execution that have placed him in the front rank 
of the etchers of all time. It is surely not necessary here 
to say more, to attempt to summarize what has been 
written of his etched work by the Pennells, Bacher, 
Menpes, Theodore Duret or Miss E. L. Cary. Two 
definitive catalogues of his plates have been issued, one 
by Howard Mansfield for the Caxton Club of Chicago 
(1909), the other by E. G. Kennedy for the Grolier 
Club of New York (1910), the latter sumptuously illus- 
trated with a reproduction of each etching. 

From the eighties to the present, the influence of 
Whistler has been decidedly felt in the work of our 
etchers. Meanwhile, however, we are in the sixties, and 
witnessing somewhat different tendencies and movements. 


The late S. R. Koehler, in the chapter on the United 
States which he contributed to the important folio volume 
in German on contemporary etching (" Die Radirung 
der Gegenwart," Vienna, 1892-93), rather ingeniously 
points out that it was the rising French influence in art, 
after the middle of the century, bringing with it the note 
of individualism which was the real factor of importance 
in the development of painter-etching here. Before that, 
under the domination, successively, of England, Italy and 
Diisseldorf, with the accent on the subject in the picture, 
there were produced plates by men who worked in the 
spirit of the engraver, such as J. G. Chapman and George 
L. Brown, already referred to. 

In 1866 Cadart, the Paris publisher of etchings, came 
to the United States, held an exhibition of French etch- 
ings in New York City (in the Derby Gallery — Chauncey 
L. Derby, 625 Broadway), and formed an American 
branch of the French Society of Etchers. A number of 
artists were interested through Cadart's efforts, Victor 
Nehlig, Edwin Forbes, J. M. Falconer, Charles H. Mil- 
ler, J. Foxcroft Cole among them. Forbes, who had been 
an artist-correspondent during the Civil War, did a series 
of Life Studies of the Great Army. They were only 
drawn by him on the grounded copper, however; the 
biting and printing were left to other hands. Falconer, 
who had made his first attempt in 1849, na d> as Koehler 
says, " an open eye for the poetry of decay," and a 
peculiar, rough manner of presenting his views of streets 
and old buildings in New York, Boston and other cities, 
but he surely could work also in high finish. 


In the introduction to the fourth volume of the pub- 
lication of the Societe des Aquafortistes Frangais, 
1866, says Koehler, Castagnary wrote of Cadart's in- 
fluence here in rather superlative terms, as having won 
" a new continent for the cause." Some impetus to the 
practice of original etching was given by the Frenchman's 
efforts, but the results do not appear to have been far- 

Furthermore, an earlier impulse toward the practice of 
original etching is to be noted. Henry Russell Wray, in 
his " Review of Etching in the United States" (1893), 
writing with knowledge of Philadelphia affairs, records 
that as early as i860 or '61, John Sartain illustrated the 
process of etching, by practical demonstration, for 
Thomas Moran and S. J. Ferris. 

The attention paid to etching as a possible means of 
expression for the painter began gradually to increase, 
and to be based on more seriousness and discrimination. 
The possibilities of the art were being more fully appre- 
ciated, the individual note became more pronounced. 
The little landscapes of A. W. Warren (died 1873), 
unpretentious, simple in method, showing much of what 
etchings should have, are among the most satisfactory 
results of this period. In 1872 Henry Farrer entered on 
the path since followed with such success by Pennell, 
Mielatz and others, by bringing out a series of views of 
New York. Farrer had an idyllic vein, a liking for 
tonality, a preference for sunset effects with the simple, 
direct expression of mood which they permit, — all charac- 
teristics sure to win popularity — and honest artistic feel- 


ing withal. Also I have seen at least three plates by 
Wyatt Eaton, two heads and a study of a plant (1877). 
All these are not startling facts. There were neither dar- 
ing innovations nor brilliant achievements, nor even, on 
the whole, a full understanding of the problem presented. 
But there was decidedly creditable accomplishment and the 
soil was being successfully prepared. Ripley Hitch- 
cock comments on the too heavy inking of Forbes's 
Life Studies, lacking the refinements mastered in Paris, 
and on the too dry printing of Warren's little landscapes, 
which, says he, appeared to much better advantage when 
reprinted in later years, having lost much of their hard, 
dry character through intelligent printing. This throws 
light on the defective knowledge here, at that time, of 
an important factor in the production of prints. Mr. 
Sidney L. Smith told me that the first " retroussage " 
printing was done in Boston in the early seventies. 
Estes and Lauriat wanted to have an etching by Rajon 
after Bonnat (Italian children) printed, and turned over 
the electro to Daniels, a well-known copper-plate printer. 
He printed with a " clean wipe," as one does from a 
visiting card plate. But the original had been " retrous- 
saged," a method then unknown here (even S. R, Koehler 
did not know of it at that time, added Mr. Smith). 
Daniels fussed over the plate and finally worked out the 
matter by himself. Many of our etchers have since then 
been their own printers: Whistler, Pennell, Smillie, Yale, 
Mielatz, White and others. 

Meanwhile, at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition 
of 1876, the etchings included a number of plates by 


Americans, — G. L. Brown, Forbes, Peter Moran, S. J. 
Ferris, Volkmar (two plates " done in Paris and exhibited 
at the Salon," says Wray). The medal was awarded to 
Peter Moran, of whose prints a dealer ordered twelve 
sets and published them in a portfolio. Publication of 
etchings was undertaken here much earlier, however. 
Emil Seitz has been named, and Hitchcock records that 
F. B. Patterson (who secured plates and tools and en- 
deavored to interest such artists as C. S. Reinhart and 
E. A. Abbey) " began to deal in portfolios of French 
etchings soon after the Cadart exhibition," and issued a 
portfolio of Farrer's New York views in 1872. "By 
degrees," Hitchcock adds, " print collectors began to look 
for modern etchings." 

Notwithstanding all this, it appears that when the 
Fairmount Park Art Association (of Philadelphia), hav- 
ing purchased the Dying Lioness, issued an etching of 
the group by Peter Moran, it was met by most of the 
subscribers with forcible disapproval. They had ex- 
pected an engraving, asked " what is an etching," and gen- 
erally considered themselves swindled. There was evi- 
dently a field here for pioneer effort in improving the 
state of knowledge of the art. 

On May 2d, 1877, there was held the first meeting 
of the New York Etching Club. On that occasion, three 
men joined in the production of a little plate for the in- 
struction of their fellow-artists. James D. Smillie, whose 
knowledge of technical processes was unsurpassed in this 
country, "grounded" the plate; R. Swain Gifford, the 
landscape painter, drew the design; and Dr. Leroy M, 


Yale, a physician and an enthusiastic and able etcher, 
worked the press. The original plate is to-day in the 
print room of the New York Public Library, and the 
print appears also as a frontispiece in J. Ripley Hitch- 
cock's " Etching in America." A delightful description 
of the production of this little plate was given by J. D. 
Smillie, who was particularly active in promoting and 
spreading interest in the art, in the preface to the illus- 
trated catalogue of the club's first exhibition. This t 
initial show was held in 1882, and included foreign 

For a number of years the exhibitions of the club, with 
the quarto catalogue illustrated with etchings, formed an 
interesting pendant to the annual display of the American 
Water Color Society in the old Academy building at 
23d Street and Fourth Avenue, New York City. A num- 
ber of artists responded, with discriminating understand- 
ing, to the impulse for painter-etching which made itself 
felt. In their different individualities they emphasized 
the variety of effect possible to the etching needle. Some 
of them ran to prettiness, to sweetness, to that smoothness 
of statement and choice and treatment of subject that find 
a readier response from the average man than does an 
appeal to a higher standard. We need not judge that 
harshly to-day. Was it natural on the artist's part, was 
it an intentional tempering of the atmosphere to the pros- 
pective purchaser's taste, was it perhaps a necessity thus 
to prepare the general public gradually for the apprecia- 
tion of good painter-etching? At all events, there re- 
mains so much work of more than creditable attainment, 


that we can look back on this period with a satis- 
faction that does not need the apologetic attitude of 

The movement was not limited to New York. Or- 
ganized interest and effort in the cause of painter-etching 
crystallized around similar organizations in other cities. 
The Boston Etching Club, founded in 1 88 1, held its first 
exhibition in 1883, with a catalogue etched throughout, 
text and illustrations; among the members were E. H. 
Garrett, F. T. Merrill, F. G. Attwood and J. E. Baker. 
The Scratchers' Club, of Brooklyn, born in 1882, under 
the auspices of G. W. H. Ritchie, Walter M. Aikman, 
Carleton Wiggins, Benjamin Lander, Stanley Middleton, 
Charters Williamson, W. E. Plympton and Edwin E. 
Rorkey, lived for a few years. (I saw a reference to a 
Brooklyn Etching Club in the old New York " Studio " 
as late as 1890.) " Sometimes," says Mr. Aikman, " one 
of the members would have a plate to ' bite,' and our 
friend George W. H. Ritchie pulled the proofs. We 
never had an exhibition for the simple reason that we 
never made enough plates to hold one." Both Boston 
and Brooklyn were antedated by Cincinnati and Phila- 
delphia, where organizations were established in 1880. 
The Etchers' Club in the former city included H. F. 
Farny, M. Louise McLaughlin, the ceramic artist, who 
wrote a little treatise on etching and had an exhibition 
of her work in New York in 1892; Emery H. Barton, 
Elizabeth Nourse and Caroline Lord. The Philadelphia 
Society of Etchers held its first exhibition in the same 
year (1882-83) as the New York club, and an etching 


class formed in the Philadelphia Sketch Club also did 
much to popularize the art. 

Wray notes with satisfaction that the Philadelphia 
society was founded by men with a " much more ad- 
vanced knowledge of etching " than the rank and file 
of the New York association. The membership list in- 
cluded P. Moran, S. J. Ferris, Pennell, Parrish, B. Uhle, 
J. Neely, Jr., W. J. Le Fevre, Hermann Faber, H. R. 
Poore. Of the catalogue of this first Philadelphia show, 
" devoted exclusively to painters' etchings," there was 
issued also a special edition, quarto in size, with etched 
illustrations. It included 1,070 numbers, of which 356 
were by American artists; the introduction was by S. R. 
Koehler, as was the one in the catalogue of the Boston 
Museum's exhibit of 1881. The latter comprised 548 
pieces by 106 American artists, covering the country from 
New England to California, for even San Francisco is 
represented by some plates by Virgil Williams and pupils. 
Seven names stand for Cincinnati, two for Chicago and 
three for Indianapolis. The list includes also one plate 
by George Inness. In the same year (1881) the Royal 
Society of Painter Etchers in London held its first ex- 
hibit, to which the American artists, Bacher, Albert F. 
Bellows, Church, Duveneck, Falconer, Farrer, Gifford, 
Kruseman van Elten, M. N. and T. Moran, Parrish, 
Smillie, Vanderhoof and Otto Weber contributed. In- 
terest was stimulated also by Sir Seymour Haden's lec- 
tures on etching during the winter of 1882-3 in New York 
and 1883-4 in Philadelphia, and in other cities. 

So the seed was falling on receptive ground. Much of 


the product is forgotten to-day, but much also stands as 
a noteworthy reminder of this spreading interest in a 
fascinating art. Indeed, not a little of the work is quite 
astonishing in its sureness, considering the comparatively 
slight experience of its authors. " In quick mastery of 
detail and ready adaptability," said Hitchcock, " it would 
be hard to surpass our etchers; but want of originality, 
lack of the personal inspiration behind the executing in- 
strument, the timidity or presumption of inexperience, 
and want of training — in drawing, for example — are be- 
trayed upon the copper plate as easily as upon the can- 
vas. . . . But criticism is met by one fact. All this 
production of etchings has been evolved from nothing 
within a very few years. A new field has been opened in 
American art." American etching of the second half of 
the nineteenth century will have an honorable place in the 
history of the art. 

Time spent in looking over the plates which painters 
such as R. Swain Gifford (who etched as early as 1864), 
J. C. Nicoll, Samuel Colman, Kruseman van Elten, Peter 
Moran, Thomas Moran, J. A. S. Monks, John H. Hill, 
Charles H. Miller and W. L. Lathrop found time to 
produce is well repaid. A noteworthy characteristic of 
their work is its sanity, its conservative abstention from 
undue striving after effect or forced individuality. Most 
of it is born of an understanding of the limits of etching 
— though not fully of its resources — and of its peculiar 
nature. It offers such contrasts as the big, picturesque 
swing and sweep of Thomas Moran's Gate of Venice, 
the light grace of F. S. Church, the finished effect of 


Kruseman van Elten and the few lines and scratches of 
C. H. Miller's A Sun Shower. In the last the impression 
of an effect is gained in some way shorter even than the 
short-hand method of J. B. Jongkind, the Dutch etcher. 
In such a case, much depends on the printing; clean-wiped, 
such an etching would be a mere skeleton. 

There was, too, a group of men who devoted them- 
selves more or less exclusively, even if only for the time 
being, to etching, or who, at least, were best known in 
their capacity as etchers. Stephen Parrish (now paint- 
ing), whom Hamerton characterized as "sincere and 
straightforward," soon emancipated himself from what- 
ever influence of Appian has been found in his earliest 
works. His power developed rapidly, and he executed 
eighty-six plates in the years 1879-83. Charles A. Piatt 
(since turned to landscape gardening), whose deft sure- 
ness and judicious and delicate suggestion were shown 
especially in his treatment of water, brings to mind such 
masters of that specialty as Haden and Storm van's 
Gravesande. A catalogue of Piatt's plates was prepared 
by Richard A. Rice (1889), and of other etchers there 
are helpful dealers' exhibition catalogues in the case of 
Parrish (1886), Peter Moran (1888) and Thomas and 
Mary N. Moran (1889), and museum or society exhibi- 
tion catalogues in the case of J. D. Smillie, Blum, Pennell, 
Getchell and others, and a manuscript list (1906, in the 
New York Public Library) in that of Yale. 

James D. Smillie was, until his death in 19 10, a living 
link between those days and the present, and there are 
others still etching to-day. Charles A. Vanderhoof, an 


excellent original etcher; Thomas R. Manley, who found 
interest in such subjects as the Hackensack meadows, and 
could give completeness of pictorial effect without insist- 
ence on detail; and Alexander Schilling, Joseph Pennell 
and C. F. W. Mielatz. Other names come to mind: 
W. C. Bauer, W. Goodrich Beal, Prosper L. Senat, 
Robert F. Bloodgood, Carlton T. Chapman. More yet 
can be gleaned from the Boston (1881) and Philadelphia 
(1882) exhibition catalogues or in Will Jenkins's Amer- 
ican chapter in Charles Holme's " Modern Etching and 
Engraving" (New York, 1902); not all, however, can 
be said to have enriched American etching by noteworthy 

A great variety of method and manner and viewpoint 
is offered in the considerable product of those days. 

The bulk of the really noteworthy work was in land- 
scape. Figures appear much less frequently and animal 
pieces yet more rarely. Water always had a certain at- 
tractiveness on account of its effects of reflection and 
movement. River and harbor scenes were depicted by 
Farrer, Piatt and others. Coast scenes, similarly bring- 
ing water and land into juxtaposition, likewise occasionally 
held the attention of etchers, — Pennell, Mielatz, Moran, 
Parrish. J. C. Nicoll laid more weight on the water 
itself, as, for example, in his In the Harbor. In such a 
plate, or in the two or three attempts by M. F. H. de 
Haas, we get more of the feeling for, and understanding 
of, the sea. Koehler records promising beginnings in the 
same direction by Walter F. Lanfil, without farther 


Among those who paid some attention to figure sub- 
jects in etching were J. J. Calahan, J. Fagan, F. M. 
Gregory, W. H. Shelton, J. W. Beatty, Joseph Lauber, 
H. N. Hyneman, L. Moran, F. W. Freer. All working 
with intelligent craftsmanship, but usually not in the spirit 
of painter-etching, striving for a completeness of effect 
that gives their work the appearance of having been done 
after paintings. Many of the artists of the day, in fact, 
were drawn to reproductive etching, even Winslow Homer 
(Saved and The Life Line), whom one would have ex- 
pected to develop into a true painter-etcher. Alfred 
Brennan, a deft pen-draughtsman, showed picturesque 
qualities. I. M. Gaugengigl paraphrased some of his 
paintings of eighteenth century subjects in a free, swing- 
ing style. F. S. Church repeated in his plates the world 
of mermaids, nymphs, captive and love-sick lions and what 
not of his paintings, with a happy acceptation of appro- 
priate limits, in a light, summary, merely indicating man- 
ner in harmony with the playful spirit of his subjects. 
John Ames Mitchell, who was originally an architect and 
subsequently became editor of " Life," did some plates, 
mostly in Paris, among them a series of ten, A trovers 
I'Exposition 1878, and a scene on the stage of the Paris 
opera house, all in a lively, graceful style, and with a touch 
of humor, qualities which we find later in his pen-sketches 
for " Life." 

Expression of American life was practically absent in 
the work of our figure etchers, if we except reproductive 
plates such as those in which Thomas Hovenden so well 
copied his bits of negro character (Dem was good old 


Times, etc.), or those in which T. W. Wood attempted 
to translate his own paintings. 

Animal subjects were even less frequently to be met 
with. One thinks naturally of the few plates by J. Fox- 
croft Cole, and of the sheep-pieces by J. A. S. Monks. 
Most noteworthy were the cattle-pieces of Peter Moran, 
in which completeness of effect is joined to a free and 
vigorous line, so that one does not get the impression of 
an attempt to imitate engraver-like finish. In them, elab- 
oration is joined to the " discretion which knows where 
to stop," wrote Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, who 
added that they showed no " finish " for the mere sake 
of finishing. Moran remained the artist-etcher, though 
occasionally succumbing, like Parrish and others, to the 
temptation of the time and of the publishers, by doing 
very large plates for wall decoration. While these large 
framing-prints are good of their kind, his smaller ones 
will remain the most valuable. 

Quantitatively, as already said, it is in pure landscape 
etching that the greatest amount of noteworthy effort 
appears, and with a refreshing understanding of the art 
and a wide range of personal expression. There is the 
" nervous vitality " of Thomas Moran, a master of tech- 
nical aids to serve his purpose. His prints vary from 
small ones in which effects are simply indicated, to large 
ones carried out in complete reproduction of paintings by 
himself and others. All are marked, however, by bold- 
ness in conception and vigor in execution, and, as Koehler 
puts it, " with a successful indication of color effect." 

There is the more serene temperament of H. D. Kruse- 


man van Elten, with a happy choice of subjects likely 
to be popular {Twilight on the Housatonic et al. ) skil- 
fully presented with a disdain of mere suggestion that 
leaves little to the imagination of the beholder. This 
last quality is apparent also in the painstaking minuteness, 
accentuated by dry printing, of John H. Hill, among 
whose best plates is one after his father, John W. Hill, a 
happy rendering of a placid landscape, with cattle fording 
a stream. B. Lander, too, was devoted to detail and 

Again, there is the richness of color in Samuel Colman's 
characteristically individual scenes, original in conception, 
usually etched in strong lines with dry-pointed tones, and 
done in an artistic spirit that stimulates the imagination. 
Like Colman, R. Swain Gilford was a true painter-etcher. 
While attracted by motives in the Orient, Venice and 
Holland, he made his strongest appeal in the expression 
of the mood of the apparently monotonous scenery of the 
New England coast. He attained his effect with few 
lines, lightly yet firmly set down. 

James D. Smillie, a master of technical media, had to 
counteract the influence of years of service in the cause of 
line-engraving, with its formality, and of commissions to 
do reproductive work not always worthy of his powers. 
As I remember him, even to the end of his long and 
useful life he was his own severest critic. And whenever 
he had the opportunity to employ his mastery of etching, 
or dry point, or aquatint or mezzotint in the production 
of a plate done con amove, absolutely for its own sake, 
the result was apt to be a joy to the eye. One may single 


out, for example, his flower-pieces, drawn in dry point 
directly from nature, among them a bunch of pansies of 
remarkable variety and gradation. 

Pennell, referred to in his early days as " the Meryon of 
Philadelphia," is known particularly as an etcher of city 
views, a draughtsman of astounding sureness of eye and 
hand. He used and is using his art with quick resource- 
fulness, and with a simplicity and directness born of the 
ability, so necessary in etching, to select, and resulting in 
what some one, in his case, has called a " wise reticence in 
line." A well-illustrated monograph on his art, by the 
present writer, was published in Vienna in 19 10. Mielatz, 
like Pennell, is identified closely with the beauty and in- 
terest and picturesque qualities of the city, especially of 
New York City. These, often unnoticed, his artist's eye 
sees clearly and his hand makes clear to us, with frequently 
a freshness of view that invests them with the interest of 
a new scene. His versatility is indicated by the fact that 
while Huneker well said of him, " His line is firm, 
virile, lean, even ascetic, rather than rich or luxurious," 
and concluded that he was therefore at his happiest in 
architecture, Mielatz was at about the same time doing his 
series of views at Georgian Court, Lakewood, which are 
noteworthy for vivacity and richness. 

A large proportion of all these artists worked in pure 
etching, but other aids were occasionally resorted to. 
Thomas Moran's command of such helps has been referred 
to. His wife, Mary Nimmo Moran, used the roulette 
in various plates, and " Scotch stone " (a substance used 
to reduce plates) in Twilight, Easthampton. Parrish 

Courtesy of F. Keppel ,4 Cc 

Theatre Royal, Haymarket 
Etching by Joseph Pennell 


sometimes roughened his plate by acid or other means, 
S. J. Ferris employed roulette and stipple, and Road to 
the Beach, by C. F. W. Mielatz, an indefatigable ex- 
perimenter in technical processes, is executed in roulette, 
aquatint and soft-ground etching. The last-named process 
has been employed by J. D. Smillie, C. A. Vanderhoof, 
Henry Farrer (who showed a small plate at the New 
York Etching Club in 1888), Kruseman van Elten, and 
more recently by Mary Cassatt, A. T. Millar, George 
Senseney, or by Mielatz, again, as in his Pell Street Bal- 
cony, marked by what Huneker called " his delicate sense 
of color sparingly indulged in." The somewhat unfortu- 
nate effect of double printing in the sky of J. C. Nicoll's 
In the Harbor is caused by the employment of a double 
needle, and the late Dr. Yale told me that he occasionally 
used a half-dozen or so of needles set in one handle. The 
use of such short cuts is always of questionable appropri- 

Still another noteworthy factor in the production of 
most of these men is their efficiency as printers. Smillie 
was an excellent printer; so was Moran, whose plates are 
said to have given best results when he did the printing 
himself. Parrish knew how to get effects in printing, 
often leaving the sky blank, for example. Pennell has 
often been his own printer, and Mielatz is an expert at 
the press. Whistler's attention to this important part of 
the etcher's equipment is well known; the penciled butter- 
fly and " imp " is a familiar addition to proofs of his 
plates, and some of the latest photographs taken of him 
show him at the press. And not a few of the younger 


men who will be considered in the next chapter have 
realized the importance of the printer's art and have prac- 
tised it successfully. 

The fair sex contributed a notably large proportion of 
our etchers. Not a few of them worked in a more 
serious spirit than that which may have inspired Hood 
when he wrote in his lines on the " needlework art " of 
etching : 

" It scarce seems a ladylike art that begins 
With a scratching and ends with a biting." 

The exhibitors at the New York Club and elsewhere 
included a number of women. Their work was also 
shown separately at the Boston Museum in 1887, an d 
at the Union League Club, New York City, in the follow- 
ing year, with a catalogue for which Mrs. M. G. Van 
Rensselaer wrote an interesting introduction. Of this 
number were Miss Cole (sister of Thomas), who experi- 
mented with the etching needle as early as 1844, Eliza 
Greatorex (another artist who has delineated the pictur- 
esque side of New York City for us), Mrs. Anna Lea 
Merritt (one of our few etchers of figure subjects), Mrs. 
E. L. Pierce Getchell, Mrs. J. H. Twachtman ("whose 
few little plates are treated with surprising freedom and 
lightness," wrote S. R. Koehler), Ellen Oakford, Gabri- 
elle D. Clements, Blanche Diilaye, Margaret W. Lesley 
(now Mrs. H. K. Bush-Brown), Mary Cassatt and Mrs. 
Mary Nimmo Moran. The best of their work deserves 
praise unmodified by any reference to sex and supposed 


weakness, as the present writer pointed out in an article 
on " Some Women Etchers " in " Scribner's Magazine " 
for December, 1909. 

Mrs. Moran, a virile talent, with all her energetic em- 
phasis and bold directness, did not lose sight of the 
pictorial effect which occupied her primarily. Generally, 
her etchings are marked by energetic emphasis rather than 
delicacy or smoothness, yet Autumn, Edge of Georgica 
Pond, Easthampton, is of a sunny lightness. 

Miss Mary Cassatt has helped us to see the beauty in 
the relation between mother and child without calling in 
the adventitious aid of silly prettiness or saccharine senti- 
mentality. Her dry points, with their wise restraint of 
linear expression, robust in method and sensitive in feel- 
ing, are among the best work produced in this field by 
Americans. She lives in France, where she was first ap- 
preciated, and where until quite recently she was under- 
stood better, probably, than in her native land. 

While this wide-spreading movement, centering about 
the associations mentioned, was witnessed here, Whistler 
had found Venice. His Venice, a city of picturesque bits 
of canal, of inviting doorways and cool arches, light 
balconies and graceful architectural ornament. Such he 
showed her in a series of delightfully airy and sunny im- 
pressions of this Queen of the Adriatic as she appears to- 
day, without any paraphernalia of ducal grandeur and 
civic or ecclesiastical display and circumstance which lent 
its pomp to the Venetian scenes of quattrocento or cinque- 
cento painters such as the Bellinis. Interest does not 
center about any story concerned with the human figures 


in his etchings; they simply take their place as parts of 
the scene. With Whistler in Venice were Frank Duve- 
neck, Otto Bacher, Theodore M. Wendel and others, 
forming a little circle of American artists. Charles A. 
Corwin, George E. Hopkins and H. Rosenberg, in Italy 
at about the same time, produced only isolated plates, 
akin to each other in manner and subject. The Whistler 
influence has been felt to most recent times, even in the 
work of artists who subsequently assimilated it. Bacher 
has left an interesting record of those days in his book 
"With Whistler in Venice" (New York, 1908), and 
the sale of his collection after his death (1910) brought 
to light some plates by Americans whose work is not 
often seen: Duveneck, of course, but also Miss Arm- 
strong, S. L. Wenban and Wendel (whose style has been 
characterized as " delicate and charming"). 

Duveneck did three plates of the Ducal Palace, Riva, 
so much in Whistler's manner that they were actually 
taken for that artist's work. His only other plate ex- 
hibited was Desdemona's House (1881), — so said Koeh- 
ler, but, at all events, the catalogue of the Bacher sale 
included nine plates by Duveneck beside the three " Ducal 
Palace, Riva " etchings. Wenban, an Ohio artist who 
did much of his work in Munich, and whose somewhat 
Haden-like A Bavarian Forest is said to have won high 
praise at the Salon, was addicted to detail, yet broad in 
manner. His work offers such contrasts as his Rushing 
Brook, of a Klinger-like hardness and precision, and the 
remarkably free and airy Brook in Winter. 

Bacher himself executed a number of etchings of un- 

Courtesy of F. Keppel cfc Co. 

Summer at Easthampton 
Etching by Mrs. Mary Nimmo Moran 


usual force, concerning which I recall two critical com- 
ments. Seymour Haden said of the Venice set: "The 
whole of it, accessories and all, evinces a strong artistic 
feeling. Bold and painter-like treatment characterizes it 
throughout. S. R. Koehler, writing of the Bavarian 
plates, notes that it was characteristic of Bacher that he 
" passed unmoved the Walhalla . . . and then stopped 
to make a loving study of a rickety old wooden bridge." 
Koehler adds, too, that later, under the influence of 
Whistler, Bacher's manner " o'erleaped itself and degen- 
erated into wildness. And yet it is impossible to close 
oneself against the telling effect of these plates. A stormy 
life surges in them." 

On the other hand, J. Alden Weir went his own ex- 
perimental way in a number of interesting and striking 
landscapes and some portraits. An article in the 
" Gazette des Beaux Arts " for September, 191 1, holds out 
the prospect of a return to etching on his part. John 
H. Twachtman echoed the delicate impressions of evanes- 
cent light and color effects of his paintings in a few etch- 
ings. Robert F. Blum produced some twenty plates, 
among them his own portrait and The Hag, of a peculiar 
richness and snap, all the more interesting as he discrim- 
inatingly avoided the transference of the Fortuny method 
of his pen-and-inks to th'e copper, a tendency all too 
natural for the illustrator. Blum did one plate, by the 
way (The Modern Etcher, 1883: a portrait of W. M. 
Chase, who himself did a Jester and two or three other 
plates), by a process of photographing a pen-and-ink 
drawing on to a specially prepared ground, The result 


was a pen-and-ink drawing rather than an etching. It is 
not exactly easy to clearly define the difference. Its appre- 
ciation is based on recognition of the old truth that 
the nature of the medium imposes its character and 
its limits on the result, and that the etched reproduc- 
tion of a pen-and-ink drawing somehow does not have 
the same quality as an etching produced in the usual 

There was, in all that is here recorded, undoubtedly 
very much disinterested enthusiasm for an art that is pecu- 
liarly fitted for a certain intimate expression. The move- 
ment made up of all these individual efforts found support 
in the "American Art Review," which furthered the cause 
of etching in the same conspicuous and discriminating 
manner as Hamerton's " Portfolio " in London. Edited 
by that sapient German, Sylvester Rosa Koehler, it was 
one of the most noteworthy and distinguished art periodi- 
cals we ever had. It was issued at Boston during 1880- 
82, and before effacing itself with a graceful valedictory 
it published etchings (painter-etchings, generally) by a 
number of American artists, with critical appreciations by 
Koehler, and a catalogue, in each case, of the artist's work. 
Koehler's effective agitation, by the way, included also a 
large volume on etching in general (New York, 1885), 
and was carried on likewise by word of mouth. While 
he was delivering a lecture on etching at the Gotham Art 
Students' rooms in New York City, Shirlaw roughly 
sketched his portrait on a plate which, I understand, was 
bitten and printed from in the course of the address. 
Two impressions form part of the Avery collection in 


the New York Public Library, one marked in pencil : 
" Nov. 27, '85, 2d impression at Mr. Koehler's lecture 
on etching, Gotham Art Student Rooms." 

The " American Art Review " went out of existence, 
but the seed was sown, and a number of sumptuous vol- 
umes, published in limited editions, and often in various 
forms to suit different pocketbooks (e.g., with " vellum 
proofs" at $100, "satin proofs" at $50 and "Japan 
proofs " at $35, all three with " remarques " — " re- 
marques " must have had a rare attraction for the budding 
amateur — and " regular impressions on etching paper at 
$12.50). There were "Original Etchings by American 
Artists" (1884), and "American Etchings" (1886), 
both with text by S. R. Koehler; " Recent American Etch- 
ings " ( 1885) , " Notable Etchings by American Artists " 
(1886), and " Representative Etchings by Artists of To- 
day in America " ( 1887) , all three with text by J. Ripley 
W. Hitchcock; "Some Modern Etchings" (1886) ; and 
"Famous Etchers" (1889). Among the artists repre- 
sented in these publications were Bacher, Blum, James J. 
Calahan, J. Wells Champney, Church, Gabrielle D. Clem- 
ents, J. F. Cole, Samuel Colman, Elliott Daingerfield, Far- 
rer, J. L. G. and S. J. Ferris, F. W. Freer, E. H. Garrett, 
I. M. Gaugengigl, R. S. Gifford, F. M. Gregory, M. F. H. 
de Haas, Hamilton Hamilton, Wm. St. John Harper, 
Herman H. Hyneman, James S. King, H. D. Kruseman 
van Elten, Katherine Levin, Anna L. Merritt, Mielatz, 
Monks, Mrs. M. N., Peter and Thomas Moran, J. C. 
Nicoll, Parrish, Pennell, Piatt, Joseph F. Sabin, Walter 
Satterlee, S. A. Schoff, W. H. Shelton, J. D. and George 


H. Smillie, Charles Volkmar, Frank Waller, T. W. Wood 
and L. M. Yale. 

Beside all the many names mentioned in connection with 
what I may call this " New York Etching Club period," 
there are still a considerable number more to be found in 
the catalogues of the Boston (1881) and Philadelphia 
(1882) shows, — W. C. Bauer, Frank W. Benson, A. H. 
Bicknell, C. H. Eaton, John H. Niemeyer, William Sar- 
tain and many others. Some idea may thus be formed 
of the remarkable extent to which etching was taken up 
by American artists in those days. It was not all first- 
class work that they produced, not all done in the true 
etcher's spirit, but all illustrating, even by the surprising 
number of names, the rapid rise of interest among the 
public, the creation of a market. 

Market suggests dealer, and the full record of etch- 
ing in this country cannot be found, the complete list of 
those who practised the art in good, bad or indifferent 
manner cannot be drawn up, without referring also to the 
catalogues of certain print dealers. Such, for example, 
as Klackner's "American Etchings" (New York, 1888). 
In this latter, beside names mentioned elsewhere in this 
chapter, we find F. A. Bicknell, A. F. Bunner, M. J. 
Burns, C. C. Curran, Edward Loyal Field, O. H. von 
Gottschalk, George R. Halm, Louis K. Harlow, F. Leo 
Hunter, Daniel Kotz, C. Morgan Mcllhenny, E. F. 
Miller, Roland Rood, H. M. Rosenberg, C. H. Wood- 
bury and Theodore Wust. H. Bolton Jones (Winter), 
Robert V. W. Sewell (Canal Houses, Dordrecht), Car- 
roll Beckwith and R. C. Minor are still others who tried 


their hands at etching, and at the exhibition of the New 
York Etching Club, as late as 1893, there appeared work 
by Robertson K. Mygatt, R. Cleveland Coxe and Leigh 

About this time also was formed the " Society of Amer- 
ican Etchers," which had for its object: " First, the eleva- 
tion of the art of etching; and second, the limitation of 
editions; every proof being guaranteed by the stamp of 
the Society." J. D. Waring was publisher for the Society, 
and Piatt, Nicoll and Mrs. Moran were represented in 
the Society's exhibition in November, 1888. 

There were even some incursions into the field of book- 
illustration. Samuel Colman did plates for Alice Durand 
Field's "Palermo" (1885), and Dean Sage's "The 
Ristigouche and its Salmon Fishing " (Edinburgh, 1888) 
contained etchings by Piatt, Henry Sandham and Mrs. 
A. L. Merritt. The last-named also executed some plates 
for a volume on her deceased husband, and in a book- 
seller's catalogue I came across editions of Goethe's 
"Faust" (1888) and "Hermann and Dorothea" 
(1889), both issued in Philadelphia, with etchings by 
Hermann Faber. Recent publications of the Bibliophile 
Society of Boston have contained etched portraits by 
W. H. W. Bicknell and James Fagan. 

Etching has also been called to the service of antiqua- 
rianism, of the interest in local and national history. Wil- 
liam Sartain etched Fraunces's Tavern for the Sons of 
the Revolution, W. H. Wallace and S. Hollyer illustrated 
New York City and Robert Shaw delineated, for the 
Colonial Society of America, buildings and places promi- 


nently identified with the colonial history of our 

There was. a certain use of etching for portraiture also. 
It had generally been used for that purpose as a prelim- 
inary to line-engraving, but in certain instances, as by 
H. B. Hall (in the seventies), portraits were done en- 
tirely in etching. The freedom of the etched plate as 
compared with the formality of the steel-engraving, made 
its appeal, and was exemplified by some artists. By Max 
Rosenthal and his son Albert, who did a series of por- 
traits of American historical characters; by S. Hollyer; 
and with particular sureness of hand and richness of effect 
by S. A. Schoff, who signed portraits of Joseph Rodman 
Drake, Hawthorne and wife, etc. Gustav Kruell and 
F. S. King, the wood-engravers, each made at least one 
effort with needle and acid, the former in a bust of George 
W. Curtis, the latter in one of Alexander Hamilton. 
Their colleague, Thomas Johnson, etched a number of 
portraits, varying somewhat in merit, but including the 
characteristic ones of Lincoln, Walt Whitman (the one 
with the hat) , Cardinal Manning and the master printer, 
Theo. L. De Vinne. He also did one of S. P. Avery, 
which a number of the latter's friends presented to him 
on his eighty-first birthday. In our day, Jacques Reich 
has issued a number of carefully executed portraits of 
American statesmen, Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, 
Webster, Lincoln, Cleveland, McKinley among the num- 
ber. S. L. Smith, too, has signed some portraits, in- 
cluding one of Theodore Roosevelt. 

The remarkable amount of work produced in the period 


extending from the early seventies to the early nineties, 
naturally implied public support, but the cause of painter- 
etching suffered in the end. Commercial possibilities be- 
came apparent and were exploited. Production, also, was 
cheapened. As the " Sun " pointed out in 1894, the pub- 
lishers of reproductive etchings killed the goose that laid 
the golden eggs; the demand was large, and slow, artistic 
printing was replaced by quicker and cheaper methods. 

The story picture's appeal apparently also did its work. 
Not that I would warm up the old arguments regarding 
art for art's sake. We should all of us in time realize 
that we cannot ever get away entirely from the subject- 
matter in the work of art. The artist cannot appeal by 
technique alone, if that technique be a mere parade of 
its self-sufficient perfection, or indeed the result of school- 
acquired deftness barren of ideas, if it express no individu- 
ality, no mood, no sentiment, no lesson, no moral. But 
the cheaply effective sentimentality which is usually most 
sure of general applause has as its almost inevitable con- 
comitants a paucity of ideas worth while, a colorless artis- 
tic personality, a slickness of manipulation that conceals 
its essential weakness. And such a combination is of a 
depressing effect on art. 

True as this all is, in a general way, it sounds rather 
ungracious as an introduction to a paragraph on repro- 
ductive etching. For we had clever men who took up this 
branch of art, men of adaptative talent who rendered into 
black-and-white the canvases of celebrated artists — or such 
as would be sure to bring returns. For the paintings were 
not always worthy of the talent exercised in their repro- 


duction, which the " Curio " pointed out as early as 
November, 1887. There's the rub, the element of weak- 
ness — or at least a very considerable factor — through 
which this art lapsed, after its day of success, of rich 
harvest for publisher and artist. The eternal law of 
the fitness of things is ever applicable. The virtue of 
appropriateness is so often lost to view. It seems sad 
to see decided ability employed in putting on copper 
hyper-sentimental presentation of home life ideals and 
other quite morally inoffensive pictorial stories and tracts, 
making an appeal wholly on the basis of the story. And, 
on the other hand, third or fourth rate talent might 
masquerade in the guise of originality in " painter-etch- 
ings " without any quality of personality or technique 
worth talking about. 

Reproductive etching, employed in the proper spirit, 
on worthy work, was its own best justification. It is, 
indeed, as Koehler, Wray, and no doubt many others 
have pointed out, an unfortunate popular prejudice which 
rejected any reproductive work while accepting inferior 
productions because they were " painter-etchings." 

Robert W. Weir's plan to reproduce various old pic- 
tures in the possession of New Yorkers, in etching, as 
early as 1820, has been referred to. It was not repeated 
until half-a-century later. 

In 1875 S. J- Ferris, a careful worker, who stippled 
and rouletted to get tone and color, etched a head after 
Fortuny and two plates after Knaus. The success en- 
couraged the publisher to order The Chariot Race, which 
was etched by Ferris and Peter Moran. Wray records 


that prepared copper being not easily procurable at that 
date, these two artists " pounded out the bottom of a 
copper boiler, and coated it with their home-made prepa- 
ration." A few years later, James S. King, then in 
Paris, produced some heads after Rembrandt (drawn 
directly on the plate and sold to " L'Art " in 1882, says 
the artist) and Hals. They were executed with a knowl- 
edge of the process due partly perhaps to discriminating 
study of the works of Flameng and other French masters 
of the art. 

This newly-opened field was cultivated by the dealers 
with such energy that a number of artists were enlisted 
in the cause. It is a peculiar circumstance and denoted 
a somewhat unnatural condition, perhaps, that nearly 
all of these reproductive etchers were won from the ranks 
of painters and not from those of the professional en- 
gravers and etchers. Two men among these latter who 
were particularly well equipped for such work — James 
D. Smillie and Stephen A. Schoff — were almost entirely 
passed over. Smillie did some smaller plates after Bridg- 
man, Homer, Jacque, Pasini, for the " American Art 
Review " and a large and effective one after Huntington's 
Goldsmith's Daughter. Schoff, in his portrait of Mrs. 
C. F. Adams after Wm. M. Hunt, for instance, showed 
a formal, though not mechanical, manner that well ren- 
dered the " quiet nobility of the original." Koehler cites 
later work as examples of the freer style which he de- 
veloped, — portraits of Gen. Devens after Vinton and of 
a young lady after Thayer, At the Piano after Fowler — 
each showing an effective variation of treatment in ac- 


cord with the original. Sidney L. Smith, whose work 
is always marked by taste and discretion, also did some 
small plates of remarkable delicacy, used as book illus- 
trations, — Bastien-Lepage's Jeanne d! Arc and Makart's 
Diana 's Hunting Party — as well as some etchings of art 
objects for the defunct " Studio " of New York. 

But in the list of names which we find signed to the 
reproductive etchings of those days there will be recog- 
nized a number of men known as painters, who were thus 
led to turn to the task of interpreting, with varying de- 
grees of success, their own works as well as those of 
other painters. Thomas Moran showed a truly " phe- 
nomenal skill " ; Thomas Hovenden reproduced Dem was 
good old Times and others of his own paintings; Ham- 
ilton Hamilton signed such ambitious plates as The Com- 
municants after Breton (1886), The Fisherman's Court- 
ship (published by J. D. Waring, 1889), and Hovenden's 
In the Hands of the Enemy; Shirlaw translated E. John- 
son's The Reprimand. Charles Walter Stetson is also 
to be noted; his large plates after French artists, executed 
for a private gentleman in Providence, are characterized 
by Koehler as highly effective despite their wild daring 
and the etcher's deficient schooling. S. J. Guy, C. Y. 
Turner, F. Dielman, W. H. Lippincott, Leon Moran, 
C. R. Grant and others were similarly engaged in putting 
into black-and-white the works of various painters, prin- 
cipally Americans. To these are to be added others who 
were more completely identified with the etcher's art: 
James Fagan, H. Pruett Share, Miss Edith Penman, F. 
Raubichek (among whose plates was Evening Shadows, 

Mother and Baby 
Dry-point by Mary Cassatt 


after Minor). Also Parrish and Charles A. Walker, 
who rendered French landscapists or Mauve with fine 
adaptation to the original, though perhaps too strong a 
tendency to reproduce brush-marks rather than spirit. 
And Aug. Barry, who copied Charles H. Miller's Long 
Island landscapes with somewhat untutored force, and 
reproduced also Haden's Breaking up of the Agamem- 

There is much undoubted ability represented in this list 
of names, and some that is quite remarkable. Even 
considering the output in its entirety, one is struck by the 
quick conquest of technique, the very respectable degree 
of attainment. Yet one feels that in some cases the task 
was approached a little too light-heartedly. The quali- 
ties demanded of a reproductive etcher form a combina- 
tion not too common. To a knowledge of form and 
color he must add the ability to adapt himself with sym- 
pathy and understanding to the work which he is inter- 
preting, and to choose and combine various elements in 
the same, not to speak of that most necessary factor, 
patience. It does not seem that all the men, nor perhaps 
the majority of them, had the necessary equipment for 
the work which the publishers led them to undertake. 
The glamor of etching caused the latter to have pictures 
etched instead of engraved, but the example of Smillie, 
Schoff and Smith shows that the engraver's training may 
be an important factor in the success of such work. The 
abuse of reproductive etching, it appears, grew so great 
that the New York Etching Club took steps to close its 
exhibitions to most of these productions. 


Meanwhile, painter-etching languished. Koehler, as 
early as 1892, found that the various etching societies, 
organized with such enthusiasm, had been for years in a 
state of innocuous somnolence. And that condition of 
affairs cannot be laid altogether at the door of repro- 
ductive etching, for, after all, the two are, or should 
be, different in conception, execution and ultimate appeal. 
The urgency of publishers caused over-production, and 
turned legitimate interest into a fad. There came, also, 
a demand for elaboration, which, as Hitchcock said, " in- 
jured etching by blurring its legitimate characteristics." 
Effects of tonality were aimed at, in which the distin- 
guishing characteristic of the etching, the line, was over- 
looked and lost sight of. Finally, the art was cheap- 
ened, commercial products — of course in " remarque " 
or " artist's " proofs — found their place on the " bargain 
counter." As Walter Aikman once said to me, the " dry- 
goods store etchings at 67 cents " did it, " printed by 
boys." Discredit was brought on the whole business, 
with the inevitable result. 

When etching was on the wane, Koehler, Hitchcock, 
J. D. Smillie and Wray agreed, in their writings, that 
though commercially the fad was over, and production 
lessened, the average quality would be better. It would 
respond to a demand for, and understanding of, the 
personal force which makes a painter-etching what it is. 
That is, a distinct thing apart, with characteristics and 
qualities based on its very nature and therefore different 
from those in any other graphic art. 

Line-engraving, wood-engraving and etching have little 


vitality to-day as reproductive arts; the half-tone, the 
photogravure, the heliotype and the straight photograph 
serve to furnish us with mechanically effective copies of 
works of art. But the etching as a means of direct ex- 
pression for the artist is coming to its own again. 


In recent years, the appeal of the medium has again 
been heeded, the fascination of this art as a means of 
original creation has been appreciated by those of the 
younger generation. Classes sprang up under the guid- 
ance of J. D. Smillie and C. F. W. Mielatz at the 
National Academy, and of George Senseney and Charles 
Henry White at the Art Students' League, in New York 
City. Etchings have again formed a noteworthy addi- 
tion to the American Water Color Society's annual shows. 
General exhibitions as well as single-artist shows have been 
arranged in increasing numbers by print departments of 
museums and libraries, and by print dealers, in various 
cities, and effort in the middle west has crystallized 
around the Chicago Society of Etchers, formed in 19 10, 
and broadening into a national inclusiveness. 

Yet despite all this activity, such a renaissance, by the 
very nature of the medium in which it finds expression, 
will come about quietly, unobtrusively. The movement 
is anything but startling or revolutionary. The spirit 
that is animating these younger disciples of needle and 
acid is that of pure etching, of the art with its advantages 
and limitations. In the best of this newer work the 
true nature of the medium is respected and is adapted 



to each individuality, — a necessity in the practice of any 

It is quite natural that in some of the earlier produc- 
tions by these recent arrivals the influence of certain vig- 
orous personalities in the annals of the art makes itself 
felt. So one may detect a reflection of Whistler, Mer- 
yon, Legros, Strang, Zorn or Helleu in the early work of 
some of our younger etchers. This personal bias is the 
almost inevitable outlet for individual temperament and 
point of view, which may at first attach itself to the 
prior expression which strikes the chord most sympa- 
thetic to it, until it finds itself, until the artist, passing 
through this transitory stage, attains his natural mode 
of expression. 

Some of the younger etchers have worked abroad 
mainly, but not a few have found inspiration in their 
own land, seeking subjects in city and country, from 
Gloucester to San Francisco, and presenting them with 
more or less clearly individual point of view. Often, 
indeed, have they revealed to us new phases, different 
aspects, even the very essence, of things which we had 
seen unseeing. 

Charles Henry White has again emphasized the old 
truth that there is beauty to be found in every-day sur- 
roundings and in our own land, and has set before us 
the picturesque qualities of street and alley, of water- 
front and factory district, in New York, Boston, New 
Orleans, Pittsburgh and other American cities. Many 
of his etchings have been reproduced as illustrations for 
his humorous and sprightly papers on various phases of 


city life, published in " Harper's Magazine." B. J. 
Olsson-Nordfeldt has offered clearly individual impres- 
sions of New York and particularly of Chicago. The 
titles of his Chicago series are an illuminating index to 
his preferences as to subject: Grain Elevators, Smoke, 
Coal-chutes, Gas Tank Town, Bessemer Converters. He 
has also rendered the spirit of Provincetown, whose whal- 
ing flavor likewise attracted young John C. Vondrous. 
Henry Winslow, while insisting less, perhaps, on the to- 
pography of the locality than some etchers of particular 
places, and more on a personal viewpoint, has also 
chosen scenes in New York and elsewhere in his native 

In his Norlands series Cadwallader Washburn pictured 
the meadows, woods and streams of Maine in the 
spirit of loving intimacy with nature which, as he 
has written himself, was his from childhood; and 
J. Andre Smith has sketched the shores of the 
Hudson, a bridge in Connecticut, bits of Central Park, 
New York, trains and apartment houses in New York 
City, or a tree-lined brook in Long Island, getting his 
subjects as he goes, putting them on copper in a straight- 
forward, natural manner, always with a personal touch 
and viewpoint that invests the simplest motif, — a bit of 
brookside with a tree or two and a little bridge beyond, 
— with the interest that always attaches to the expression 
of an outlook on nature worth considering. Further- 
more, New York City has offered picturesque nooks and 
corners to H. Deville, H. H. Webster, W. J. Quinlan; 
Harlem River to H. H. Osgood; Cincinnati and New- 

From " Harper's Magazine." Copyright 1906, by Harper A Brothers 

A Bit of Mount Vernon St., Boston 
Etching by Charles Henry White 


port, Ky., to E. T. Hurley; Long Branch to A. T. 

Pennell, long resident in England, has in recent years 
again exercised his mastery of the art in the delineation 
of the tall buildings of New York and the industrial 
establishments of Pittsburgh. And C. F. W. Mielatz, 
who was already identified with the earlier movement 
which found expression in the old New York Etching 
Club, is to-day in the maturity of his powers and is 
striking out into new fields, both in method and in choice 
of subject. Fertile in resources, of an experimentative 
spirit, this artist, the etcher par exemple of New York 
City, is finding new possibilities of effect, as in his recent 
delightful views at Lakewood. He is a prominent figure 
in the present revival, both by example and precept; as 
instructor in etching at the National Academy of Design 
he is the worthy successor of the late James D. Smillie. 
His art was considered by the present writer in the 
"International Studio" for September, 191 1. 

The appeal of a definite locality is not felt strongly 
in the delightful little landscapes of Alexander Schilling, 
which are of a suggestive impressionism akin to that of 
the etchings of Pissarro or Raffaelli. Thomas R. Man- 
ley, like C. A. Vanderhoof, who has in recent years shown 
work in soft ground, is interested in processes, and has 
brought new methods into play. So, too, Ozias Dodge 
combines sun-printing and the etching bath in producing 
plates with a freedom of effect and a softness of grain 
reminiscent of lithography. 

In plates such as those by the artists named we find 


much honest, and frequently successful, endeavor to show 
that subjects are at our door and to seize and present 
the character of locality as it appears to the personal 
viewpoint. Such art in its highest potentiality will be 
a reflection of American life and aims and progress, sum- 
marized by the artist's power of grasping and sug- 
gesting the prevailing spirit of time and place and 

Among the figure etchers we not only find rather less 
of the feeling for the native soil, but they are very much 
fewer in number than the etchers of landscapes and city 
scenes. To mention Otto J. Schneider, John Sloan, 
Augustus Koopman, W. J. Glackens, A. Allen Lewis is 
almost to exhaust the list. Schneider's swing and easy 
mastery of line has produced direct and virile characteri- 
zations of notabilities: Lincoln, Emerson, Mark Twain. 
In contrast to these free and vigorous character studies 
are his graceful female portraits, with a suggestion of 
Helleu, but individual nevertheless. Their note of ele- 
gance finds an echo in the portraits by A. G. Learned, 
who made also one of J. W. Alexander, while A. Allen 
Lewis's work is of a sternness that recalls Legros in cer- 
tain moods. 

There is a certain kinship between Glackens and Sloan, 
both in sketchy, direct method and in the choice of sub- 
jects in lower life. Glackens has not gone beyond a few 
plates, while Sloan, beside a number of illustrations for 
an edition of Paul de Kock, has in a series of etchings 
illustrated certain aspects of lower life in New York. 
His quaintly humorous presentation of things as they 


are, with just a suggestion of John Leech, points its moral 
quietly, with no trace of the bitterness of the over-zealous 

Some of these etchers have worked abroad as well. 
Olsson-Nordfeldt has etched Italian, Spanish and African 
series. Osgood has been occupied by Paris and London, 
Andre Smith by rural England, its cottages and farm- 
yards. Winslow has gone to Paris, and Vondrous to 

On the other hand, a noteworthy group of men has 
lived mostly or altogether abroad, working much under 
foreign influence (Meryon, for instance) and naturally 
choosing foreign subjects. Among them E. L. Warner, 
whose delicate sense of quaint old world beauties has 
found expression equally well on canvas and copper. 
The grocery, the side street, an old mill, at Montreuil- 
sur-Mer, have disclosed to him their hidden charm, and 
through him to us. Donald Shaw MacLaughlan, a 
Canadian, interprets locality in a personal manner which, 
as Wedmore has pointed out, calls for and repays the 
study of work which is neither eccentric nor common- 
place. He has changed from the precision and elabora- 
tion of his earlier plates to the freer manner of his 
Thames and Venetian subjects. His Lanterbrunnen was 
found by one critic to be " one of the few pictures that 
realize the. vastness of the mountains. . . . Space, 
sweep, grandeur, rudeness and power are found in this 
remarkable plate, which also is beautifully obedient to 
the canons of the art." 

Herman A. Webster, delighting in out-of-the-way 


quarters of old French towns with sun-baked walls and 
mysterious shadows in dark corners, has felt the com- 
pelling, stern charm of Meryon, yet goes his own way. 
In some of his plates, definite sureness of touch is linked 
with a certain severity, while in others there is a richness 
which in some original drawings becomes a lusciousness 
that makes one regret that he has not tried the litho- 
graphic crayon. Martin Hardie and F. J. Mather, Jr. 
( " Art and Progress," August, 1 9 1 1 ) , have written of his 
art. George C. Aid, attracted by the problem of sun- 
light simmering on hot stones and on vibrating water, 
has managed to offer five different impressions of the 
cool arches of the Pont Neuf in Paris (bridge ever dear 
to etchers) and the houses beyond, in the quivering light 
of a hot summer day, with difference of aspect and 
vision in each case. His Location de Voitnres a Bras 
contrasts in its vigorous handling with the airy grace 
of the Hotel de Cluny, with its wistaria-crowned wall and 
the slate-covered sloping roofs beyond. 

Where these artists, as well as Albert Worcester, who 
works with quiet effect and with sympathy, and others, 
have shown the structural aspect of Paris, it is the life 
of the city that has attracted Lester G. Hornby. The 
life and surroundings, figures not forming a mere staffage 
for the buildings, nor the latter solely a background for 
the figures, but all seen as parts of a picture of Paris in 
which houses and streets and people form a characteristic 
ensemble. Hornby's pictures, thus seen and rendered, in 
queer nooks and corners of Paris, breathe an air of un- 
prejudiced observation, recorded with light yet precise 

►J -M 

< o 

e* 2 


indication. That gives us such a delightful bit of alley 
life as Passage de la petite Boucherie, full of rich shadows 
and bright sunlight. He has printed some of his plates, 
especially those done in Tunis, in color. 

George Senseney, who went to Paris a year or two ago, 
has been entirely devoted to etching in color, utilizing 
the suave qualities of soft-ground etching and the tonal 
effect of aquatint in his prints of a remarkable pictorial 
effect, the result of much experimenting and careful print- 
ing. " The Senseney prints," wrote J. G. Huneker, " at- 
tract you by their air of sweetness, their soft magnetism, 
their harmonious ensemble in tonalities." Vaughan 
Trowbridge also employed aquatint as a vehicle for color 
in his earlier prints. 

All these artists have devoted themselves mainly to 
scenes in Paris and other parts of France, that apparently 
inexhaustible storehouse of attractive subjects. Others 
again have found satisfaction for their sense of the pic- 
turesque in Italy. G. Walter Chandler, with an evident 
liking for dark shadows, has found odd bits of archi- 
tecture and life worth his while in Florence, Milan and 
Perugia. A covered archway, a dimly-lighted shop in- 
terior, women washing in the little stream flowing to the 
rear of their houses, dark arches of sunny bridges, such 
has he given us. 

Both Florence and Venice have been pictured by Ernest 
D. Roth, usually with a careful adherence to detailed fact 
and the use of the line to render tones. While his method 
is in contrast to the suggestive summariness now in vogue, 
it gives a noteworthy personal impression of local spirit. 


His art is understanding^ and sympathetically analyzed 
by F. J. Mather, Jr., in the " Print Collector's Quarterly " 
for October, 191 1. 

Whistler's influence is apparent in the earlier Venetian 
plates of more than one artist following in the footsteps 
of Duveneck, Blum and Bacher. One who so began as 
a Whistler disciple is Cadwallader Washburn, who has 
found his subjects in Venice, Japan, Mexico and Maine, 
and has presented them with feeling for the charm of 
every-day nature and for the picturesque qualities of 
buildings. In his Mexican series he shows buildings 
varying, in their aspect, with place, time and conditions 
of lighting, drawn with synthetic definiteness and direct 
sureness. These architectural subjects probably mark his 
highest achievement at present, with the possible exception 
of some heads. In his delightful sketch of an old 
Japanese priest, printed on gray paper taken from a win- 
dow of a temple, and later in his heads of Mexican peons, 
he has shown noteworthy ability to express his human 
sympathy for his fellow-man. Where Washburn was 
attracted by the gardens of Japan, or Chandler by the 
minarets of Benares, Addison T. Millar found food for 
both his artistic leanings and his experimentative nature 
in Algiers, ever dear to artists. Yet he turned easily 
from that land of sunshine to the grayer skies of Holland, 
finding at Laren in a lane of birches, or a farmhouse 
or some other simple motif, a subject sufficient to dis- 
engage an expression of mood, in harmony with the scene 
before him. Passing aspect or humor sometimes leads 
him to print a day and a night effect from the same plate. 


That implies the well-understood manipulation of various 
rags, as well as other aids, in the process of wiping the 
plate after it has been inked and before the paper is laid 
upon it and run through the press. The use of " soft- 
ground etching " and other methods has been for him a 
further means of attaining desired effects. 

Still other names come to mind: Augustus Koopman, 
Ernest Haskell, John Marin (delicate, hazy views of 
Venice and Amsterdam), R. F. Williams, Eugene Hig- 
gins, Charles K. Gleason, Newton A. Wells, professor 
at the University of Illinois; Champaign (said to have 
done charming and delicate small landscapes), Maud 
Hunt Squire (clever bits in few lines and flat tints of 
color), Will J. Quinlan, Arthur Covey. Furthermore, 
the catalogues of the exhibitions of the Chicago Society 
of Etchers, which have been held in Chicago, Worcester, 
Mass., St. Louis and elsewhere, include the names of 
Earl H. Reed, Walter Dean Goldbeck, Thomas W. and 
Helen B. Stevens (who did a series of universities and 
colleges), Mrs. Bertha E. Jaques, secretary of the Society, 
C. B. King, Katherine Kimball, Thomas R. Congdon, 
Ralph M. Pearson, Katherine Merrill, Francis Melville 
and others. Still farther west, from Colorado to the 
Pacific Coast, Will Sparks, Mrs. Marion Holden Pope, 
G. Piazzoni, George E. Burr and Helen Hyde are direct- 
ing local interest to the charm of painter-etching 
("Notable Western Etchers," by Sheldon Cheney, in 
"Sunset" for December, 1908). 

This varied activity does not invariably represent work 
of the highest grade. Some of it is the result of an 


enthusiasm expressed in amateurish ways. But one can 
record also that these ways, in some instances, are being 
mended. And there is enough in the general product of 
a sufficiently high order, there is a large enough propor- 
tion of etchers whose good intentions are backed up by 
an appreciable degree of ability, to make it possible to 
regard this recent movement with some degree of satis- 

There has been appreciation of some phases of this 
effort, as far as outward signs go. These younger men 
are being assiduously written up, their works are fre- 
quently exhibited, and one hears of some sales. " One 
man shows " at the galleries of dealers in New York and 
Chicago, and in museums and clubs in various cities, have 
been devoted to various ones of these etchers : Mielatz, 
Schilling, Hornby, Webster, Washburn, Haskell, Aid, 
Reed, Getchell, Hurley, Olsson-Nordfeldt, Deville, are a 
few that occur to me. And beside the magazine articles 
devoted to individual artists, similar studies, useful and 
well illustrated, have been issued in pamphlet form by 

Widely differing individualities seek and find expression 
in this art of such extended possibilities, of such infinite 
suppleness, though so intimate in character. There is no 
violent novelty in the various personal phases of this 
movement, no obstreperous shriek, no blatant blare of 
revolt. Individuality finds expression, but finds it in ac- 
cordance with the limits and possibilities of the medium, 
the tools and materials used in the production of the 

The Poe Cottage, Fordham, New York 
Etching by C. F. W. Mielatz 


The significance of this new movement lies in the spirit 
which pervades it. It is important because of the atti- 
tude of the men whose work constitutes its more im- 
portant tangible results. This attitude, the only proper 
one in any form of art, finds technical expression for a 
realization of the possibilities of a medium combined with 
a given individuality. The medium, be it brush and 
canvas, chisel and stone, burin and wood block, or needle 
and copper-plate, has its possibilities and its limits, both 
of which must be clearly understood to produce the best 
results, results to which the nature of the medium gives 
its characteristic flavor. Respect for the medium does 
not imply hampering of individuality, but simply its 
orderly expression. Submission to the necessities im- 
posed by the tool is no more a curb on genius than the 
grammar of a language. Genius will mold the method to 
its manner. And it is the very diversity of personal ex- 
pression in this language of needle and acid that increases 
the attractiveness of this phase of American art. The 
charm of the best of these etchings lies in their intimacy 
of expression and in the possibility of intimate relation 
between the etcher and the beholder. 

Etching is not an art of big effects, of striking appeal 
to the great mass. It is not a question here, as it may 
be in painting, of " keying up " to counteract the effect 
of adjacent pictures at an exhibition. Etching is emi- 
nently a " painter art," reproducing a given design in a 
number of prints of which each is essentially the artist's 
work. Particularly is this latter the case if the artist is 
his own printer, as Whistler was, as Pennell is, and 


Mielatz, MacLaughlan, White and many others. It 
forms an immediate, direct medium for the expression 
of the more intimate phases of artistic personality. It 
is based on precise delicacy, not on broad impressions, 
yet its strength lies in summariness, in compressed state- 
ment and not in abundant detail. It is an art of sug- 
gestion, of selection. If comparisons and analogies were 
not so generally futile, one might say that an exhibition 
of etchings fills in art somewhat the function of chamber 
music concerts in the sister art. 

It is these facts which make the present revival of 
interest in etching more than a passing fad, which make 
it a hopeful sign, a possible factor of decided importance 
in the future development of American art. 



The history of graphic art in America, as a matter 
of home production, before the Revolution, is not ex- 
tensive, and naturally so. A young people in the process 
of wresting its existence from nature, gaining a foothold 
in a new land and gradually growing into a new national 
life, had no time for the cultivation of the fine arts. Any 
satisfaction of esthetic wants had to come mainly through 
such works of art or illustrated books as reached here 
from Europe. 

During the period of discovery and settlement, in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the literature pub- 
lished in Europe concerning the new continent included 
a few illustrated books. The illustrations by Jacques Le 
Moyne for his " Narratio " of the expedition sent to 
Florida in 1564 under Jean Ribaut and by John White 
for the account of Raleigh's Virginia venture of 1585-86 
(both issued by DeBry), the plates in Champlain's " Voy- 
ages," John Smith's - General History of Virginia " 
(1624), and Du Creux's " Historiae Canadensis " (1664) 
comprise practically all there was of contemporary 
illustrated books relating to this country and its 



As settlements grew up and expanded, views of the 
same were prepared in Europe. Particularly was this 
bound to be the case, of course, with larger communities 
such as Boston or New York. Of the latter, for ex- 
ample, there exists an interesting series of views. The 
earliest, published in " Beschrijvinghe van Virginia, Neuw 
Nederlandt [etc.]," by Joost Hartgers, in 1651, shows 
the city about 1630. Then come the Visscher (about 
1652), Montanus (1671), and Allard (1673) views, the 
" South East " and " South West " views by Canot after 
Howdell (1768), and so on to 1800, duly listed and de- 
scribed in W. L. Andrews's books " The Iconography of 
the Battery and Castle Garden" (1901), "Journey of 
the Iconophiles around New York in search of the His- 
torical and Picturesque" (1897), "New Amsterdam, 
New Orange and New York: a chronologically arranged 
Account of engraved Views of New York City " (1897) 
and " New York as Washington knew it after the Revo- 
lution," and the forthcoming work by I. N. Phelps Stokes. 
As native artists and engravers began to unfold a more 
extended activity in this field, the time between the pub- 
lication of these succeeding views of New York City 
grew gradually less, until the nineteenth century saw a 
steady flow of them even before the advent of the camera 
which records the kaleidoscopic rapidity of change caused 
by the rapid disappearance of old buildings, — and of 
newer ones, too, for that matter — and the erection of 
higher ones. Foreign and American prints are listed to 
comparatively recent date in the catalogues of the ex- 
hibitions of New York City views at the Grolier Club 


(1907) and at the New York Public Library (1901 and 
1909). A most remarkable exhibit of early and rare 
views of the metropolis was held at the last-named in- 
stitution in 19 1 2. 

As one passes in mental review others of the early 
settlements there come to view such prints issued abroad 
as those of " Charlestown, S. C." (1739), published by 
B. Roberts and W. H. Toms; Charlestown, Mass. 
(1776); or the rare one of Savannah in 1734, by P. 

During the pre-Revolutionary period it was in the field 
of applied art, through the wants of the home, that 
American art first effected accomplishment worthy of 
record. That is seen in our silverware, described by 
R. T. Haines Halsey; from those who produced it there 
came also our earliest engravings on metal. From the 
first copper-plate engraver in the Colonies known to us 
by name, John Conny or Cony, who was working as 
early as 1700, it was the silversmiths who were among 
the earliest to apply the ability gained in engraving on 
their productions, to the supplying of such line-engravings 
as the needs of the hour justified. Not a few of these 
men advertised as engravers on gold, silver, copper, steel, 
brass and pewter, attacking various metals and problems 
with the assurance of necessity. Henry Pursell, for ex- 
ample, was ready (1775) to do "crests, . . . door- 
plates, dog collars, etc." Francis Dewing, who came 
from England in 17 16, announced of himself: "he like- 
wise cuts neatly in wood and printeth calicoes." And 
Rollinson is " credited with having ornamented the silver 


buttons on the coat worn by Washington at his inaugura- 
tion as president." 

" The scarcity of metallic money among the early 
Colonists, and the necessary issue of a paper currency 
to meet this condition," says Stauffer, " probably created 
the first serious demand for the work of a copper-plate 
engraver." John Conny or Cony, who did Massachu- 
setts bills of credit in 1702-3, and possibly those of 1690, 
is the earliest known producer of plates for paper money, 
the forerunner of the able craftsmen who in the nineteenth 
century developed the art of bank-note engraving to a 
remarkably high degree of mechanical perfection. 
Among the eighteenth century engravers of money were 
also Thomas Sparrow, who signed plates for Maryland 
issues in 1770-74, and Abner Reed, who was engaged in 
engraving bills near the end of the century (1792). 

Portraiture answered a natural want, and the first na- 
tive production on copper in this specialty, as far as 
known, is a copy of an English engraving of the Rev. 
Increase Mather, " little more than scratched upon cop- 
per " in 1701 by Thomas Emmes of Boston, and pub- 
lished in Boston in the same year as a frontispiece to a 
sermon ("The Blessed Hope, etc.") by Mather. Later 
engravers attacked the problem with more vigor, perhaps, 
but not much more art. Portraits such as that of Isaac 
Watts by James Turner (Boston, 1746), hard as a nail, 
exemplify a style of work, labored in its anxious and 
helpless striving to gain an effect without sufficient skill. 
Those characteristics one may find even much later, — 
say in the portrait of Washington, with snake and the 


motto " Don't tread on me," by Buxton, in " A poetical 
Epistle to His Excellency George Washington " (Provi- 
dence, 178 1 ) . This plate was copied from the one by 
William Sharp, the noted English engraver, in the Lon- 
don (1780) edition of the book. Even at the very end 
of the century one finds, as in the work of Smither or 
James Allen (who did a primitive Bonaparte in 1792), a 
helplessness that is almost touching instead of laughable. 

The need of maps and the interest in views seem 
fairly natural. Francis Dewing's plan of Boston (1722), 
from a drawing by Capt. John Bonner, is presumably 
the earliest one on copper made in this country. And 
in Cadwallader Colden's " Papers relating to the Indian 
trade," published by Bradford in New York in 1724, 
there appears a map of the Five Indian Nations (taking 
in the Province of New York and a little more), which 
Mr. Wilberforce Eames thinks was undoubtedly done in 
New York, and is probably the first one executed in the 
middle colonies. Others who met the need for maps 
were Abel Buell, Thomas Johnston (plan of Boston, pub- 
lished by Burgis in 1729), James Turner, M. G. de Bruls 
(Niagara, 1759), Bernard Romans and William Barker. 

Famous among the early views is the South Prospect of 
the City of New York (1717) of William Burgis, prob- 
ably, as W. L. Andrews says, the first view engraved in 
America. In the only known copy, in the New York His- 
torical Society, the engraver's name is torn off, but Stauffer 
notes that a restrike (1746) is signed /. Harris Sc., and 
he believes that Burgis simply published this and other 
plates (some of which are signed by known engravers), 


his mezzotint view of Boston Light House being the 
only engraving signed by Burgis which he has seen. The 
Burgis view of New York was often copied or adapted, 
wholly or in part, by various engravers in succeeding 
years, — through the nineteenth century — particularly that 
portion showing the site of the later Fulton Ferry in 
Brooklyn. The name of Burgis as publisher appears also 
on a picture of Harvard College (A Prospect of the Col- 
ledges in Cambridge in New England) , and on one of the 
New Dutch Church in New York City. Still other views 
may serve to indicate gradual increase of home produc- 
tion in this field in pre-Revolutionary days. There were 
the South East View of Boston (1743), published by 
William Price; James Turner's view of Boston, with 
some Indian scenes below ("American Magazine," Bos- 
ton, 1744) ; Perspective View of the Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital (1761), — selling for " 1 shilling plain and 2 col- 
ored," — by James Claypoole, Jr. ; A South East Prospect 
of Pennsylvania Hospital, by J. Steeper and H. Dawkins, 
after Montgomery and Winters (1775); North West 
Prospect of Nassau Hall . . ., N. J., by H. Dawkins 
after W. Tennant and others, coarse work and thin. 

But there was other opportunity also for the engravers, 
book-plates to be done, and business cards (that by Henry 
Dawkins for Benj. Harbeson quite brave in elaboration 
of the Chippendale style), billheads, certificates of mem- 
bership (e.g., Revere's certificate of enlistment in His 
Majesty's North Battery, Boston, of which there are a 
number of restrikes). Also printers' ornaments, such as 
the coat of arms of William Penn engraved by James 


Turner, presumably on type-metal, for the title of the 
"Philadelphia Gazette" (1767), or the type-metal 
vignette for the "Pennsylvania Magazine" (1775), by 
J. Smither. Sheet music, too; by Thomas Johnston, 
Henry Dawkins ("Urania," a music book, 1761), John 
Norman ( 178 1), or Isaac Sanford ( 1783) , both title and 
music being usually engraved by the same hand. 

Such incidental productions, then, were executed by 
Nathaniel Morse, Thomas Johnston, James Turner, 
Elisha Gallaudet, James Claypoole, Jr., Henry Dawkins, 
Nathaniel Hurd, Robert Aitken, John Steeper. Like- 
wise by those who take us more definitely into Revolu- 
tionary and post-Revolutionary days : A. Billings, Abra- 
ham Godwin, Bernard Romans, James Smither, John 
Norman, Benjamin Jones, Paul Revere, Abernethie, N. 
Dearborn, Joseph Callender, Amos Doolittle, Joseph 
Bowes, N. Hurd, Robert Scot. And by those whose ac- 
tivity reached well into the following century (in which 
even A. B. Durand did not disdain to engrave tickets of 
admission to balls, and like things) : William Hamlin, 
James Poupard, Ralph Rawdon, John Vallance, Peter 
Rushton Maverick and his son Peter, the latter's card 
significantly advertising " a general graphic business." 

A number of the early engravers are represented, mostly 
by portraits, by reproductions given in David McNeely 
Stauffer's " American Engravers upon Copper and Steel," 
a monumental work of painstaking care. The book was 
issued in 1907 by the Grolier Club, which in the follow- 
ing year held an exhibition of " Early American Engrav- 
ing upon Copper." A similar exhibition was held by the 


Boston Museum in December, 1904 — February, 1905 
(" Descriptive Catalogue of an Exhibition of Early 
Engraving in America"). There are various special 
studies, too, such as Samuel Abbott Green's " Ten Fac- 
simile Reproductions relating to Old Boston and Neigh- 
borhood " (1901) and "Ten Fac-simile Reproductions 
relating to various Subjects" (1903), and the volumes 
on Revolutionary portraiture and New York views by 
W. L. Andrews. And in individual cases research has 
resulted in monographs or shorter papers such as those 
on John Norman by C. H. Hart ("Some Notes con- 
cerning John Norman," Cambridge, 1904) and S. A. 
Green ("Remarks on the Boston Magazine . . . and 
John Norman, Engraver," Cambridge, 1904), and on 
Revere by W. L. Andrews (" Paul Revere and his En- 
graving," New York, 1901). In 19 12 the American 
Antiquarian Society held an exhibition of engravings by 
Revere, mostly from its own collection; a list, prepared 
by the librarian, Clarence S. Brigham, was published in 
the "Boston Transcript" of January 17, 1912. 

The hardness and crudeness of the early prints are 
more apparent, perhaps, in portraits than elsewhere, but 
they characterize our eighteenth century work generally. 
Well into the nineteenth century, in fact, our art was 
essentially provincial, much of it a reflection, often quite 
weak, of European models. The many names recorded 
by Stauffer and others are not infrequently offered in a 
tone of kindly indulgence or frank apology. Grace and 
elegance were quite lacking, and if, around the turn of 
the century, a little more suavity and richness is occa- 


sionally met with, it is probably the result of increasing 
technical ability to copy with more justice to the original, 
and it appears, moreover, particularly in the more easily 
mastered stipple manner. 

" Many of the early portraits which illustrate this 
crucial period of our history," says W. L. Andrews (in 
his " Essay on the Portraiture of the American Revolu- 
tionary War," New York, 1896), "are so coarse and 
crude in design and execution that by means of their very 
grotesqueness they exercise a certain weird fascination on 
the collector." Occasionally one comes across contem- 
porary acknowledgment of insufficiency. Publishers or 
editors of publications, even as late as the second decade 
of the nineteenth century, ask the indulgence of their 
readers, usually on the plea that the illustrations presented 
are by native talent, — appealing for aid to an infant native 
industry, as it were. For example, the advertisement of 
a Bible published by Isaiah Thomas at Worcester in 179 1, 
and for which Joseph H. Seymour did thirty-two en- 
gravings, reads : " These plates were engraved ... in 
this town in 1 79 1 . . . and the Editor doubts not but 
a proper allowance will be made for work engraved by 
an Artist who obtained his knowledge in this country, 
compared with that done by European engravers who 
have settled in the United States." On the other hand, 
the work produced by our native engravers was not in- 
variably accepted uncritically. Norman's plates in the 
"Impartial History" (Boston, 1781-82; original Eng- 
lish edition, 1780) met with a scathing criticism from 
the "Freeman's Journal" (Philadelphia), January 26, 


1 795. The portraits of Knox, Samuel Adams and Green 
were named as particularly bad, with the comment, 
" Surely such extraordinary figures are not intended to 
give the rising generation an improved taste in the arts 
of design and sculpture." The prints in this American 
edition of this book are not, apparently, always copied 
from those in the English one, and even when so copied, 
there may be changes in detail, as in the full-length Wash- 
ington, on which Norman has put a different head and in 
a different position. But one does not feel inclined to 
trust them very much more, as portraits, than those made 
farther away from the scene of action. W. L. Andrews, 
who cites the above-mentioned proof of contemporary 
appreciation of the badness of not a little of the engraving 
of the day, adds his own testimony to the effect that 
Norman's portraits of General and Mrs. Washington 
(Boston, 1782), rare prints by the way, are " atrociously 
bad " and rival the Doolittle battle-pieces in that respect. 
As a collector, however, Mr. Andrews does not reject 
that of which he disapproves from the artistic standpoint. 
We others may join him in open-eyed realization of the 
faults of much of this early work without on that account 
either lessening our patriotico-sentimental affection for it 
or having any fear of lowering its price in the collector's 
market. In fact, before these early attempts on copper 
the esthetic sense has not so much to say. They appeal 
to us because they bear the very imprint of those days 
of gradual formation which preceded the final consumma- 
tion of our recognized nationality. It is human activity, 
more than art, that speaks to us from these weak efforts 


to give our scattered population something like the pic- 
torial art found in the home lands of Europe. 

Collections of Americana will inevitably include many 
European prints, for example among the portraits of 
Washington, Franklin and John Paul Jones. Not in- 
frequently these show lack of the knowledge of and 
sympathy for the subject necessary to characteristic por- 
traiture, but technically they usually contrast strongly 
with our home product. 

Through the Revolution and its after results the Amer- 
ican colonists were naturally thrown more on their own 
resources. Furthermore, they did things that made his- 
tory and that called for illustration of events and por- 
traits of chief actors. The inevitable consequence was 
that a group of national engravers arose, — it would hardly 
do to call it a school, though it showed a certain origi- 
nality in its mingled vigor and weakness, mediocre con- 
ventionality and fresh outlook. 

In the first place, to carry on the war, money was 
needed, and examination of examples of the paper cur- 
rency of that time is interesting occupation. Some of it 
is partly engraved and partly printed; or, again, the bor- 
der may be a composite affair of type-metal ornaments 
and symbols strung together. A piece of Massachusetts 
Bay currency of 1779, showing the pine tree in the upper 
left corner, and with the date put on with a stamp print- 
ing white on black ( ! ) , is lettered at the bottom : " death 
to counterfeit," recalling the severe English law under 
which W. W. Ryland, the stipple engraver, went to the 
gallows at Tyburn as late as 1783. We, too, had counter- 


feiters in Colonial days. Abel Buell (who subsequently 
worked for the government), Joseph Billings (1770), 
Henry Dawkins and Richard Brunton (1799: he forms 
the subject of a pamphlet by A. C. Bates) are among the 
engravers credited with taking advantage of the ease with 
which our early notes could be forged. The Revolution 
brought us our first historical prints, because, indeed, there 
were events to picture. The Boston Massacre (1770), 
a hand-colored engraving by Revere, is a famous and 
rare old print, seldom enough seen but known through 
reproductions and through the engraved copy executed 
in 1908 by Sidney L. Smith. About 1880, Mr. Stauffer 
tells me, the Revere family had Daniels of Boston strike 
off a few impressions without the inscription. And W. L. 
Andrews notes several contemporary copies of the print, 
in England and America. In a letter from Henry Pel- 
ham (see "Bibliographer" for March, 1902), Revere 
is charged with having copied Pelham's engraving of the 
massacre. No such print is known to exist, but we are 
told that " several water-color copies of the massacre 
have been preserved, which are exactly the same in design 
as the Revere plate, but much superior to it in the details." 
Previously, in 1768, Revere had done two views of Bos- 
ton of which one is on copper (existing in colored impres- 
sions and in restrikes, without inscription) and the other 
on wood or type-metal, showing the landing of British 
troops. In the " Royal American Magazine " for Jan- 
uary, 1774, there appeared a small copy of this view, 
with the title View of the Town of Boston with several 
Ships of War in the Harbour. 

Line Engraving on Copper by Paul Revere 
This portrait, supposed to exist, had not been seen by D. M Stauffer and 
other authorities, until an impression came to light quite recently in the New 
York Public Library. It is reproduced here for the first time 


Though crude enough, the Massacre seems rather bet- 
ter in execution than the set of four plates by Amos 
Doolittle (re-engraved in our day by S. L. Smith) from 
drawings by Ralph Earle, picturing the engagements at 
Concord and Lexington, also colored by hand, the work 
of the burin crude, the drawing touchingly helpless. But 
they speak to us with rough eloquence of times of action 
through brain and brawn. Despite their faults they, like 
Revere's Massacre, are cherished as are the incunabula 
of wood-engraving. One of the four, the Battle of 
Lexington, was re-engraved on a smaller scale by A. 
Doolittle and J. W. Barber in 1832. And the set was 
reproduced, from uncolored impressions, in a small quarto 
issued in Boston (1883) with text by Edward G. Porter, 
and from colored ones in a folio (1875) embodying 
Jonas Clark's narrative of the transactions of April 19, 


The Battle of Lexington was illustrated again, much 

later (1798), by Tiebout in an engraving after Tisdale, 
also to be seen in color. And it will of course be re- 
membered that Trumbull executed a painting of the affair 
at Bunker Hill ; it was reproduced on two plates in John 
Norman's largest engraving, and more than once in the 
nineteenth century. 

A few months before the Doolittle prints there had 
appeared Romans's Exact View of the late Battle at 
Charlestown (Philadelphia, 1775). This print of the 
Battle of Bunker Hill, — which appeared also in London 
the following year, much better engraved according to 
Stauffer — was re-engraved on a smaller scale by Robert 


Aitken in a fearful and wonderful engraving {Correct 
View, etc.) with cannon drawn on the school-boy principle 
of two parallel lines with an oval at each end. Two 
farther interesting illustrations of events in the war, both 
N. G. Inv. and engraved by John Norman, appeared as 
frontispieces to two books published remarkably soon 
after the occurrences to which they related. The first, 
in " The Battle of Bunker's Hill. By a gentleman of 
Massachusetts" (Philadelphia, 1776), depicts The Death 
of Gen. Warren, crudely, yet with rough dramatic vigor. 
The other, Death of Montgomery, in the pamphlet of 
the same name (Philadelphia, 1777), is a bit more theat- 
rical, perhaps, in its strong contrasts of light and shade, 
but looks surer in drawing, as in the foreshortening of 
the two men on the ground. 

Edward Savage's large Signing the Declaration of In- 
dependence, in line and stipple, remained unfinished; C. H. 
Hart devoted a pamphlet to this print (1905). It 
opened the drama which had its last act in the event 
pictured in Tanner's engraving of The Surrender of Corn' 
wallis at Yorktown, from a drawing by J. F. Renault. 
J. F. Renault did also a Triumph of Liberty, Engraved 
by P. C. Verger (1796), issued in France, with about as 
much truth to facts as in the Yorktown design. And, ad- 
hering to chronological sequence, Amos Doolittle's Fed- 
eral Hall (1790), from a drawing by Peter Lacour 
("the only contemporary view of the inauguration of 
Washington"), and View of the Triumphal Arch and 
Colonnade, erected in Boston, in Honor of the President, 
1789, mark the inauguration of a new era. Not a few 


of the engravers of these earlier plates lived well into 
the nineteenth century, a period in which a plentiful num- 
ber of engraved illustrations of stirring Revolutionary- 
scenes saw the light. 

War maps and plans, of a timely interest equally 
obvious, were furnished during the conflict by Bernard 
Romans, Robert Aitken (who copied Romans's " Map 
of the Seat of War") and John Norman (Boston, all 
three) and Abernethie (Charleston, 1785). J. Smither 
did a map of Rhode Island. Portraiture was bound to 
develop. The Revolutionary heroes, who by word and 
deed helped to knit the bonds of national interest, and 
those who continued the work in the following construc- 
tive period, were depicted for public edification with 
despatch, if not always with neatness. Revere, Dearborn, 
Doolittle and others put their gravers — one can hardly 
say their art — at the service of demand and supplied 
pictures which have already been sufficiently characterized 
in the quotation from W. L. Andrews's book on the 
portraiture of the war. As recollection of these old 
prints is awakened, one is tempted to cite instances: por- 
traits of Samuel Adams by Revere and Okey, of John 
Hancock by Revere, of various generals and statesmen 
by John Norman. But Stauffer has listed them all, and 
to him the reader must go for details. 

As affairs became more settled, and more opportunity 
was offered for the cultivation of the arts of peace, there 
came about increasing proficiency in the handling of the 
engraver's tools. There resulted also revision of early 
impressions ; prominent Americans roughly portrayed were 


again presented, with more art. They were repeatedly 
pictured in certain cases, particularly Franklin (list issued 
by the New York Public Library in 1906), Jefferson and 
Lafayette, but none to anything like the same extent as 
Washington. It seemed to be the ambition of almost 
every portrait engraver of those and later days to pro- 
duce at least one counterfeit presentment of the Father of 
his Country; more than one engraver had each several 
Washington portraits to his credit. Washington por- 
traiture has a little literature of its own, — by W. S. Baker, 
E.B.Johnston and others, — culminating in Charles Henry 
Hart's " Catalogue of the Engraved Portraits of Wash- 
ington " (1904), published by the Grolier Club, with 880 
different portraits listed. 

The foreign element in this country had its part in 
preserving for future generations the features of those 
who were prominent in directing the fortunes of the young 
nation. Du Simitiere (whose portraits, says W. L. An- 
drews, are poor, though " taken from life," — they were 
engraved by B. L. Prevost, Paris) and St. Memin (dealt 
with in the chapter on aquatint) left particularly many 
records of the lineaments of those on whom the light of 
publicity fell in those days. 

But abroad, also, events in our land attracted attention, 
and portraits were produced that bore more or less — 
often less — resemblance to the originals. Franklin could 
at least be drawn from the life by the French — vide 
Duplessis and Cochin — and his face became familiar 
throughout the land whose inhabitants he had quite cap- 
tured by his personality. But by the time Cochin's im- 


pression of him had reached Germany, it could hardly 
be recognized in the traduction of J. C. Haid's mezzotint, 
with a rather Teutonic aspect, as we may find it also in 
some portraits of Washington, or, later, of Lincoln. Not 
only were some foreign artists influenced by the types 
around them, but the demand for portraiture occasionally 
resulted in " truly exhaustive efforts of the artist's imagi- 
nation," as W. L. Andrews characterized John Michael 
Probst's conceptions of Charles Lee and Putnam. Such 
fabrications have their notes of gaiety : so in a sober, quite 
Hollandish, bearded " W. Pen," in a book of travels in 
the United States, published in Utrecht in the seventeenth 
century, or in Chapman's bust, in stipple, of Washington, 
with side whiskers, which is simply his portrait of Capt. 
R. K. Porter, R. N., with the name changed. 

But the imaginary portrait — call it " fake," if you will 
— was not unknown in those days in our own land, either. 
The origin of Revere's " Col. Benjamin Church " 
(1772) is quite evident when you see it side by side with 
the portrait of C. Churchill from Smollett's " History of 
England" (1758-65). His full-length of King Philip, 
as Andrews points out, has not even that basis of fact, 
but is " evolved entirely from his own consciousness." 
The full-length Washington (possibly by John Norman, 
thinks C. H. Hart) , " in Roman dress as ordered by Con- 
gress for the monument to be erected in Philadelphia," 
was transformed from that of Sir William de la More, 
in full coat of mail. One can continue this paragraph 
on un-authenticity to much later dates, to include, for in- 
stance, the Franklin bust portrait, of the Wilson type, 


engraved by F. Halpin, which, despite its evidently eigh- 
teenth century garb, did duty as a picture of Roger Wil- 
liams. Necessity of quick production gave rise to the 
expedient of taking out the head on an already engraved 
plate and substituting another. Stauffer has pointed out 
that the James Madison signed Bona del Parte sculp is 
Akin's portrait of Benjamin Rush, with head and signa- 
ture changed. And A. H. Ritchie's full-length portrait 
of Abraham Lincoln was originally one of Calhoun. H. 
B. Hall, by the way, substituted a line-engraved bust por- 
trait of Lincoln in an oval frame in an old stipple engrav- 
ing, representing Diogenes leaning over the frame: 

" Diogenes his lantern needs no more, 
An honest man is found! — the search is o'er." 

Still quicker results could be attained by changing only 
the name of the personage; so Michele Pekenino, an 
engraver reconstructed by Stauffer, produced a portrait 
of Bolivar by changing the lettering on his head of A. B. 
Durand. And the portrait of James Arlington Bennet, 
LL.D., at 30, by Story and Atwood after J. Neagle, ap- 
pears also with Bennet's name replaced by that of Aesop. 
A collector with an eye for humor has united in one frame 
five eighteenth century woodcuts, each representing the 
profile of a gentleman in a three-cornered hat. The only 
appreciable difference is in the names, which are: Richard 
Howel, Samuel Adams, Henry Lee, Bradley (Governor 
of Rhode Island) and Columbus. But " a portrait's a 
portrait, although there's nothing in it," and the enter- 


prising publisher runs in a portrait of " Hendryk " Hud- 
son, or some equally doubtful one, adding the glamor of 
research among pictorial documents by using the impres- 
sive caption " from an old print," a description used im- 
partially for one two centuries old, or only fifty years. 

Possibly the greater facility with which stipple could 
be executed, as compared with line-engraving, had some- 
thing to do with the fact that it is in stipple that some 
of the first portraits of technical merit were produced. 
The first one of real account by an American-born pro- 
fessional engraver was the work of Cornelius Tiebout, as 
is pointed out by Stauffer, who adds that Peale and 
Savage, though they had issued earlier portraits, were 
painters who did some occasional portraits rather than 
engravers by profession. The portrait by Tiebout re- 
ferred to was that of Jay, published in 1795 in London, 
where Tiebout had gone to study. One of his best is the 
large half-length of William White, D.D., after Stuart, 
the face well modeled though pale. In the one of Simon 
Snyder this paleness becomes colorlessness, a characteriza- 
tion which will apply to much of the stipple work of 
this and of later times. Tiebout himself did sufficient 
work of this thin quality. His memorial design of Wash- 
ington on a pedestal, with Bowling-Green, New York 
City, in the background, after Buxton (1798), which ex- 
ists in an impression on satin, was done in line, in which 
manner he had worked before taking up stipple, and had 
executed a plan of New York for the directory of that 
city for 1787. 

Edward Savage, painter, engraver, publisher ("A 


Tribute to the Memory of Edward Savage," by Thomas 
C. Reed, Schenectady, 1840), used stipple with a certain 
vigor. His portrait of Franklin (bespectacled and read- 
ing), after Martin, seems better in drawing and model- 
ing — perhaps because not designed by himself — than his 
bourgeois-like Washington or the well-known Washing- 
ton and His Family. His small bust portrait of Wash- 
ington (1792) after his own painting, and reproduced 
in Andrews's book on Revolutionary portraiture, shows 
remarkably minute stippling in the face. It is almost 
entirely dotted, with a modicum of line work on coat and 
wig; an honest, careful job. His paintings were occa- 
sionally engraved by others ; Tanner did a Washington in 
stipple, and David Edwin his Landing of Columbus, pub- 
lished by Savage in 1800. J. W. Jarvis began as an en- 
graver with Savage, and in a bitter attack, quoted in 
S. Isham's history of American painting, denied his mas- 
ter's authorship of the engravings issued under his name. 
But Dunlap's similar statement that Savage could not 
engrave and that his apprentice David Edwin really did 
the work, was emphatically denied by W. S. Baker in 
his "American Engravers and their Works" (1875) 
and by C. H. Hart (in a paper presented to the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society). 

It is said, by the way, that when Edwin came to Phila- 
delphia in 1797 he found difficulty from the want of 
the necessary tools and a proper press. Edwin became 
" one of the most prolific and popular portrait engravers 
of the period." Hart places him above Bartolozzi, as 
" superior in manner," and contemporary criticism 


("Port-Folio," October, 1810, p. 329) said of his 
quite indifferent " Maternal affection," a little mother- 
and-child genre, " his copy, both for spirit and elegance, 
unquestionably transcends the British original." His 

plates, listed in Mantle Field 
graved work of David Edw 
ability and facility. Exigenc 
resulted in not a few portra 

ng's " Catalogue of the en- 
n" (1905), show marked 
es of production may have 
ts which do not rise much 

above the average of, say, Chapman in England. But 
his work always shows skill, and includes such dignified 
and able performances as the large portraits of James 
Madison and Thomas McKean (1803, particularly 
good), after Stuart, or the Alexander I, of the smaller 
size of the majority of his portraits, and with the deli- 
cacy of a miniature. He did a number of plates after 
Stuart, of whose friendship, we are told, he was exceed- 
ingly proud. 

So the use of stipple increased; its free effect, less 
formal than that of the line-engraving, and a pleasing 
softness appropriate especially in the treatment of the 
face, were elements to commend it. A number of our 
engravers, some of them better known by their line work, 
practised the dotting art more or less: Doolittle (whose 
Alexander I is perhaps the best portrait he ever did), 
Thomas Clarke (who did an indifferent Lafayette), John 
Galland, John James Barralet (whose designs were often 
engraved by others), W. S. Leney (who had studied with 
P. W. Tomkins in England), Alexander Anderson (who 
executed a thin but not bad military portrait after Jarvis) , 
Rollinson (portrait of Washington), Abner Reed, Ben- 


jamin Tanner, the Mavericks, Elkanah Tisdale and John 
Scoles. Two Englishmen who worked here for a while 
were H. Houston and Robert Field. Houston drew and 
engraved a rather stiff half-length of John Adams, and 
engraved a bust of J. P. Kemble (1796), after " Stew- 
ard," quite juicy in effect. 

There was some little use of stipple also in landscape 
work. Examples of this are Tiebout's The Cascade, 
Luzerne County, Pa., poor enough, and his Cottage Scene, 
a good-sized plate after W. Bigg. 

Edwin, Tiebout and others reach actively well into the 
nineteenth century, which was to see a general quick and 
very considerable advance technically and perhaps some 
loss of immediateness, of the freshness and roughness of 
attack born of ignorance of methods or helplessness. 

Stipple was to be much used for magazine illustration, 
a field in which line-engraving had already been employed 
to some extent. A few references to this latter use in Rev- 
olutionary days have been made. Among the periodi- 
cals which offered some opportunity to our line-engravers 
were: "Royal American Magazine" (Boston: Revere, 
Callender) ; " Pennsylvania Magazine " (Robert Aitken, 
Poupard) ; " Boston Magazine " (J. Norman) ; " Co- 
lumbian Magazine" (Philadelphia: J. Trenchard) ; 
"Massachusetts Magazine" (Boston: Samuel Hill); 
"New York Magazine" (Scoles); "American Univer- 
sal Magazine" (Philadelphia: Houston, Smithers, 
Bowes, Harrison, Thomas Clarke). The interested 
reader is referred to P. L. Ford's " Check List of Ameri- 
can Magazines published in the Eighteenth Century " 


(Brooklyn, 1889), and, for lists of portraits published 
in these magazines, as well as in books both American 
and foreign, to W. L. Andrews's work on Revolutionary 
portraiture. During the war, a considerable proportion 
of the plates in these magazines naturally related to the 
conflict: plans, views, battle scenes, portraits of com- 
manders predominated. 

With the advent of peace and of national development 
there came increasing cultivation of art and consequently 
increasing production of books with illustrations. There 
had been the occasional portrait or map in a volume — 
our earliest engraved portrait was so issued, as we have 
seen, engraved as well as the early artificers knew, for 
better, for worse, — practically always for worse. Direct 
book-illustration with copper-plate engravings had also 
begun, not always with happiest results, as we have seen 
in the case of Norman, who, by the way, did also a 
frontispiece and fifteen plates for the Fables of JEsop 
by Robert Dodsley (Philadelphia: Robert Bell, 1777). 
Now, more systematic and extended illustration was at- 
tempted. David Longworth of New York brought out 
an edition of Telemachus with plates by Thomas Clarke, 
Scoles engraved a frontispiece, sufficiently hard, after Tis- 
dale, and there were other evidences of this increased 
activity. This found an outlet especially in editions of 
the Bible, recorded in E. B. O'Callaghan's " List of Edi- 
tions of the Holy Scriptures . . . printed in America 
previous to i860." There was the one published in 179 1 
by Isaiah Thomas, with thirty-two plates by J. H. Sey- 
mour, and Brown's Bible, brought out in 1792 with en- 


gravings by Tiebout, Maverick, Doolittle, Rollinson, A. 
Godwin, and Collins's Quarto Bible, of which the second 
edition appeared in 1807. The publication of cyclopedias 
began, too, calling for much illustration, — for instance, 
Dobson's edition of Rees' Encyclopaedia (1 794-1 803). 
And with such undertakings, extending by their dates of 
issue into the nineteenth century, we pass out of the 
eighteenth into the hopes and aims and achievements of 
a new period. 




In the new century there came a marked increase in 
the number of engravers, together with a noteworthy 
advance in technical ability. Two important factors in 
the development of engraving were the demand for mag- 
azine and book illustration and the need of well-executed 
bank-notes. Such work gave occupation to our engravers 
and brought increase to their numbers. Periodicals such 
as the "Polyanthos" (Boston), "Port-Folio," "The 
Analectic," Delaplaine's " Emporium of Arts and Sci- 
ences " (Philadelphia) and the "Rhode Island Literary 
Repository," all issued between 1800 and 1820, laid 
some stress on the portraits and views by Edwin, Hamlin, 
T. Gimbrede, S. Harris, Snyder and others, which they 
offered their readers. From the technical standpoint, one 
may run with some satisfaction through the files of the 
" Port-Folio," for example, and note the increased assur- 
ance and skill with which the artists handled their tools, 
particularly in the production of portraits after Stuart, 
Wood and others. Stipple was the medium usually 
chosen for the latter. Previously, in such dotted portraits 
as those of Wayne by Harris and again by Tanner, and 
of S. Adams by Tanner, the pale gray, somewhat washed- 
out effect reminds one a little of the colorless, anemic, 



very early German lithographs — " Polyautographs." 
Now, the paleness of the earlier work had given way 
to more vigorous and varied handling, giving richer effect 
without loss of delicacy. See, for example, the stipple 
portraits in Delaplaine's " Repository of the Lives and 
Portraits of distinguished American Characters" (Phila- 
delphia, 1 8 1 5 ) , by Edwin Boyd, Longacre, W. S. Leney 
(a smooth, dexterous worker), W. R. Jones, Goodman 
& Piggot and J. Heath. In not a few cases during this 
period, indeed, this new force runs to a heavy black, almost 
as colorless as the washed-out gray of the preceding period. 
But this tendency to black, again, may rise to a richness 
that is of a resounding sonority in J. B. Longacre's large 
portrait of Andrew Jackson, after Sully. That work of 
individuality and distinction is executed with a force and 
breadth in accord with the size of the plate. 

Longacre, who later became engraver to the U. S. Mint, 
managed to get some color and life into even his least 
important portraits; his small Alexander Macomb after 
Sully is quite delightful in its easy flow and unctuousness. 
He had a noteworthy part in raising the standard of 
engraving in this country. In connection with James 
Herring he undertook the publication of " The National 
Portrait Gallery of distinguished Americans " (New 
York, 1834-39, 4 volumes), a collection of portraits with 
biographical sketches. It is said that the standard of 
excellence for the engravings was set so high that after 
employing the best engravers in the country, others had 
to be brought over from Europe. It was good stipple 
work that this venture brought forth, showing practical 

Andrew Jackson 
After Sully. Stipple engraving- by J. B. Long-acre 


craftsmanship, and characterized by a certain vigor. A 
number of the plates were by Longacre himself (some 
after his own drawings from life) , others by T. B. Welch, 
George Parker, Prud'homme, E. Wellmore, W. A. Wil- 
mer, I. B. Forrest, J. Gross, etc. Other engravers, in- 
cluding not a few workers in line, were identified with 
this art of the dot during 1 800-1 840: W. Haines, Abel 
Bowen, C. Gobrecht, Thomas Gimbrede and his son J. N. 
Gimbrede, J. R. Smith, George Graham, Joseph Cone, 
John Vallance, John Boyd, Bridport and W. R. Jones. 
Not all the work was good; in fact as late as 18 12 
one may come across portraits such as those by John 
Eckstein in which to helplessness before the copper-plate 
there is added the aggravating provincial assurance of the 
insufficiently equipped designer (Eckstein himself). But 
on the whole, as already indicated, these stipple engravers 
worked with an increased ability and discrimination, and 
in certain instances they were apparently spurred on to 
better efforts by the merits of the original which they 
copied. Hence their work varied, and from the mass of 
smoothly executed stipple plates there stand out various 
portraits. Thomas Gimbrede's James Monroe after /. 
Van Der Lyn, Vallance's Hugh Blair, Bridport's luscious 
Conwell and Boyd's strong and broad John Fennell after 
Wood are in each case probably the best portrait by the 
respective engraver. Smith's James Bowdoin has both 
delicacy and swing, and his portraits of Commodores 
Rodgers and Bainbridge show grasp of character. There 
is a certain delicacy in Cone's miniature A. H. Judson, 
and color and verve in Philip Tidyman after Sully by 


T. B. Welch and A. B. Walter. And the last-named 
painter's D. D. Tompkins is well caught, in the suave 
sweep of the modeling in the face, by Jones. 

There was some use of stipple also for views and 
historical pieces, say G. G. Smith's U. S. Squadron under 
Commodore Bainbridge returning triumphant from the 
Mediterranean in 1815, designed by J. B. Fanning, or 
William Birch's small views of The Country Seats of the 
United States. In the last, stipple and line are combined, 
and hand-coloring farther serves to smooth over things. 
Birch's Views of Philadelphia had come out in 1798-1800, 
and before that he had done, while still in England 
(1789), such a dainty little plate as A View from Mr. 
Cosway's Breakfast Room. The last-named was in al- 
most pure stipple, but usually, in landscapes and figure 
pieces, the line entered more or less to re-enforce the dots, 
— although Tiebout did without such aid in his wooden 
The Cascade, Luzerne Co., Pa. In portraiture, stipple 
undefiled was nearly always used for faces and back- 
grounds, and sometimes even for the whole plate, as 
one may see in some by Longacre, Welch (Franklin), 
W. A. Wilmer, or Prud'homme (Henry Lee) in the 
Longacre-Herring " Portrait Gallery." And even the 
use of the line, particularly for the clothes, in the hands 
of certain men lost some of the insistence which others 
gave it. 

This did not remain so, however. The softer effect 
of dots — etched, dry-pointed or flicked with the graver 
— in engraving the faces of portraits, appreciated quite 
early in the history of engraving, was utilized in our 


country, too. John Norman had begun to apply a mix- 
ture of graver-work and stipple in his portraits of Revo- 
lutionary heroes. So, with Revere (in the rare portrait 
of Jonathan Mayhew), Poupard and others, he fore- 
shadowed the " mixed manner " which in the middle of 
the nineteenth century degenerated into the production 
of a characterless, machine-made sauce, in which certain 
engravers served all their portraits in the same spice-less 
manner. One may study this as early as 1853-54 in John 
Livingston's " Portraits of Eminent Americans " with 
plates by various engravers. There is one by Frederick 
Halpin, for instance, with the face in stipple, the hair 
in line, the coat rouletted and the background ruled. Yet 
Halpin could do portraits as good as that of J. F. Kensett 
after George H. Baker; he had not only a distinctive 
manner but a manner of a certain distinction. 

Meanwhile, the art of line-engraving had likewise 
been developed. There was still some of the occasional 
work — cards, certificates and what not — at which we 
found the eighteenth century engravers busy. William 
Main, a pupil of Morghen (whose Last Supper after Da 
Vinci inspired Kearny, J. B. Neagle, Pease and Burt each 
to attempt the same subject), said in a letter to Dunlap 
that most of his early engraving was of " visiting cards, 
door plates and dog collars." One may come across such 
pieces as an advertising view of a hotel in Augusta (1822) 
by Neagle after Shaw, or a card for Clark & Raymond's 
" fashionable hat store," New York, after J. R. Smith 
by P. Maverick, who applied cupids to commercial needs 
in his cards for A. Maverick and for Boureau & Co.'s 


jewelry and hardware store. Thackara, Hamlin and 
others found similar employment. Here, too, may be 
noted P. Maverick's card for Columbia College Com- 
mencement, 1822. Maverick's own announcement, by 
the way, issued from 149 Broadway, includes engraving, 
copper-plate printing, lithography; and bank-notes en- 
graved on copper or steel, with all the variety of die work 
and machine facilities now in use. 

Book-illustration in line increased. Various editions 
of the Bible were brought out, — Collins's Quarto, and 
Brown's, and the Carey Bibles, during 1790-18 15 — with 
plates by Doolittle, Anderson, Rollinson, P. R. Maverick, 
Tisdale, Tanner and Tiebout, representing about the 
worst of which those engravers were capable. Very 
much better in their way and for their purpose were the 
numerous illustrations in science, natural history and use- 
ful arts, pictures of instruments, mechanical contrivances 
and what not, which appeared in those important and 
voluminous undertakings, the American edition of Rees' 
Encyclopaedia (Philadelphia: Dobson, 1794- 1803) and 
the Philadelphia edition (1806-13) of the Edinburgh En- 

There was, of course, no particular opportunity In these 
encyclopedias for any display of artistic qualities. But 
no doubt it meant, not only bread and butter, but good 
practice for the engravers engaged in the work. And 
these latter included practically all the American line- 
engravers of any note in those days : Fairman, Akin, Scot, 
Allardice, Exilious, Edwin, C. G. Childs, S. Seymour, 
J. H. Seymour, Gobrecht, A. Lawson, D. Haines, R. 


Campbell, Tiebout, Tanner, Thackara, Longacre, Kearny, 
Kneass, Vallance, Anderson and even William Charles 
(who did two plates in soft-ground etching). 

More latitude would naturally be offered in illustrations 
for works of belles-lettres, and these, too, increased and 
improved; the improvement relative, of course. One 
does not find a Moreau here, nor even a Chodowiecki. 
When designer and engraver were both of native origin 
in the earlier days, one might look for results such as 
those in a scene from " The Contrast," by P. Maverick, 
W . Dunlap inv. et del., fearful to behold, in design and 
execution. Compared with that, E. Tisdale's designs for 
the poetical works of John Trumbull (Hartford, 1820), 
engraved by W. H. Bassett and Tisdale himself, though 
not remarkable productions, show at least more ease. 
And designers and engravers improved in time. In the 
early decades of the century, line-plates in books were 
engraved, frequently after English originals for American 
reprints, by Joseph H. Seymour (Hayley's " Triumph of 
Temper"), Scot and Allardice (Campbell's edition of 
Hume's History of England), Rollinson (a quite grace- 
ful title-page for a Horace of 1830), Gideon Fairman 
(vignettes for title-pages; he designed also for other en- 
gravers), C. G. Childs (plates after Inman for "The 
Spy," Philadelphia, 1822-24; after Stothard for " Heart 
of Midlothian"), J. B. Neagle after W. M. Craig and 
English designers, and Tanner after Corbould. P. 
Maverick did illustrations after Thurston, Stothard, Cor- 
bould, Burney and Westall, for " Lalla Rookh," " Senti- 
mental Journey," " Tristram Shandy," and Hayley's 


"Triumphs of Temper," New York, 1809. In the last, 
the little engravings are scattered through the text, an 
unusual matter. Alexander Lawson engraved illustra- 
tions after J. J. Barralet, and did plates for Alexander 
Wilson's work of ornithology. A paper on Lawson by 
Townsend Ward was read before the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society in 1878, and it appears that "a consider- 
able collection " of his engravings is in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

The frequent occurrence of the names of English de- 
signersv in this list indicates, of course, that the engrav- 
ings were copied from the English originals in the books 
for the American reprints of which they were prepared. 
Tiebout similarly did, in stipple, illustrations to Cowper 
and other authors after such English artists as Smirke. 

Then, in the late twenties and in the thirties, there 
were the neatly engraved little views of New York City 
(published by Bourne, 183 1 ) after C. Burton, by Fenner 
& Sears, W. D. Smith, Gimber, Hatch & Smillie and 
H. Fossette (who also engraved after his own designs) ; 
after A. I. Stansbury by Rawdon, Clark & Co. (1828) 
or Danforth; after J. H. Dakin by Barnard & Dick. 
Later came such publications as Hinton's " History and 
Topography of the United States " (Boston, 1834) with 
illustrations, generally drawn by American artists, and 
most of them engraved by John Archer. 

In the early days of the century, there naturally fell 
to the engraver also the illustration of important current 
events. In our age of the camera, daily happenings are 
chronicled pictorially with an easy copiousness that gives 


a momentary importance to innumerable persons, things 
or occurrences with which the old-time engravers could 
not have occupied their burins. They recorded such 
matters of moment as particularly interested, or deeply 
stirred, their contemporaries. For instance, the landing 
of Lafayette, pictured by Samuel Maverick (1824, pub- 
lished by Imbert), or the launch of the steam frigate 
Fulton, by Tanner (18 15) after a drawing by Barralet. 
The War of 1812 naturally called forth graven records 
of victories on land and sea. Tanner seems to have been 
particularly busy in depicting naval actions. He glorified 
Perry's victory on Lake Erie, 18 13, /. /. Barralet delt. 
(1815), and Macdonough's on Lake Champlain, 18 14, 
H. Reinagle pinxt ( 18 16), and pictured TJnited States and 
Macedonia, T. Birch pinxt (1813). Two views of the 
Battle of Lake Erie, by Su^ly and Kearny, were engraved 
by Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co., and Thomas 
Birch's painting of Perry's victory was reproduced by 
A. Lawson. 

The growing country was to be pictured, too, both in 
its urban aspects and in its natural beauties and wonders. 
Previously, in the last dozen years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the production of views had already begun to in- 
crease. S. Hill, for instance, drew and engraved a view 
of Cambridge for the " Massachusetts Magazine " and 
one of the seat of John Hancock for the same publication 
(1789). Similarly, in the "New York Magazine," we 
find views by Tiebout : Trinity Church, after I. Anderson 
(1790), Columbia College after I. Anderson and Rich- 
mond Hill (1790). The Mavericks and Birch were 


also working before 1800, and after that date the younger 
Maverick did some creditable little views after W. G. 
Wall (New York City, from New Jersey existing in at 
least three states), Alexander Robertson and Inman. 
Like Birch, Cephas G. Childs published a set of views 
of Philadelphia (1827-30), most of them engraved by 
himself, and John Exilious had engraved from his own 
drawing a large view of the Pennsylvania Hospital. 
Just a few instances these, representing a respectable 
amount of production. 

The Philadelphia " Port Folio," edited by " Oliver 
Oldschool," occasionally published line-engraved views, 
and in running through the volumes of that old periodical 
one may stop to note with amusement that when the 
picture of the Catskills, with a steamboat in the foreground 
(by Hewitt after J. Glennie), was changed by taking the 
sail off the boat, the engraver, in the hurry of a " rush 
order," or perhaps solely through carelessness, omitted to 
remove the reflection of the sail in the water. 

In the twenties Hill and Bennett were doing their large 
aquatint views, and in the forties and fifties came the 
large views such as the ones of New York City from 
the Latting Observatory (1855) by W. Wellstood after 
B. E. Smith. 

If such views met the demands of an interest in locality, 
we find also engravings which mirror the growing atten- 
tion paid by American painters to landscape. This is 
felt in such an early production as The American Land- 
scape, engraved by A. B. Durand, which did not live be- 
yond the six plates of No. 1 (1830). It appears notably 


in the large plates after Thomas Cole's series of paintings, 
The Voyage of Life, by James Smillie, our most able 
landscape engraver. This growing appreciation of the 
landscape per se is reflected also in smaller plates by 
Hinshelwood and others after Huntington, J. W. Casilear 
(himself, like the painters Durand, Kensett, Nathaniel 
Jocelyn, J. A. Oertel and Shirlaw, originally an engraver), 
James M. and W. Hart, Jervis McEntee, W. L. Sonntag, 
D. Johnson, S. R. Gilford, A. D. Shattuck and A. Bier- 
stadt. The want of any geographical label in Doughty's 
Mountain Stream (reproduced in a mechanical but fairly 
delicate little plate by J. B. Neagle) is not quite typical 
of all this, however. The topographical feeling was 
naturally still strong in much of this work, the exact 
reproduction of the definite locality. It is very easy to 
have a fling at the " Hudson River School." The time 
was not ripe then for the painting of the landscape for 
the sake of the mood it inspires. (Easily enough may 
that mood to-day become the mannered duplicate or tripli- 
cate or quadruplicate of a condition of the soul experi- 
enced long since.) Yet one gets the impression from 
these paintings, and from the well-executed plates which 
perpetuate them, that in many cases the painters honestly 
loved their subjects. Durand painted his tree-trunks, for 
instance, with understanding and sympathy. And it wsv 
not only the large and pretentiously impressive scenes a la 
Church or Cole that were painted. The same Durand 
who depicted the "White Mountain Scenery: Franconia 
Notch," panoramic in its comprehensiveness, did also the 
cool, restful wood interior, of intimate charm, which for 


years hung opposite to it in the old Lenox Library Build- 
ing in New York City. These painters found beauty in 
their home land, and told their compatriots of it, and 
the message was spread farther by the engravers who 
reproduced their works. 

Some of the latest products of this spirit are found in 
the clear-cut, if not remarkable, plates in " The National 
Gallery of American Landscape " (New York: W. Pate & 
Co.) by J. D. Smillie, Pease, H. S. Beckwith, Wellstood, 
Hinshelwood and others, the last two mentioned, together 
with S. V. Hunt and others, being engaged also in some- 
what thinner work for " Picturesque America " (New 
York, 1874) after Bierstadt, Church, Bellows and 

But the last was a chronological divagation, and re- 
turning to mid-century there are found freshness and 
immediateness of view also in the figure paintings of the 
time, by W. S. Mount, F. W. Edmonds, R. Caton Wood- 
ville, W. Ranney et al. These were done with a healthy 
interest in the daily life and home doings of the small 
man of the street and the country in the East, the flatboat- 
man of the Ohio, the pioneers and trappers of the West. 
The line-engravings in which these works were repro- 
duced served a distinct and educational purpose in bring- 
ing before a larger public a knowledge of paintings, of 
the progress of American art, and of the spirit that 
actuated it. 

The beauties of our land, — both in its wilder aspects 
and in the calmer beauty of rural scenery in the more 
closely inhabited East; — scenes in our national history; 


the life of the Indian and the trapper; the farmer at 
work and at play, driving a horse trade, whittling a stick, 
or listening to " Old Dan Tucker " or some other popu- 
lar air of the day scraped by a fiddler of local reputation, 
such aspects of our life and surroundings were brought 
before our public both in smaller engravings and in the 
large framing prints so popular then. There were repro- 
duced, in small and large plates, such paintings as W. S. 
Mount's Szvapping Horses (engraved by Joseph Andrews, 
1839), The Raffle, The Painter's Study (engraved by 
A. Lawson), Long Island Farmer (engraved by Hinshel- 
wood) , The Tough Story, The Rabbit Trap and The dis- 
agreeable Surprise (the last three engraved by J. I. 
Pease) ; H. Inman's Mumble the Peg; J. G. Clonney's 
Militia Training (engraved by J. I. Pease) ; J. L. Krim- 
mel's Election Day in Philadelphia, by Lawson; and W. 
Ranney's The Trapper's last Shot (engraved by T. D. 
Booth, of Cincinnati) . The very titles indicate the assid- 
uous cultivation of an American genre, in place of the 
sweetly sentimental variety once fostered in engravings 
such as those by E. Gallaudet. These painters did, ac- 
cording to their light, practise the principle preached in 
" Faust," " Grasp the exhaustless life that all men live." 
And when arguments against the " anecdotal genre " are 
exhausted, the question remains : was not this home prod- 
uct preferable to the weak sentimentality — " once re- 
moved," or twice, or thrice, from original sources — of 
certain souls expatriated in fact or in mood, whose foreign 
scenery or Italian shepherd boys are weak reconstructions 
on old recipes? 


Good work was done in the large framing prints. Al- 
fred Jones engraved Farmer's Nooning ("Apollo Asso- 
ciation," 1843) after W. S. Mount, Sparking (1844) an d 
The New Scholar (1850), both after F. W. Edmonds, 
and Mexican News (1851) after R. C. Woodville. 
Woodville's Old '76 and young '48 was put into black- 
and-white by J. I. Pease. Ranney's Duck Shooting, R. C. 
Woodville's Card Players (1850) and Mount's Bargain- 
ing for a Horse ( 1 85 1 ) were reproduced by Charles 
Burt, a catalogue of whose work, by Alice Burt, was 
printed in New York in 1893. All of these were issued 
as premiums by the American Art Union, which flourished 
particularly in the forties and fifties and had its " Bulle- 
tin " in which were published reduced copies of these en- 
gravings as incentives to subscription. Similar associa- 
tions were the Art Union of Philadelphia and the Western 
Art Union. It is recorded also that the Western Metho- 
dist Book Concern, " by its publication of good engrav- 
ings, exercised a decided influence on public taste in that 
section of the country." This Western firm employed 
William Wellstood, who also reproduced American paint- 

Mount's work, as is seen, was much reproduced; even 
Leon Noel, the French lithographer, did on stone his 
Power of Music ( 1 848 ) and Music is Contagious ( 1 849) . 

Inevitably, weak and colorless paintings were also en- 
graved, illustrating no national spirit or characteristics, 
examples of fatuous story-telling art. 

In plates of the character of those which have been 
mentioned, what there was of dignity or raciness or hu- 


mor in the appeal of American painters on the ground of 
such national beauty or interest as it was given to them 
to see, was transmitted to wider circles than the paintings 
alone would have reached. To us, to-day, these plates 
are not only reproductions of the works of painters of a 
bygone day, but decidedly interesting records of the cos- 
tume and customs, the mental and moral viewpoint of 
our people at that time. 

Furthermore, striking scenes in our history were 
seized by painters and re-told by the graver: Plymouth 
Rock (1869) by Joseph Andrews and Patrick Henry 
delivering his celebrated Speech in the House of Burgesses, 
Virginia, 1765 by Alfred Jones (1852), both after P. F. 
Rothermel; Capture of Andre after Durand, figures en- 
graved by Jones, landscape by Smillie and Hinshelwood 
(1845); Marion crossing the Pedee after W. Ranney 
(1851), by Burt; Washington at Valley Forge by E. S. 
Best, and Franklin before the Lords in Council by Robert 
Whitechurch, both after Schussele. Lady Washington's 
Reception Day after Huntington and On the March to 
the Sea after Darley (of which latter an interesting 
" touched " copy from Barley's collection can be seen in 
the New York print room) were both engraved by A. H. 
Ritchie (who sometimes worked also after his own de- 
sign, as in the Death of Lincoln). These examples are 
not by any means all cited as particularly remarkable en- 
gravings, but rather as indications of the taste of the 
time and the tasks it set our engravers. 

Of course, the artists of those days did not limit their 
activities to American subjects. The historical genre was 


cultivated. Leutze painted The Image Breakers, en- 
graved by Jones (1850; won high praise) , and Sir Walter' 
Raleigh parting with his Wife by Burt (1846). Among 
the paintings of J. W. Glass is the Standard Bearer, and 
among those of Daniel Huntington The Signing of the 
Death Warrant of Lady Jane Grey by Burt (1848). 
Shakespeare inspired effort {Anne Page, Slender and 
Shallow by Burt, 1850, after Leslie). The gorgeous- 
ness of tropical scenery was depicted by F. E. Church. 
The Bible story was told and the moral lesson incul- 
cated (D. Huntington), the pictorial allegory was rep- 
resented by Thomas Cole's two series, Voyage of Life 
engraved by Smillie, and " Course of Empire." And in 
the realm of the ideal there is to be recorded, primarily, 
the noble translation of John Vanderlyn's Ariadne, done 
in 1835 by A. B. Durand, who was particularly successful 
in his rendering of flesh. Koehler described this Ariadne 
as " the largest plate of such high, artistic achievement 
that ever appeared in America, of a purity and grace of 
graver-work in the figure of Ariadne — the landscape is 
mainly in etching — that need fear no comparison. This 
was Durand's last plate; he laid down the graver to take 
up the brush. The results of fifteen years' work as an 
engraver — his first important production having been the 
Declaration of Independence (1820) after Trumbull — 
are listed in the " Catalogue " issued by the Grolier 
Club in 1895. His "Life" (1894) was written by his 
son John. 

Our engravers, by the way, cut some figure in the art 
world in the first half of the last century, if we may 



judge from the records of the National Academy of De- 
sign. A number of them were members, and some 
founders, of that body: P. Maverick, M. J. Danforth, 
Durand, W. J. Bennett, W. Main, C. C. Wright, J. A. 
Adams, J. W. Paradise, Prud'homme, S. W. Cheney, Al- 
fred Jones, James Smillie, A. H. Ritchie, dates of election 
running from 1826 to 1871. 

Meanwhile, during all these years, the demand and 
supply for and of portraits increased enormously, and 
the field was soon left mainly to line-engraving. The 
use of stipple waned and appeared at most in the machine- 
made effect of the " mixed manner " in the sixties and 
seventies, in which etching, graver-work, machine-ruling, 
stipple, rouletting, mezzotint and what not were pressed 
into service to get quick and smooth results. 

Delaplaine's "Repository" (18 15), beside its stipple 
portraits, had had others in line by G. Fairman, Maverick 
and Neagle. Longacre and Herring's " Portrait Gal- 
lery " was also varied by the inclusion of line portraits, 
particularly by A. B. Durand, a master in portraiture, 
hut also by R. W. Dodson (his Simon Kenton to be noted) 
and T. Kelly, both with a skilful use of line, and J. W. 
Paradise, among others. The younger Maverick, Peter, 
is well known by name, but not a little of his portrait 
work is indifferent, without color or life. However, he 
could do as good a job as his Cervantes in line, or his com- 
paratively rich little stipple portrait of Oliver Ellsworth 
after Trumbull. Kelly did much " shopwork," but could 
rise to the delicacy of his /. R. Drake after Rodgers 
(1820) and the force of his N. Chapman, M. D., after 


Neagle. W. Hoogland was perhaps at his best in his 
W. E. Channing. R. W. Dodson did indeed produce for 
" Graham's Magazine " a group of female contributors 
which merited the sarcasm of Frances Sargent Osgood's 
"Lines to Mr. Dodson," reprinted in Brooklyn in 1885 
by the " Elzevir Press " (P. L. Ford!). But he has a 
number of good and quite rich plates to his credit, Richard 
Dale, Gen. Jonathan Williams and Alex. V . Griswold. 
Like Kelly he used long sweeping curves of line as we 
see them in Durand's plates. M. J. Danforth is an 
example of a trifle more conventional craftsmanship and 
less art, although before his Irving after Leslie (the 
portrait with the fur collar, so often engraved) one al- 
most forgets that. J. W. Steel similarly emulated the 
fluency of lines of a Durand. In his Commodore James 
Barron, the linear curves accent the rotund and genial 
robustness of the subject; the delicate John Vanghan 
after Sully is one of his best. Joseph Andrews was best 
known by his portraits, — S. R. Koehler spoke of the 
" tenderness " of the one of Amos Lawrence after Hard- 
ing; his fur-collar Franklin, after Duplessis, which he 
engraved in France, is familiar, and /. Q. Adams, after 
Healy, is a good example. Koehler read the biographical 
memoir at the memorial meeting held by the Boston Art 
Club in honor of Andrews in 1873 ("Report of Pro- 
ceedings," Boston, 1873). Charles Burt, too, executed 
a number of portraits, those of Washington, A. B. 
Durand and Carlyle having been pronounced " admirable 
examples of a combination of line work with etching." 
A striking characteristic of the nineteenth century work 


is the attainment of a comparatively high general level of 
technical proficiency, of mechanical dexterity, rising in 
various cases to a remarkable command of the medium. 
It is perhaps not entirely without interest that a num- 
ber of our engravers, including some of the most noted, 
were either self-educated, like James Smillie, or at least 
began their careers without instruction or tools, even if 
they were regularly apprenticed afterward. William 
Rollinson, a " chaser of fancy buttons," did a small 
stipple portrait of Washington in 1791 without previous 
knowledge. Joseph Ives Pease made his first attempts 
with an old awl on a bit of thermometer brass, the print- 
ing being done on a roll press invented by himself. Al- 
exander Anderson, who engraved first in copper, and did 
a good if conventional St. John after Domenichino, and 
a quite delicate portrait of John Carroll of Baltimore 
in line and stipple, learned the process, as a boy, from 
an encyclopedia. He had a silversmith roll out some 
copper pennies, and experimented with a " graver made 
of the back-spring of a pocket-knife," printing on a rude 
rolling press which he constructed; later, he got a black- 
smith to make him some tools. A. B. Durand's first 
efforts were made with tools of his own manufacture, on 
plates hammered out from copper coins. Gideon Fair- 
man also began with tools of his own construction. John 
Cheney attempted engraving " without other instruction 
than that offered by books and the examination of such 
prints as came under his notice," making his own tools 
and hammering plates from the pieces of an old copper 


A potent factor in the technical development of our 
line-engravers on copper, in those days, appears in the 
demand for bank-note work. From Revolutionary times 
on, this response to economic needs enlisted the services 
of our engravers. Increased production brought sys- 
tematization of work, labor saving devices and contriv- 
ances intended to make counterfeiting more difficult. The 
traditional inventive genius of the American came into 
play, personified in Wm. Rollinson, John James Bar- 
ralet, Jacob Perkins, Henry Tanner, J. G. Wellstood 
(founded the Columbia Bank Note Co. in 1871), James 
Bogardus, Cyrus Durand (not an engraver), W. L. 
Ormsby (" Description of the present System of Bank 
Note Engraving . . . ; added, A new Method ... to 
prevent Forgery," New York, 1852). They fathered in- 
genious inventions or improvements, — lathes, ruling 
machines, transfer machines tending to make the work 
more mechanical. Jacob Perkins not only in 18 10 de- 
vised means for substituting steel plates for copper, thus 
prolonging the life of the plate, but introduced the use 
of die plates. By this new. method, instead of engrav- 
ing the whole note on one plate, various portions of the 
design were engraved on separate plates. From these 
they were transferred to a decarbonized steel cylinder 
by means of the transfer press. The cylinder, with the 
design thus appearing on it in relief, was then hardened 
again, and could be used any number of times for trans- 
ferring the design to plates to be used for various bank- 
notes. In 18 18, Perkins and others went to England to 
compete for a prize offered for a method of preventing 


counterfeiting. Subsequently, with Charles Heath, the 
firm of Perkins and Heath was formed to exploit the 
" Patent Hardened Steel Process." 

In those days of State paper money, bank-note estab- 
lishments arose in various parts of the country, and 
furnished employment to practically all our line-engravers 
during the first half of the nineteenth century. The direct 
connection of certain engravers with the management of 
such companies is indicated by firm names such as Durand 
& Co. ; Durand, Perkins & Co. ; Tanner, Vallance, 
Kearny & Co. ; Danforth, Perkins & Co. ; Murray, 
Draper, Fairman & Co.; Casilear, Durand, Burton and 
Edmunds; Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Smillie, and many 
more. Absorption of firms resulted in 1858 in the for- 
mation of the American Bank Note Co., and there were 
later ones, such as the Homer-Lee Bank-Note Co. Rob- 
ert Noxon Toppan, in his " A hundred Years of Bank 
Note Engraving in the United States" (New York, 
1790), records these facts and more. The interested 
student of dates will find the years when these various 
firms were founded set down in a pamphlet (1897) by 
Joseph Willcox on "The Willcox Paper Mill, 1729- 
1866." A complete record is in preparation for the 
American Bank Note Co. 

" By the middle of the century," says Stauffer, " Amer- 
ican bank-note engraving had become deservedly famous 
throughout the world; much work was done for foreign 
governments, and in this class of work our engravers 
are still pre-eminent." While the exigencies of this work 
helped to develop craftsmanship, its influence on the whole 


promoted smooth dexterity and finesse rather than rich- 
ness or delicacy. The Declaration of Independence, with a 
pictorial border, engraved in 1840, in a space of Y<\ x i l / 2 
inches, issued by the American Bank Note Co., is typical, 
in a measure. The use of mechanical devices such as 
the ruling machine (to which, the late J. D. Smillie 
once told me, he attached a clock-work to rule certain 
portions of the plate during the night, while he slept) , 
would not have a tendency to promote fredoom of hand- 
ling, especially on the part of less vigorous and capable 
artistic personalities. 

But on the other hand one must recognize the fact 
that the public was at least served with good drawing 
and clean engraving in the vignettes on its bank-notes. 
Among the designers of these there were capable artists. 
Durand, for instance, ninety of whose original drawings 
for such vignettes were presented to the New York Public 
Library by his son John. Or William Croome. And 
that interesting figure among our illustrators, F. O. C. 
Darley, among whose bank-note drawings were a num- 
ber for the Japanese government. Likewise Walter Shir- 
law, whose decorative breadth was used to good effect. 
Moreover, these vignettes were engraved with a certain 
richness of line, expressed not only with delicate incisive- 
ness, but also with boldness and a certain bigness,— as in 
the work of Alfred Jones. This free handling of the 
tool was often in refreshing contrast to the lathework 
or other machine-made production of the rest of the bill. 
And if the deadening effect of bank-note engraving is 
deplored, it must also be remembered that it gave em- 


ployment to the best of our engravers. Durand and 
Smillie and Jones have been noted. And there was 
Smillie's son, James D., and J. W. Casilear, whose 
Sibyl after Huntington was quite Durand-like in its beauty 
of line. And William Edgar Marshall, whose large 
portraits of Washington, Lincoln (at whose features 
probably every later nineteenth century engraver of any 
note had his try), Grant, Longfellow, Cooper, usually 
from his own paintings, were famous in their time. Burt, 
too, and Hinshelwood and others. 

Worthy of special note also is Stephen A. Schoff, 
A.N.A., who could engrave in the regulation, formal 
style, as he showed in Maruts on the Ruins of Carthage 
(Apollo Association, 1842) after Vanderlyn. That, ac- 
cording to Stauffer, he considered his best plate. But 
in a moonlight marine after M. F. H. De Haas, a portrait 
of Emerson after S. W. Rowse, and particularly in Bath- 
ing Boys after W. M. Hunt, he varies the line with a 
freedom and spirit akin to that of the " new school " of 
wood-engravers in this country. In the plate after Hunt, 
especially, the craftsman's delight in clean-cut sweeping 
curves, or in the masterly employment of recognized 
conventions to express various textures, did not find ex- 
pression. The line was broken and twisted to translate 
tones and color-values and even brush-marks. Yet the 
hand that produced this plate, almost a tour de force, 
could also rival the Turner engravers of Rogers' Italy in 
the delicate minuteness of Bay of New York after George 
Loring Brown, engraved for the " Ladies' Repository." 

Line-engraving had its day as a medium for book- 


illustration. But the results arouse rather mixed feelings. 
Such plates as had appeared in eighteenth century maga- 
zines, poor as they were, had at least a certain rough 
energy, and for us they have the antiquarian interest and 
the glamor of sentiment which age adds to such produc- 
tions. And some of the earlier nineteenth century plates 
by the younger Maverick and others, or those after 
Burton, have been noted earlier in this chapter. 

Magazine illustrations had shared in the general im- 
provement. The " New York Mirror," in the thirties and 
forties, published a number of creditable views in the 
metropolis and elsewhere, from drawings by A. J. Davis, 
R. W. Weir and others, of interest also to the student 
of life in those days. A little later, " Ladies' Com- 
panion," "Ladies' Repository" (Cincinnati), "Colum- 
bian Magazine," " Graham's Magazine," " Evergreen," 
" Ladies' National Magazine " are among the names met 
with on engravings. But the illustrations vary in merit. 
There is little that is worse, in the forties and fifties of 
this century than the plates in certain magazines of the 
" Graham's " and " Godey's Lady's Book " type. One 
may instance, in " Godey's," title designs by W. E. 
Tucker, and illustrations engraved by the Illmans and 
others, weak and inane. Surely W. S. Baker, in his pio- 
neer undertaking, " American Engravers and their 
Works " (1875), strained amiable tolerance when he as- 
serted that Tucker's " plates are well engraved, and in 
fine taste, particularly the border and flower work fur- 
nished for magazines." From such disheartening work, 
even the insipid, becurled beauties of the annuals, the 


" keepsakes " and " gift books " stand out favorably by 
very contrast. There is a fascination about these old 
favorites, " elegant ornaments of the drawing-room 
table " (as one advertisement puts it), in their bindings 
with blind and gilt tooling of a style quite their own. 
You almost forget the artistic shortcomings of many of 
their illustrations as you handle them. They are so evi- 
dently characteristic of the period, a period that offered 
such incongruities as these sentimental offerings and an 
uncouth vigor which, despite all caricaturing, surely must 
have been, if ever so vaguely, mirrored by Mrs. Trollope 
and Dickens. It was characteristic of this period that a 
young German lady, coming over here in the fifties, had to 
accustom herself to the, to her amusing, spectacle of a 
gentleman in a high pot hat, wearing a flowered vest, in 
shirt-sleeves, soberly sweeping the sidewalk before his 
doorstep or going marketing with a basket hanging from 
his arm. And as for that, you may see the late Gen. 
Thomas F. DeVoe, in exactly the same garb, with smartly 
trimmed side whiskers, deftly cutting off a prime rib for 
a customer at his stand in Washington Market, — so pic- 
tured in a steel engraving by R. Hinshelwood, colored, 
which forms the frontispiece to his " Market Assistant " 

During about 1830-60 "Affection's Gift," "Ama- 
ranth," " Baltimore Book," " Atlantic Souvenir," " The 
Gift," "The Hyacinth," "Lady's Album," "Moss 
Rose," " Rose of Sharon," " Opal," " Pearl," " Token," 
" Lady's Cabinet Album," and numerous other annuals 
published, beside much poor stuff, some most pleasing 


examples of pure line work. These came from the 
gravers of Durand, Cheney, Andrews, Smillie, or such 
lesser lights as Danforth, Prud'homme, Balch, J. B. 
Neagle, Edward Gallaudet, G. B. Ellis, after paintings 
or drawings by Allston, Cole, Leslie, Doughty, G. L. 
Brown, Chapman, — all Americans. Repeatedly does 
Stauffer note that some given engraver's best work is to 
be found in these annuals. There were many inanely 
simpering, doll-like damsels in these publications, but 
from among them John Cheney's female heads (and male 
portraits, too, for the matter of that) speak to us of a 
refined taste. Dignity there is in his work, restraint, gen- 
tility, some conventionality, but also delicacy, and in 
Guardian Angels, after Reynolds, for instance, even a cer- 
tain richness. " The best engraver of the female head 
in America," Baker called him. Ednah D. Cheney issued 
a " Life " of him in 1889, and one of his brother Seth 
Wells in 188 1. S. R. Koehler brought out a " Catalogue 
of the engraved and lithographic Work " of the brothers 
in 1 89 1, and the Boston Museum held an exhibition of 
their work two years later. 

The vogue of the gift book extended to descriptions 
of locality, such as W. C. Richards' " Georgia illustrated 
in a Series of Views engraved on Steel by Rawdon, 
Wright, Hatch & Smillie, from Sketches made expressly 
for this work by T. A. Richards " (1842). It produced 
even a quarto apiece, in 1847, devoted to Mount Auburn 
and Greenwood cemeteries, respectively. Yet these two 
last-named include good landscapes, all drawn by James 
Smillie and in part engraved by him, " in highly finished 


line engraving." They, like all of Smillie's work, are 
of a certain distinction; he stood at the head of the pro- 
fession in the specialty of landscape. "After 1861," 
wrote his son James D. to me in 1888, " he gave all his 
time to engraving bank-note vignettes, excepting 1864, 
when he engraved his magnum opus ' The Rocky Moun- 
tains ' after A. Bierstadt." 

Less distinguished, often very much less, are the numer- 
ous plates published in books of travel in the forties. 
These plates are often found separated from the volumes 
to which they belong, to swell the collections of those 
interested in views of special localities, or to grace the 
productions of the extra-illustrator. The name of Wil- 
liam Henry Bartlett, the English illustrator, is a familiar 
one in this field. His drawings, reproduced in plates by 
English engravers, were copied by Americans, in some 
cases more than once. 

Interesting, as home productions, are the illustrations 
of T. H. Matteson (the painter of The First Prayer in 
Congress, engraved by H. S. Sadd) engraved by Milo 
Osborne and others. James Hamilton, the Philadelphia 
marine painter, also did some book designs. Matteson 
had a certain facility which to a greater degree character- 
ized Darley. The latter's vignette illustrations for 
Cooper and Dickens were cleanly and understandingly 
reproduced by J. D. Smillie, Hinshelwood, Hollyer, A. V. 
Baulch, Schorl, C. Rost and others. They remain the 
most pleasing and satisfactory examples of the employ- 
ment of steel-engraving for book-illustration. 

About i860 there set in the beginning of the period 


of rank commercialism. Craftsmen such as Henry 
Bryan Hall, J. C. Buttre, H. Wright Smith, nimble 
manipulators of the tools of their art, and others less 
skilful, fairly flooded the land with portraits of the great 
and the less great, demand for likenesses of Civil War 
heroes increasing the number. Line plates such as those 
in Duyckinck's " National Portrait Gallery of Eminent 
Americans " (1862), executed after full-length paintings 
by Alonzo Chappel, make the stipple work in the Herring 
and Longacre " Portrait Gallery " appear even richer 
by contrast. At best, there is nothing in the general run 
of this work of 1860-80 beyond a superficial technical 
facility. In the. case of Hall, extensive use of etching 
gave an appearance of freedom to his numerous portraits 
of men prominent in the American Revolution, most of 
them based on originals by Trumbull and others. A 
number of these were private plates, a selection of which, 
collected into a volume by Dr. T. A. Emmet, show the 
plates in various states. There are several of Washing- 
ton, for example, in trial proofs not listed in C. H. Hart's 
monumental catalogue (Nos. 120, 268, 704). The vol- 
ume is in the New York Public Library, where are also 
a number of impressions of other plates by Hall, cor- 
rected in wash, so-called " touched " proofs. 

But there were others who had not the facility of these 
men, others whose work, thin, colorless, anemic, and in 
its poorest form of an absolutely machine-made character, 
graces a certain type of town or county history or col- 
lective biography, a cheap decoy for the local magnate 
of plethoric pocketbook or the wealthy relative to launch 


the genealogy. As a study of the wide difference even 
in mere craftsmanship, the proficiency in handling the 
graver and controlling the sweeps of its strokes, one has 
but to compare the best work of this period with the 
ordinary run of portraits by Durand or with the bold 
curves of the head of Cadwalader D. Colden, after 
Waldo and Jewett, by Peter Maverick and Durand & Co. 

Commercialism is indicated in a measure also by the 
publishing activity of certain engravers, — J. C. Buttre 
(catalogue of the J. C. Buttre Co., issued as late as 1894) 
and others. Still, conditions probably made such dual ac- 
tivity necessary in earlier days; at all events, Hurd, James 
Claypoole, Jr., Joseph Cone, W. Rollinson not only en- 
graved prints but sold them. 

Line-engravings by Americans — after paintings by 
Americans — figured in the lists of dealers (Klackner, 
Knoedler et al.) certainly as late as 1888 : Hinshelwood, 
J. A. J. Wilcox, H. E. Beckwith, F. Girsch and C. 
Schlecht being among the engravers so employed. 

Line-engraving is anything but a dead art to-day. We 
handle its products daily in our paper money and the 
postage stamp; it may be seen in the internal revenue 
stamp and the government bond. Bank-note work, all 
of this, and still the most usual outlet for work in this 
field. Outside of that, line-engraving appears on state 
occasions — say in the form of a vignette on a menu of a 
dinner to some notability usually signed by the firm name 
of an engraving company or a silverware house or fash- 
ionable stationer. The result in such cases is not hard 
to imagine. Commercial production, clean, smooth, thin 


work, of an inconspicuous mediocrity. Occasionally there 
is an opportunity for the engraver of artistic ambition, 
as exemplified, for instance, in the diploma of the Chicago 
World's Fair of 1893, by Charles Schlecht from a design 
by Will H. Low. 

A use to which line-engraving is still put in our day, 
and with signal success, is the reproduction of designs 
for book-plates. The ex libris of the early nineteenth 
century, by Maverick, Anderson et al., and the still earlier 
ones by the eighteenth century men, have been referred 
to. Later came the revived use of the art of copper en- 
graving for this purpose, by E. D. French, J. Winfred 
Spenceley, S. L. Smith, W. F. Hopson and others, dealt 
with more in detail in the chapter on book-plates. These 
men have also been employed occasionally, as were their 
predecessors in the eighteenth century and the early nine- 
teenth, to execute elaborate cards of invitation, diplomas, 
certificates and the like, such as those done for the 
Metropolitan Museum or the New York Historical So- 
ciety. It is a satisfaction that we possess these examples 
of an artistic solution of problems usually left to pure 
commercialism to solve. S. L. Smith's re-engravings of 
plates by Revere and Doolittle have been referred to. 
He and the other book-plate artists here mentioned, as 
well as the former wood-engravers F. S. King and W. M. 
Aikman, were engaged by the Society of Iconophiles of 
New York and the Iconographic Society of Boston to 
copy old engravings or photographs of architectural land- 
marks in those cities, which task they accomplished 
in plates of the dignity and sonority peculiar to the line- 


engraving on copper. The Bibliophile Society of Boston 
has similarly engaged French, Hopson and the etcher 
W. H. H. Bicknell to engrave title-pages and illustrations 
for the books issued by it. And W. L. Andrews had en- 
gravings executed by French and Smith for several of his 
" limited edition " books. Smith designed and engraved, 
for that author's " Paul Revere," head and tail pieces in 
the style of the late eighteenth century French vignettists. 

Often, these modern line-engravers of book-plates work 
after their own designs. That brings us to a considera- 
tion of line-engraving as a painter art, as Karl Stauffer- 
Bern practised it in Europe, or Hubert Herkomer. With 
us there is even less to say about this than abroad. I 
can recall but two instances. J. Alden Weir once tried 
the graver in producing a nude figure, " Arcturus," which 
added an interesting document to the record of that mas- 
terful and sensitive experimenter. And a wood-engraver, 
Oscar Grosch, engraved several landscapes with the burin, 
from nature, before he turned to the more easily manipu- 
lated etching needle. It is, of course, the greater difficulty 
in handling the graver that keeps artists from adopting 
it as a means of original expression as they do the needle 
or the lithographic crayon. 

As a means of direct response to a need of repro- 
duction of famous works of art, line-engraving is doomed 
here, as elsewhere, even more than wood-engraving. In 
France, some years ago, a society was founded for the 
express purpose of keeping alive the old art. It issued one 
hundred plates by the best engravers of the land, which 
stand as an interesting proof of the possibilities of modern 


methods and point of view with an art adapted to the 
needs of other days. And that is all. Here, bank-note 
work is keeping the practice of the art alive in a restricted 
field and is training engravers. But the glory of the 
large plate as a translation of painted masterpieces has 
departed and the framing print, once the pride of the 
best room, has departed likewise. The plates produced 
by Woollett and Sharp in England; Morghen, Longhi, 
Toschi, in Italy; Muller, Mandel, in Germany and Aus- 
tria; Henriquel Dupont, in France; Smillie, Burt, Durand, 
Jones, in the United States, may be studied as examples 
of reproductive art in print rooms and private collections. 
The camera has taken their place in the work of intro- 
ducing the art masterpieces of the ages to a wider public 
through translations into black-and-white. 



During the period of the American Revolution and 
the succeeding years there was witnessed in England a 
remarkable development of the art of mezzotint. This 
method of engraving, while not entirely as supple, as 
varied in possibilities, as the etching or the lithograph, 
has qualities peculiarly its own: a rich depth of velvety 
soft black of a texture different from anything which even 
the stone can yield, a resounding gamut of mellow lights 
and soft transitions and unctuous, translucent shadows. 
It was peculiarly fitted for the reproduction of the air of 
distinction and stately grace that marked both the method 
and the subjects of the canvases in which the great por- 
trait painters of the day — Reynolds, Gainsborough, 
Hoppner, Romney — perpetuated the noble lords and 
ladies of their land and time. It is not necessary to 
insist on the fact that in the American colonies, and sub- 
sequently in the young republic, manner, inclination, time, 
money, talent and whatever other circumstances were nec- 
essary to bring about such a condition were all missing 
to a great extent. Still, as early as 1727, Peter Pelham, — 
" the first man," says Stauffer, " who produced a really 
meritorious portrait plate in this country," meaning, of 

course, not only in mezzotint, but in engraving of any 



kind, — painted and mezzotinted his portrait of Cotton 
Mather. Here, therefore, as in wood-engraving, the first 
recorded American product is a portrait of a Mather. 
This fact has given peculiar prominence to this plate, a 
very creditable performance, for the rest. But it is only 
one of fourteen which Pelham executed after he came 
to this country (the one of Benjamin Colman, 1735, is 
reproduced by Stauffer) and after he had placed twenty 
to his credit in England. W. H. Whitmore ("Notes 
concerning Pelham," 1867), D. R. Slade and S. A. Green 
have written of Pelham. Another Mather — Increase — 
was pictured in a small mezzotint, T. Johnson fecit; prob- 
ably Thomas Johnston, think Whitmore and Green, but 
Stauffer believes that this was the London engraver, 
Thomas Johnson. 

Though encouragement could not, in the nature of 
things, be extensive in those days, there were still other 
artists in the colonies who made at least some attempts 
with " rocker " and " scraper." William Burgis, the pub- 
lisher of maps and prints, did a coarsely executed view of 
the light-house at the entrance to Boston Harbor, the 
only plate signed by him seen by Stauffer. Pelham's step- 
son, John Singleton Copley, who apparently had instruc- 
tion from his stepfather in painting and engraving, has 
a small portrait of Rev. William Wellsteed of Boston 
(about 1753) to his credit. His painting of Nathaniel 
Hurd was scraped, in what Dunlap thought the first 
mezzotint done in America, probably by Richard Jennys, 
who was working here about the beginning of the Revo- 
lution. Another portrait by Jennys is that of Rev. Jon- 

Cotton Mather 
Mezzotint by Peter Pelham 


athan Mayhew (about 1774), " printed and sold by Nat. 
Hurd." At about the same time Samuel Okey, an Eng- 
lishman, was engraving and publishing mezzotints in New- 
port, R. I. His portraits included those of Rev. Thomas 
Hiscox (1773), reproduced by Stauffer; Rev. James 
Honyman (1774) and Samuel Adams after J. Mitchell 
(1775), which last was copied in our day by J. Percy 
Sabin. Okey's The Burgomaster, after Halls [sic!] is 
the earliest attempt in the colonies to reproduce in mezzo- 
tint a painting by an old master. Benjamin Blyth (born 
1740) was represented in the exhibition of early Amer- 
ican engravings at the Boston Museum in 1904 by an 
allegorical composition, showing a tree, supporting an 
escutcheon with thirteen stars, growing out of the south- 
ern coast (at Portsmouth) of a map of England. The 
title is Sacred to Liberty and the designer is Cole. And 
some prominent actors in the conflict thus symbolically 
pictured were portrayed by Charles Willson Peale. That 
universal genius, interested in many things, was attracted 
also by mezzotint and included it among the arts which 
he studied in London. His plates are described by 
Stauffer as "good but few and scarce"; they include 
portraits of Washington, Franklin and Lafayette, all 
from his own designs. Of his Washington portraits, the 
earliest (1778) is reproduced in Hart's catalogue of 
Washington portraits; the 1780 one — dignified and of a 
certain richness — in W. L. Andrews's book on American 
Revolutionary portraiture; and the bust portrait done 
1787 was copied in mezzotint in the next century by John 


John Greenwood, though born in Boston (1727), 
learned mezzotint in Holland and died in England 
(1792) ; it does not appear that he ever practised the 
art in the land of his birth. Two portraits by him, pub- 
lished abroad, appeared in the catalogue of the Boston 
Museum's exhibition of early American engravings. 

An interesting figure in this list, which, on account of 
the sporadic nature of the efforts recorded, perforce 
partakes of the nature of an annotated catalogue, is Ed- 
ward Savage, painter and stipple engraver. Noteworthy 
are the " soft and beautiful " reproduction of his own 
portrait of Washington, seated, and the portrait of Frank- 
lin, after Martin (London; 2d state: Boston), the latter 
good though perhaps lacking in subtlety and suavity. 
He scraped also portraits of Benjamin Rush (1800), 
Wayne, David Rittenhouse and Jefferson (1800), all 
after his own paintings. Two other mezzotints by him 
are of particular interest. The one, Muscipula after 
Reynolds, as an echo of British achievement in this rich 
medium. The other, Eruption of Mount Etna in 1787 
(published 1799), as an example of the not common 
use of the process in landscape work, and as an early 
specimen of American color printing. Savage's Wash- 
ington portraits were reproduced in mezzotint, the bust 
once, the three-quarter length three times — with empha- 
sis on any stiffness in the originals — in 1799-1800, by 
William Hamlin (1772-1869) of Providence. Hamlin 
signed also a portrait of Washington from Howdan's 
bust, Richmond, Va., — Houdon being meant, of course, 
— Wm. Hamlin sc. at 91 years of age. A portrait of 


Franklin by him was catalogued at the Holden sale 
(No. 148 1 ) as the " only copy known." He put mezzo- 
tint to some unusual purposes, in The Burning of the 
Frigate Philadelphia, in Tripoli Harbor, Feb. 1804, an d 
in a reversible picture, illustrating the pleasure of Court- 
ship and the disillusionment of Matrimony. The last 
print may perhaps be regarded as an American contribu- 
tion to the considerable output of mezzotinted humor in 
the last quarter of the eighteenth century in England. 
Hamlin was a manufacturer of nautical instruments, of 
whom Stauffer says : " As an engraver Mr. Hamlin made 
his own tools and worked practically without instruction." 
The result was bad enough. His plates show a some- 
what weak mixture of mezzotint and stipple, frequently 
worked over with the roulette. However, he probably 
made the best of very limited opportunities. 

These old engravers turned, with Yankee ease of adap- 
tation, from one process to the other, working in etch- 
ing, line-engraving, stipple, aquatint and mezzotint. 
They may have been actuated partly by an awakening 
interest in the media and partly by the desire to find 
new ways of arousing their public to a more liberal 
bestowal of the " honest penny " which they were trying 
to earn. 

A number of the actors in the Revolution were pictured 
by mezzotinters in England. Thomas Hart and others 
issued a number of anonymous plates, portraits of Put- 
nam, Charles Lee, John Sullivan, David Wooster, Han- 
cock, Washington of course, etc. And Washington was 
notably portrayed also by Valentine Green. There are 


several mezzotint portraits of John Paul Jones, two of 
them (representing him in three-quarter length, with a 
glass under his arm) so nearly alike that they have been 
taken for different states of the same engraving. Por- 
traits of British officers of the Revolutionary war, by 
British mezzotinters, also have interest for collectors of 
Americana, and in some cases stand out by conspicuous 
artistic merits, for example J. R. Smith's portrait of 
Col. Tarleton, after Reynolds. Simon's four Indian 
kings, much earlier in date, likewise come to mind as 
interesting foreign contributions to the iconography of 
Colonial history. 

Entering the nineteenth century, one finds still occa- 
sional native efforts in this field to be noted, as a matter 
of record. These cases represent experiments or side- 
steppings rather than continued practice. For example, 
Bass Otis tried his hand at various processes, which has 
led Stauffer to suggest that the scraped reproductions of 
. his portraits of William White and Rev. Joseph Eastburn, 
though unsigned, " may be experiments by Otis himself." 
Another painter, John Wesley Jarvis, who engraved 
under Savage, produced portraits of David Rittenhouse 
and John H. Livingston, both published by himself. 
John Rubens Smith, an industrious teacher of drawing, 
who showed a certain ability in various branches of 
graphic art, is credited with some mezzotint work, such 
as the portraits of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln (1811) from 
a picture by Coll. H. Sargent and James Patterson after 
Otis (1837), or the one of Rev. Thomas Brainerd pub- 
lished by Smith as late as 1840. And there was another 


universal genius, John Roberts (1 768-1 803), erratic and 
unable to turn his inventiveness to practical advantage. 
So says Dunlap, who states that he devised " a new 
mode of stippling, produced by instruments executed by 
himself " and " made a printing-press for proving his 
work." By him, says Stauffer, " a small mezzotint por- 
trait of Washington exists (1799) which is extremely rich 
in effect and shows fine execution." Then there was Al- 
exander Lawson, the Scotch line-engraver, who tried mez- 
zotint as he tried etching. George Graham similarly 
worked in mezzotint as well as in stipple, but with more 
application and success, apparently. Certainly, his por- 
trait of John Mason (1804), after Archibald Robertson, 
which may be seen in reproduction in Stauffer's book, 
shows delicacy in handling and modeling, and feeling for 
tone and color. And A. B. Durand, the famous line- 
engraver, attempted mezzotint at least once, in a por- 
trait of his friend Sylvester Graham (of bran bread 
fame), but did not finish the plate, as both C. H. Hart 
and Samuel Isham inform us. 

But the purposeful and extensive exploitation of mez- 
zotint came in the days of John Sartain. This artist, 
who told the story of his life in his interesting " Remi- 
niscences of a Very Old Man" (New York, 1899), 
worked in England as a stipple and line engraver before 
he came to this country in 1830. He has spoken of 
conditions when he began work here, of the " inferior 
quality of plate printing; Frankfort black was an article 
unknown." The first mezzotint executed by him here 
was Patriotism and Age after Neagle. Of strongly artis- 


tic temperament, versatile and adaptative, and at the same 
time evidently possessed of decided business instincts, he 
was quick to see the advantages of mezzotint as an ex- 
peditious method for magazine illustration in that period 
(approximately 1 835-*55 ) . Portraiture was called for, 
mostly, and plates to grace the " keepsakes " and like 
annuals. There were "Christmas Blossoms" (1847), 
" The Irving Offering " (1851), " Dew Drop " (1853), 
"Affection's Gift" (1854) and what not besides, which 
had such adornments in mezzotint, — becurled females of 
most " ladylike " aspect and reproductions of story-telling 
pictures of a harmless and sometimes inane order. The 
portraits were, on the whole, the best part of this work 
on a smaller scale, and they were turned out by Sartain 
with a smooth facility, and a quick if not always pro- 
found seizure of general effect and character. These 
qualities stamp even his least important work with a 
certain quality of its own, differentiating it from that of 
his confreres. It probably amounts to this, in the last 
analysis, that a certain individual note predominates in 
his plate, more than in theirs, a swing and freedom and 
lightness of touch which much overcame and softened the 
ill effects of rapid, commercial creation. And it is no 
doubt this fact that has caused more than one collector 
to gather a number of his prints in an interesting review 
of this active artist's productiveness. 

The possibilities of mezzotint as a medium for the 
illustration of magazines and books led Sartain into active 
alliance with publishing interests. " Graham's Maga- 
zine " was begun in 1841 ; before that, as Sartain himself 


wrote, magazines, when illustrated at all, used worn-out 
plates, but " Graham's " had a new plate engraved for 
each number. The success of the undertaking was im- 
mense, a circulation of 40,000 was reached, and Sartain 
said that he had to engrave " four steel plates of each 
subject in order to keep pace in the printing of them 
with the increased demand." He issued and edited the 
" Foreign Semi-Monthly " and in 1847 owned and edited 
a quarto volume: " The American Gallery of Art." He 
did an enormous amount of work beside that which he 
furnished regularly to his own periodicals; so, in one 
summer, forty-five plates for annuals. Even such spurts 
of speed were accomplished as the scraping of the portrait 
of Espartero, on a " rush order," in one night. Un- 
fortunately, comparatively large editions meant rapidly 
wearing plates, and in such cases the later impressions 
are frequently ghostly shadows, perhaps touched up by 
roulette and graver into a fictitious semblance of pristine 
freshness. Sartain used roulette and line particularly in 
his smaller portraits; a full-length of William Maginn 
(1842) is quite in roulette. He did several portraits after 
Sully, the one of Charles Chauncey being reproduced by 
Stauffer, and the Horace Binney being possibly his best 
portrait plate. " Now I am to be sullied for sartain," 
is the remark attributed to some one whose portrait by 
Sully was to be " scraped " by Sartain. 

In such a portrait as the large ones of Robert Gilmor 
and Sir Thomas Lawrence, both after Lawrence, or in 
a rich male bust portrait after Henry Inman, Sartain 
showed what he could really do when opportunity offered. 


In them he reflected somewhat the achievements of 
Charles Turner and Samuel Cousins, the epigones of the 
great eighteenth century mezzotinters in England, who 
proved once again that extreme development of technical 
ability in an art is quite apt to precede its decay. 

This decadence was shown here, as in England, in the 
commercialization of technique into the so-called " mixed 
method," in which scraper, burin, roulette, ruling machine 
and stippling were combined in a monotonous hodge- 
podge to produce superficial results easily and cheaply. 
As to the predominance of weak sentimentality and fic- 
titious grace in the " annual " plates, that was a general 
characteristic of this period of Victorian art, intensified 
somewhat, perhaps, by the fact that the softer effects of 
mezzotint were more easily perverted into an invertebrate 
mushiness than the insistent graver work of the line- 

Rarely were large portraits done here which recalled 
in a measure the thoroughness and richness of the earlier 
British work, or even the ease of that of the nineteenth 
century. Sartain's have been noted. There is one of 
Sir Charles T. Metcalfe, after A. Bradish (Montreal, 
1844), by William Warner, whose work Stauffer calls 
" admirable." It is executed in an honest, vigorous and 
broad manner, which may be studied in New York in 
an interesting series of working proofs. Warner's John 
Swift, after Sully, is rich in effect; the unctuous grace of 
this painter seems to have spurred engravers to emulation. 

It is worthy of note, too, that William Page, the 
painter, was mezzotinting as early as 1834. A portrait 

Si:i Thomas Lawrence 
After a painting by himself. Mezzotint by John Sartain 


of Rev. James Milnor, with decided feeling for tones and 
color and chiaroscuro, and one of Edwin Forrest, are 
by him. 

For a short period the mezzotint shared with the line- 
engraving the field of the large framing print. Here, 
also, Sartain's name is prominent. He signed, among 
others, King Solomon and the Iron Worker and Men of 
Progress: American Inventors (1862), both after Chris- 
tian Schussele, Leutze's John Knox and Mary Queen of 
Scots (Art Union of Philadelphia), Rothermel's Battle 
of Gettysburg, West's Christ rejected, and John Blake 
White's Gen. Marion . . . inviting a British Officer to 
Dinner (Apollo Association, 1840). T. Doney engraved 
The Jolly Flat Boat Men after G. C. Bingham (Ameri- 
can Art Union, 1845); A. H. Ritchie Mercy's Dream 
after Huntington, and Whitechurch Clay addressing the 
Senate after P. F. Rothermel. 

Among Sartain's contemporaries who scraped portraits 
for the " American Whig Review " and other publica- 
tions in the forties, Thomas Doney and P. M. Whelpley 
were prominent. They were good craftsmen, both " cap- 
ital engravers," as Stauffer says, with a somewhat heavier 
touch than Sartain's, a tendency to work more on the 
plate and to produce a darker, more somber tone (accen- 
tuated by a blacker, colder ink), recalling the daguerreo- 
type original a little more mechanically, perhaps. Doney's 
Distinguished Americans at a Meeting of the New York 
Historical Society (1854) contains over fifty portraits. 

There are others. H. S. Sadd, Sartain's son Samuel, 
and S. H. Gimber. Thomas B. Welch and his one-time 


(about 1840-48) partner Adam B. Walter, who did a 
Washington after R. Peale, were both known as en- 
gravers in stipple and in mezzotint, a fact which in itself 
might explain a tendency to use the " mixed method " 
already referred to. This method was employed with 
light-hearted industry by H. Wright Smith (a pupil of 
Doney) , George E. Ferine, J. C. Buttre and others. Yet 
farther names which illustrate the use of mezzotint by 
engravers identified rather with work on copper in line 
and stipple are those of J. C. McRae (Bishop J. M. 
Wainwright, after Thomas Hicks, 1854), Illman & Sons 
(Washington Family, after Savage), and Illman & Pil- 
brow (portrait of Washington), on all of whose work 
one has no cause to insist beyond this citation of it as 
an example of the commercialization of mezzotint. The 
records of some, at least, of these men show pretty con- 
clusively that they began work on a more ambitious scale 
than that indicated by the smooth, characterless pot- 
boilers to which the exigencies of business held them; 
such must really be judged by some of their earlier and 
less familiar engravings. 

The tendency in " mixed method " portraits was, on 
the whole, toward burin-engraving. Line-engraving held 
its own to the final exclusion of mezzotint, and was in its 
turn supplanted, to a very great extent, by wood-engrav- 

But the glamor of the golden period of British mezzo- 
tint never faded absolutely. In England, within the past 
twenty-five years, Thomas G. Appleton and others have 
responded to the interest of collectors and other art lovers 


in one of the most notable pages of their country's art his- 
tory, reviving with much success the memories of those 
days of stately grace and bewigged dignity. Such tradi- 
tions wanting in this country, one could at most expect a 
utilization of the peculiar qualities of mezzotint to invest 
portraiture with its richness and sonority. That, William 
Sartain, the painter (son of John Sartain), did in various 
portraits, Washington after Schuessele (1864), John 
Brown, Gen. Braddock (1899), and in those, all in pure 
mezzotint, of Washington, Byron and Irving, the last 
two printed in brown, a color that has been found more 
satisfactory to many than an absolute black. Max Rosen- 
thal, who in etching and lithography has industriously 
served the interest in American portraiture, used mezzo- 
tint also, creditably, and in its pure form. Among his 
portraits are those of William Dunlap, Benjamin Harri- 
son and Washington, after Stuart. 

The most recent use of the mezzotint tools has placed 
them at the service of the color print, a field in which 
American artists of to-day do not stand second to their 
British contemporaries. It is often said that the old 
English mezzotints became best fitted for printing in 
color after a number of impressions in black had been 
pulled therefrom. The modern mezzotinters in color 
rock and scrape their plates with direct reference to their 
immediate use for color printing. 

S. Arlent Edwards has achieved noteworthy and in- 
ternational prominence in this field. Catalogues of his 
work include plates after artists of quite different periods, 
styles and points of view, — Gainsborough, Hals, Greuze, 


Da Vinci, Lancret, Ghirlandaio, Rembrandt, Vigee Le 
Brim, Morland, Holbein, Van Dyck, Luini, Botticelli. 
The great variety in method and subjects indicated by this 
list he has reproduced with a soft richness of color. In 
the latter he has not hesitated to vary occasionally from 
the originals. Such emphasis on the personal element in 
these translations from canvas to paper makes the product 
something to be collected for the sake of the engraver 
quite apart from consideration of the original artist. His 
plates are produced in one printing, absolutely without 
retouching by hand on the print. His Visit to the Board- 
ing School, after Morland, is considered by Frederick R. 
Halsey " his best, certainly technically." Charles Bird 
and J. S. King have also been enlisted in the service of this 
specialty, which has its circle of discriminating and admir- 
ing collectors. 

It is a pleasure to be able to record any noteworthy 
effort of our artists to enter the bypaths of original pro- 
duction in any of the reproductive graphic arts. In mez- 
zotint such cases are rare enough abroad and more so 
with us. One of our artists, at least, used this medium, 
and with a freedom of manner and a richness of effect 
that open up interesting possibilities in its use as a painter 
art. That was James D. Smillie, a master craftsman, 
whose Hollyhocks, a plate of quiet charm, is said to have 
been scraped direct from nature. At the American Water 
Color Society's exhibition of 191 1 there were shown his 
Evening, Raquette Lake; Double Hollyhocks; A Piece of 
Jade and A Shoreless Sea, the last an unfinished plate, 
free in feeling, " the best he ever did," said Mr. Mielatz 


to me. And it must be duly recorded here also that John 
Henry Hill, painter and etcher, was led by his admiration 
for Turner to copy in mezzotint a plate in the Liber 

In view of the fact that original etching is left almost 
exclusively to etchers, and that our painters stick pretty 
closely to the canvas, it seems useless to hope that any 
of these same painters may turn occasionally to the medium 
which offers them such interesting and profitable by-roads 
to explore by way of mental diversion. Perhaps some of 
the specialists who have in recent years labored so well 
to revive the appreciation of painter-etching may be led 
to give attention to mezzotint. Perhaps Mielatz or some 
one inspired by him ? Possibly the attractions of the mon- 
otype may help to lead the way to an understanding of 
opportunities dormant in mezzotint. — Perhaps! 



Aquatint is one of the graphic arts with which the 
public is least familiar. It is a response to the demand 
for tone, for a certain completeness of effect instead of 
the suggestion of the etching, for a fuller rendition of 
light and shade in place of the line — after all, a conven- 
tion — of the line-engraving on copper. The process was 
used in France, for the color prints of Debucourt, Des- 
courtis et at., with complexity of manipulation and a 
superimposition of printings. These quite obliterated the 
traces of its characteristic features, the peculiarly reticu- 
lated grain caused by the powdered resin (dusted on to 
the plate or applied suspended in alcohol), which formed 
a sort of etching ground when the plate was put in the 
acid bath. This feature was prominent in English work, 
in which the evident prime raison d! etre of the process, 
the imitation of wash drawings in water color or sepia, 
is quite apparent. Aquatinting was adapted to, and much 
used for, the illustration of books of travel and of pic- 
torial topography (such as the " Microcosm of London " 
and Richard Ayton's "Voyage round Great Britain") 
after drawings executed in light outlines and flat washes 
of color or monotone. Such an extensive use was not to 
be expected in the United States, partly, perhaps, on ac- 
count of a lack of sufficient artistic talent and craftsman- 


ship, and partly because time and public were not quite 
ripe. But the possibilities of the process evidently ap- 
pealed to some experimentative spirits here. In 1799 
Edward Savage painted and engraved two pictures of 
The Constellation and L'Insurgent, one of the fight and 
another of the chace. Then, in May, 181 1, some land- 
scape plates (views of Fort Putnam and Fort Clinton) 
appeared in the Philadelphia " Port-Folio," very crude, 
but accompanied by high-sounding and hopeful letter- 
press comments. Bass Otis, the portrait painter, tried his 
hand also at aquatinting. Playing at Draughts, after 
Burnet, is by him, as well as portraits of Philip S. Physick, 
M.D., and the Rev. Abner Kneeland. An earlier View 
of the Old Brick Meeting House in Boston, 1808, drawn 
by John Rubens Smith and engraved by J. Kidder, is 
much better and more artistic than the " Port-Folio " 
plates just mentioned, showing good contrasts of light 
and shade, with rolling clouds to counteract the straight 
lines of the buildings. Kidder's plates include several 
other Boston views, one {Court House) after his own 
design. His View on Boston Common, published in 
"The Polyanthos " (Boston, June, 1813), was referred 
to editorially as the work of " Master J. Kidder," and 
" his first essay in aquatinta." J. R. Smith himself did 
Pennsylvania, New York, and Rhode Island views, all 
large, (Catskill Mountain House appearing as late as 
1830), some after his own designs, as was also a fireman's 
certificate. Two Hudson River Portfolio plates — No. 2 : 
Junction of the Sacandaga and Hudson Rivers and No. 3 : 
Hadley's Falls — appeared over his name. Stauffer notes 


two plates by Wm. Hamlin of Providence, the mezzotint 
engraver: Peacock and L'Epervoir (naval combat) and 
U. S. Ship Philadelphia at Tripoli (ship on fire). 
Francis Kearny, like Smith, tried his hand at various 
media; Dunlap records that he studied aquatint and 
other processes " principally by the aid of books." Still 
another line-engraver, William Rollinson, practised aqua- 
tint also; at the E. B. Holden sale (No. 2061) appeared 
a view of the New York Custom House, with the original 
drawing from which it was engraved, both by Rollinson. 
His View of New York from Long Island (1801) was 
from a drawing by J. Wood. Rollinson used both stipple 
and aquatint in a portrait of Washington after Savage, 
and in the portraits by Samuel Folwell aquatint and 
stipple also appeared in a combination " rather pleasing 
in effect, though showing an unpractised hand." Abner 
Reed, a stipple-engraver, also has at least one aquatint 
portrait to his credit, that of Rev. Jonathan Edwards, 
after Molthrop, as well as a series of Six Views, in Aqua- 
tinta taken from Nature (Hartford, 18 10). And to the 
occasional aquatints by line-engravers there are to be 
added also the views by William Kneass and J. I. Pease 
{Fort Niagara, 18 14), and one by F. Shallus, poor 
enough but with a certain freedom (in sky effect) 
in contrast with his fearful line portrait of Captain 

Particularly identified with the art in those early days 
was William Strickland, the architect. He did small 
views, such as View on the Susquehannah from a drawing 
by J. L. Morton (" Port-Folio," Feb., 18 16) and scenes 


in the War of 18 12 (" Analectic Magazine"). But he 
also signed a number of portraits of heroes of the war, 
Hull, Decatur, Jackson, Lawrence, McDonough. The 
use of aquatint for portraits was not common at any time ; 
Strickland's full-length of Meriwether Lewis, St. Memim 
[sic!] Pinx 1 , done in coarse grain, gives some idea of his 
treatment in such work. A thin volume published in 
Baltimore in 18 15, " The Art of Colouring and Painting 
Landscapes in Water Colours ... By an Amateur," 
has ten plates by Strickland, colored by hand. Still an- 
other landscape aquatinter was J. Drayton, — and a good 
print colorist to boot {View near Bordentown, engraved 
and colored by J. Drayton). 

Caricature, too, is represented here: in some of the 
plates of William Charles {John Bull and the Alexandri- 
ans, John Bull the Ship-Baker) and in a later, unsigned 
picture of John Binns, The Pedlar and his Pack. 
Charles, by the way, executed also plates after Row- 
landson for the " Vicar of Wakefield " and the " Town 
of Dr. Syntax," which he published. 

The ground had been prepared when John Hill and 
W. J. Bennett, both Englishmen, came to this country 
in 18 16. Their works mark the culmination of this short 
period of successful practice of the art. Hill, who had 
been engaged on views after Turner, Loutherbourg and 
others, before he came to the United States, was the 
father of John William Hill (one of the group of Amer- 
ican Pre-Raphaelites) and the grandfather of John Henry 
Hill of West Nyack, N. Y., painter, etcher and admirer 
of Turner. John Hill executed a series of large plates 


after designs by Joshua Shaw {Picturesque Views of 
American Scenery, 1819) and W. G. Wall (the Hudson 
River Portfolio) . This Hudson River series, an early 
tribute to the beauties of the " American Rhine," pre- 
sumably had a respectable sale. At all events, the plates 
passed into the hands of Henry I. Megarey of New 
York, and an edition was issued by him. For the benefit 
of collectors it may be noted that there was some re- 
numbering of the sheets, so that impressions exist with 
numbers different from those given in Stauffer's valuable 
work; e.g., 14, 2, 5, 20, instead of Stauffer's 5, 8, 10, 13, 
and so on. One of Hill's best-known plates — best known 
mainly on account of its local interest to collectors — is 
the view of Broadway, New York City, at Canal Street, 
Drawn and etched by T. Horner, aquatinted by J. Hill, 
printed by W. Neale, 1836. (This giving credit to the 
printer is not uncommon on nineteenth century copper- 
plates in line and other processes, J. Neale, Rollinson, 
Andrew Maverick, and later Butler & Long, Kimmel & 
Co., J. E. Gavit and W. Pate being among the names 

Hill, who was a good craftsman and understood his 
art, appropriately used a coarser, more open grain for 
these large plates, which were, moreover, colored by 
hand. For his earliest works, the small magazine plates, 
published in black-and-white, such as Haddel's Point, 
S. C, Richmond, Va., and York Springs, Fa., all after 
C. Fraser, he used a much closer grain, suited to the size 
of the picture. A slight matter this may seem at first 
sight, but in its way it is an exemplification of the necessity 

< c 

5 ^: 

£ 3 

Z «* 


of adjusting means to end. An unusual Hill item is the 
Mill at Marlborough, Md., after E. van Blom, cata- 
logued under No. 3560 at the E. B. Holden sale with 
the note " three states of a rare and undescribed aqua- 
tint; in colors, in tint and in black." 

Bennett, who became an N.A., also signed plates 
well known to collectors of views, particularly New York 
City views. Two of his most interesting plates are 
South Street, N. Y. (of which impressions exist in black- 
and-white before the kettle near the lower left corner, 
and colored with that implement added), and Fulton 
Street, both from his own drawings. Among his plates 
for the " New Mirror " is one of Hay Sloops on the 
North River (1843); tne accompanying note states: 
" Fanny Kemble thought the sloops of the North River 
the most picturesque things she had seen in this country." 
His larger pieces include New York from Brooklyn 
Heights. Painted by J. W. Hill (1837), New York 
taken from the Bay near Bedlow's Island. Painted by 
J. G. Chapman, Engraved by J. W. [sic!] Bennett, 
printed in colors, the views of Baltimore, Boston and 
Troy, from his own designs, and the one of Buffalo after 
J. W. Hill, and particularly the View of the Great Fire 
1835 and View of the Ruins after the Great Fire, both 
from paintings by N. Calyo, a scenic artist. And at least 
one more plate is to be noted in which Bennett had a 
hand, a departure into figure work: the portrait of Mrs. 
Maeder, late Miss Clara Fisher, engraved by Stephen H. 
Gimber and JVm. J. Bennett from the original picture 
by Inman, described in the catalogue of the E. B. Holden 


sale (No. 4896) as " excessively scarce "; Gimber's name 
is not mentioned by Stauffer, who lists this print. 

G. Lehman painted, engraved and hand-colored a 
series of Pennsylvania views (1829) and Annin & Smith, 
line and stipple engravers, and for a time also in the 
lithographic business, tried their hand at aquatinting as 
well, according to a sales-catalogue item : Springfield o. c. 
Maximus, painted by A. Fisher. 

In all the work spoken of, aquatint appears in flat tints, 
rather sharply circumscribed and consequently without 
gradations (excepting such as are effected through water- 
color washes), and with a resultant occasional stage- 
scenery effect. The only exception to this is found in 
the seven or eight hundred profile portraits of American 
worthies executed by Charles Balthazar Julien Fevret de 
Saint-Memin. From a crayon drawing in profile, made 
with the aid of the " physionotrace," which he reduced 
with a pantograph to a circle about two inches in diam- 
eter, he scratched a light outline on copper, finishing with 
fine aquatint and roulette. Thus, trace of the grain is 
practically lost in a sauce of grays and blacks. One of 
the two collections of proofs of these portrait plates 
formed the basis of the volume of 760 reproductions of 
such portraits by St. Memin, published by Elias Dexter, 
New York, 1862. The Grolier Club held an exhibition 
of his works in 1899. 

There was some stray use of aquatint until well into 
the fifties, notably for large views. Robert Havell, the 
English engraver, who did plates for Audubon's book on 
birds, executed a view of Baltimore (1847), an d two 


panoramic ones of New York City (1844), which latter 
he published at Sing Sing. Henry Papprill engraved two 
large views of New York City, issued in 1849, one as 
seen from Governor's Island, after F. Catherwood, the 
other, which was re-issued 1855 with necessary changes 
in the names on some signboards, from St. Paul's Church, 
after J. W. Hill. Hill designed also the large view of 
New York City from Brooklyn, engraved by Himly, 
printed by McQueen, London, 1855. This engraver is 
no doubt the Swiss Sigmund Himely (born 1801), who 
worked in Paris, but did at least two other views of the 
metropolis, one ( 1 85 1 ) painted by Heine, J. Kummer and 
Dopier (Heine and Dopier spent some time in this coun- 
try) , the other, Vue de New York. Prise de JVeahawk, 
after Garneray, published in Paris, possibly much earlier, 
perhaps in the thirties. Another foreign-made view of 
the city is the well-known Winter Scene in Broadway 
(1857) by P. Girardet after H. Sebron, who was also 
in New York City at the same time as Doepler. The 
Hill-Himely (1855) view is possibly more often encoun- 
tered in its later state, entirely worked over with ruled 
lines by C. Mottram, whose name appears instead of 

But, despite such occasional productions, whatever 
vogue aquatint had did not last much beyond about 1840. 
Line-engraving, and later on also lithography, took its 
place as a means of reproducing pictures of landscape. 

It was not until the movement for painter-etching took 
place in the seventies and eighties, that one man at least 
turned his attention again to the disused art. That was 


James D. Smillie; and he used aquatint as a painter art, 
as a medium for direct expression, as the painter uses 
paint and canvas, as Rembrandt or Whistler used etching 
or lithography. He was so versatile a craftsman, and 
his life was so busy a one, that he could not devote much 
time to this one specialty in graphic art, but in plates 
such as An old Dam near Montrose and Old Houses near 
Boulogne, he showed a mastery of technique which over- 
came some of the difficulties of the method and merged 
the flat, even tints into each other with more than a sem- 
blance merely of a gradual passing from light to shadow, 
giving quite a different conception of the process than had 
hitherto obtained. With him, too, we find variation of 
method to suit the particular purpose: Fairground, Mon- 
trose, with Sheep shows a crayon-like effect, Pansies is 
done with a very coarse grain, and so on. All the plates 
mentioned were shown at the American Water Color 
Society's exhibition in 1904. 

Quite recently, Charles F. W. Mielatz, a craftsman 
ever experimenting, has similarly disclosed somewhat un- 
expected possibilities in painter-aquatint. In his The 
Wave the art has undergone a transformation, has 
through scraping and other manipulations acquired a pli- 
ancy, a fullness of delicate gradation that once seemed 
hardly possible. Moreover, this is an interesting piece 
of color-printing in two tints, bluish green above and yel- 
lowish below, the two mingling in the center. The print- 
ing was done from one plate at one time, the color having 
been applied a la poupee. Again, the etching, Grand Cen- 
tral Depot at Night (1889), has a light tint of aquatint, 


which, having been put on after the etched lines, took 
off the sharp edge of the latter and modulated thiir 
incisiveness into something like the suaver effect of soft- 
ground etching. Finally, in Winter Night, he employed 
organdy, or something like it, to regulate the grain of 
the aquatint. The textile was laid onto a plate covered 
with etching ground and run through the press, exposing 
the plate wherever it was thus pressed through the 
ground. The plate was then subjected to the action of 
acid, and after that aquatinted. The process is there- 
fore in a measure akin to what is known as " sandpaper 
mezzotint." Mielatz used aquatint also in its more usual 
form, and as a reproductive art, in a series of New York 
City views done for the " Society of Iconophiles " after 
pictures on Staffordshire pottery, the proofs printed in 
blue ink. (The original stoneware, by the way, is de- 
scribed in R. T. Haines Halsey's " Pictures of Early 
New York on dark blue Staffordshire Pottery, together 
with Pictures of Boston and New England, Philadelphia, 
the South and West," New York, 1899.) 

Usually, however, aquatint is employed as an accessory 
to the etched line, either to add a tone in black {vide 
Goya or Klinger) or to serve as a basis to hold color 
(so used by French etchers to-day). John Henry Hill, 
in an etched view of Niagara, applied the grain on the 
falling water and foam with a delicacy similar to that of 
the sky of Dunstanborongh Castle in Turner's Liber 
Studiorum. His Moonlight on the Androscoggin, en- 
tirely in aquatint, was published in the " American Art 
Review." Helen Hyde executed at least one plate in 


black-and-white, a Japanese subject with the flat effect 
of Japanese wood-block tints and with a somewhat Goya- 
like darkness and solidity. W. F. Hopson has also em- 
ployed aquatint as an accessory. Likewise Addison T. 
Millar, to add tone to some of his etched plates, for 
instance, The Sheepfold, Laren (1904) and Moonrise, 
the Shipyard (1905). Millar has sometimes employed 
an unusual procedure; he has washed a drawing on a plate 
with prepared ink, then covered the plate with etching 
ground, immersed it in water, thereby dissolving the ink 
and lifting off the ground above it, thus baring the plate 
wherever it had been drawn upon. Aquatint was then 
applied, taking effect, of course, only on the bared por- 

Mary Cassatt also did some aquatints printed in black, 
but used the process more notably in a fine grain, to hold 
color, in her dry-points intended to be printed with some- 
thing of the effect of Japanese chromo-xylographs. 

The color etchings of George Senseney, which, though 
aiming at completeness of tonal effect, are of a note- 
worthy spontaneity and freshness of view, are produced 
by a blending of soft-ground etching and aquatint. These 
two media, with the addition of rouletting, were used also 
in Mielatz's Road to the Beach (1890). Lester G. 
Hornby, too, has occasionally used aquatint and soft- 
ground etching in combination, both in color-work and 
in black-and-white. And in recent years Vaughan Trow- 
bridge for a while employed the aquatint ground in prac- 
tical purity, to express light and shade and tone by " stop- 
ping out," and as a means for holding color applied with 

Q E 

> S 


a completeness of effect approaching that of the aquarelle 
or oil-painting, a fullness of color expression such as we 
find it in the color etchings of Thaulow, Laffitte and 
others, published in Paris. J. S. King, using aquatint as 
an accessory to get tones in reproductive etchings, applied 
the acid with a feather or brush in order to avoid the 
characteristic sharp edges. 

While the record of American achievement in this art 
of pleasing effects is not an extensive one, it embraces 
practically all its possibilities, presented with noteworthy, 
and at times masterly, craftsmanship. 

There are other methods of producing tints and tones 
on copper plates. Foul biting, sulphur, scotch-stone, and 
experiments such as etching zinc with rain-water (made 
by Mielatz), are noted in the chapter devoted to etching. 
There is sandpaper mezzotint, too, which Pennell has 
used occasionally to produce grained tint. 

Finally, there is the monotype, which may as well be 
considered with miscellaneous processes here, although its 
effect is rather closer to the mezzotint, which it resembles 
at least in this that it is produced by elimination from 
a dark basis, the lights being wiped out. 

The monotype is produced by painting on the plate 
with printer's ink, or oil colors (Bacher used "burnt 
sienna or ivory black with a medium"), applied in an 
even tint and then worked up with rags, brushes, stumps, 
brush-handles, fingers, — any instruments to suit the artist's 
fancy and serve his purpose. Then, with the ink or color 
still wet, the plate is run through the press, with a re- 
sultant impression on paper that must of course be, in 


each case, unique. (Hubert von Herkomer, in his 
" spongotype," did indeed invent a method of taking more 
than one impression, but the process is generally used as 
here described.) The process has a peculiar attraction 
for artists, from Castiglione's time to the present day. 
The monotypist within the proper limits of the art works 
with unrestrained freedom while at the same time con- 
siderable demands are made on his dexterity and experi- 
ence in order that the best results may be foreseen and 

S. R. Koehler, in his German account of American 
etching, says: "The first to show such impressions pub- 
licly in America was Wm. M. Chase in New York; soon 
afterward Charles H. Walker in Boston discovered the 
process independently, and has since applied it with par- 
ticular preference, and Peter Moran and others followed 
them." Dr. Charles H. Miller, N.A., says that when in 
Rotterdam in 1879 he bought a monotype, a head of a 
girl of a Carriere-like mistiness, inscribed T. Cremona 
dip. I. Ciconi inc. This he showed to fellow members 
of the Art Club of New York, and it was subsequently 
exhibited in that city. Thereupon, says Mr. Miller, 
" Mr. Chase and others experimented with the fascinat- 
ing possibilities " of this process. Chase showed a mono- 
type at a black-and-white show at the Academy (N. Y.) 
in 188 1, and Peter Moran's exhibits at the first etching 
show in Philadelphia (1882-83) included some specimens 
of this fascinating art. Christian Brinton records also 
the enthusiasm of Joseph Jefferson for this medium, and 
the work in colors of Prof. Rufus Sheldon. 


Otto H. Bacher's method, already referred to, was 
employed, as Bacher records in his " With Whistler in 
Venice," by Duveneck and his class " as a means of amuse- 
ment," under the name of " Bachertype." 

In recent years the process has again attracted in- 
creased attention among artists. The late Louis Loeb, 
Augustus Koopman, E. Haskell and Charles Warren 
Eaton have practised it. Loeb, Albert Sterner and E. 
Peixotto were among the members of a monotype club 
formed in New York City under the presidency of Leslie 
Cauldwell, according to Brinton. Eaton showed some 
prints, rich in effect, at the exhibition of the American 
Water Color Society in 1910, where there were also sev- 
eral interesting ones in color — Girl at the Bath Tub, 
Girl near Mirror — by Everett Shinn, who called them 
" pastel monotypes." Work in color was shown also 
by Rufus Sheldon at the Society's exhibition in 1908. The 
19 10 exhibit included also some monotypes by J. F. 
Burns, a newcomer. 

Noteworthy employment of the process has been made 
by C. F. W. Mielatz, who used it, with touches of color, 
in reproducing certain picturesque spots in New York 
City, in a series of plates done, and reproduced in photo- 
gravure, for the Society of Iconophiles (1908). But he 
has also executed a number of monotypes independently 
of this set, getting interesting effects with a pigment not 
intended for art or even color purposes at all, drawing 
in broad strokes which contracted when the plate was 

Finally, in 191 1, Albert Sterner held in New York an 


exhibition of monotypes, among them The Echo, The 
Model and The Gray Vase, which last-named the " Even- 
ing Post " singled out particularly for " the wonderful 
lights on the woman's flesh " and a " serenity of color " ; 
My boy was characterized as a " remarkable piece of 
mellow color." Sterner, working with brush, cloth or 
fingers, modeling with rapid energy, has shown what re- 
sults training, fine, sensitive, artistic temperament and 
flexibility of method can effect in this medium. 

All proper use of such processes by artists is certainly 
to be commended and desired. It gives new viewpoints, 
arouses interest, protects from the rut. 



Woodcut illustrations appeared in the earliest books 
printed in Europe with movable type, as well as in the 
block books (e.g., " Biblia Pauperum "). So the earliest 
efforts to bring knowledge to wider circles through the 
printed page profited by the powerful aid of pic- 
torial representation. And wood-engraving, through its 
homely, straightforward vigor and its possibilities of 
more rapid multiplication and consequent wider circula- 
tion than engraving on copper, remained the reproductive 
art of most direct popular appeal, from its rudest begin- 
nings to the most highly finished products of recent times. 
With the development of line-engraving on copper wood- 
engraving sank into decay, so that in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, when the period of glorious achievement in French 
portraiture had already set in, the copper-plate, both in 
etched and engraved form, took possession also of the 
field of book-illustration. Wood-engraving, in the late 
seventeenth century and during the eighteenth, was rele- 
gated to the chapbook and other like means of reaching 
the common people. A taint of vulgarity seemed to 
cling to this misunderstood art, and it remained for 
Thomas Bewick to open the way for new and hitherto 
unthought-of possibilities. 



America formed, quite naturally, no exception to the 
general rule. The parallel with European conditions 
may be drawn even to this extent that the first engraving 
known to have been executed in this country was on wood. 
This was a portrait of the Rev. Richard Mather, sup- 
posed to have been engraved by John Foster, to whom 
Dr. Samuel Abbott Green devoted a volume: "John 
Foster: the earliest American engraver and the first Bos- 
ton printer" (Boston, 1909). Dr. Green reproduces 
two impressions of this print, and tells us that the inscrip- 
tion in ink, Johannes Foster sculpsit, on one of them, 
which was found by Wilberforce Eames as a frontispiece 
to a copy of Mather's life (1670) in Harvard Uni- 
versity, is in the handwriting of Rev. Wm. Adams of 
Dedham, who originally owned the book and knew 
Foster. This engraver did also the seal and arms of ye 
colony (appearing in " General Laws and Liberties of 
the Massachusetts Colony," 1672) and a map of New 
England (1677). This map, issued with Rev. W. Hub- 
bard's narrative of Indian troubles, was the first one 
engraved in this country. 

Subsequent response to whatever needs our colonies 
had for portraiture or views came practically all in cop- 
per-engraving, for which our silversmiths had a certain 
preparation in their training. The results were often very 
crude, but they were surrounded by the glamor of the 
copper-plate and its clean-cut lines. The rougher effects 
of the woodcut methods of the day appeared in printer's 
stock ornaments, in newspaper titles and occasional cuts, 
even in paper currency, printed from the wood block or 


from type-metal. There was, for instance, the title de- 
sign of the " Boston Gazette " (March 11, 1771 ) repre- 
senting Britannia and various attributes. Or such early 
attempts at newspaper cartooning as the snake divided 
into pieces representing the individual colonies, with the 
device Unite or die or Join or die, which appeared in vari- 
ous papers before the Revolution. This is attributed to 
Benjamin Franklin. Albert Matthews finds that McMas- 
ter was not warranted in absolutely asserting that " both 
the design and the cutting were the work of Franklin." 
On the other hand, Linton cites the report that Franklin 
cut the ornaments for his Poor Richard's Almanac on 
metal, in the manner of a woodcut, while Abel Bowen 
wrote : " I have evidence that Dr. Franklin engraved 
some devices on wood and that some were used in the 
printing of the Continental money." 

In "Father Abraham's Almanac" for 1859 there is 
a frontispiece representing a man at a telescope, with a 
four-line verse beginning " Oft have I viewed, in ad- 
miration lost." It is signed H. D., and the theory that 
the engraver is Henry Dawkins is invitingly obvious. 

There are to be recorded even such ambitious attempts 
as the series of profile portraits, each representing a man 
wearing a cocked hat. All are either printed from the 
same block or copied from the same original, but they 
are labeled, respectively, Bradley, Governor of Rhode 
Island, Columbus, Henry Lee, Samuel Adams and Rich- 
ard Howel. 

A few instances of known eighteenth century engravers 
are noted in Stauffer and elsewhere; Thomas Sparrow 


and Francis Dewing (who did also calico printing), both 
engravers on copper, produced also some woodcuts. 

The fragmentary appearance of this information is in 
accord with the sporadic nature of the work described. 

With us the renascence came, as in England, through 
the " white line." Late in the eighteenth century, Dr. 
Alexander Anderson, having first tried copper-engraving, 
and then cutting in relief on type-metal for newspapers, 
saw work by Bewick in 1793 and was led to try box- 
wood. He re-engraved Bewick cuts ("Quadrupeds," 
New York, 1804, and " Emblems of Mortality "), mean- 
while studying medicine. He soon found much employ- 
ment from various publishers; of one of them, Samuel 
Wood, Anderson himself says: " I did an infinity of cuts 
for his excellent set of small books." The amount of 
work he accomplished was enormous; the New York 
Public Library has about 8,000 proofs in old scrap-books, 
apparently including not many duplicates. C. L. Moreau, 
in 1872, printed a collection of " one hundred and fifty 
engravings executed after his ninetieth year," and next 
year " Illustrations of Mother Goose's Melodies, de- 
signed and engraved on Wood by Alexander Anderson." 
Lossing says he did, on wood, " from sheet ballads, 
primers, business cards, tobacconist's devices, wrappers 
of playing cards, diplomas and newspaper cuts of every 
sort, to magazines, stately scientific treatises and large 
Bibles." An interesting example of his work, done at 
about his best period (18 18), is the bust portrait of 
Washington (the one facing right!), printed from the 
original block as a frontispiece to " A Bibliography of 



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American Books relating to Prints," by H. C. Levis 
(1910). It is dark in tone, the face vigorously modeled 
without cross-hatching, and the background criblee 
(white dots on a black ground). At least two large 
engravings are recorded to his credit, Returning from the 
Boar Hunt, after Ridinger, a bold, vigorous piece of 
white-line engraving, and Water-fowl after Teniers. 
These were copied, it is said, from copper-plates, but it 
is a rather remarkable fact that Anderson, though orig- 
inally an engraver on copper, did not allow that fact 
to influence him in his work on wood. Even when copy- 
ing Shakespeare cuts after Thurston by John Thompson, 
he has toned down the metallic luster of the original by 
adhering strictly to the white line and preserving the es- 
sential character of wood-engraving, instead of twisting 
it into an imitation of copper-plate. That element should 
be fully appreciated. 

Wm. Clark, an old Philadelphia engraver, in a letter 
to the present writer, very aptly quoted the " Port 
Folio," 18 12, page 14, with reference to Shelric and 
Venvula, from Ossian, by Anderson, shown at the second 
annual exhibition of the Academy of Fine Arts : " We 
have at all times been delighted on viewing the works 
of this excellent, useful and unassuming artist. Engrav- 
ings on wood, when finely executed, are of great import- 
ance, as they are printed with the letter press, take off 
large numbers of impressions, and are afforded at a low 
price, but the talent and skill necessary in this truly useful 
branch of the arts is not perhaps at present sufficiently 
appreciated." The recognition of Anderson and the in- 


elusion of a wood-engraver's work in so early an art 
exhibition are as noteworthy as is the understanding of 
both the commercial and the.artistic possibilities of wood- 
engraving shown in this notice. It should be added, as 
farther indicating Anderson's standing, that he was an 
honorary member of the National Academy of Design. 
Benson J. Lossing issued a " Memorial" (1872), E. A. 
Duyckinck a " Brief Catalogue of the Books illustrated 
with Engravings by Dr. Alexander Anderson" (1885), 
and Frederick M. Burr a " Life " ( 1893) . 

Anderson had four pupils, Garret Lansing, William 
Morgan (who " abandoned the graver for the pencil "), 
John H. Hall, and his own daughter Anna. 

John H. Hall, who began in 1826, and in 1830 found 
employment with Carter, Andrews & Co., did some of 
his best work, ornithological illustrations, in a spirit and 
manner showing that Bewick's influence had descended 
through Anderson to his pupil. He could be both deli- 
cate, as in some of his landscapes, and vigorous, as when 
he combined the white line and inky blacks. In an an- 
nouncement dated Albany, Oct. 20, 1826, he states that 
" it is a fact well attested, though not generally known, 
that engravings on boxwood, with proper usage, are more 
durable than either type-metal cuts or copper-plate en- 

Meanwhile, Abel Bowen, who began, as he says him- 
self, as early as 1805, brought the art to Boston about 
1812, his apprentice, Nathaniel Dearborn, starting in 
business'there for himself some two years later. Much of 
Bowen's production consisted of copies for American edi- 


tions of English books, for example the " Young Ladies' 
Book " (1830). " Very remarkable for their fidelity to 
the original," says Linton, speaking of the cuts in the 
latter; " the distinguishing manner of each engraver is so 
exactly preserved that I was with difficulty convinced the 
cuts were not done from transfers." The proofs printed 
in Wm. Henry Whitmore's monograph on Bowen (Bos- 
tonian Society: 1887) are not particularly remarkable, 
but are, on the whole, good commercial work. 

William Croome, a pupil of Bowen, worked somewhat 
similarly to his master but subsequently turned to illus- 
trating and to designing for bank-notes. Other pupils of 
Bowen were G. Thomas Devereux, Mallory, Kilburn, B. 
F. Childs, George Loring Brown the painter and Ham- 
matt Billings the architect; this in the thirties. 

Bowen was a publisher of illustrated books. He 
brought out " The Naval Monument " (18 16), " A topo- 
graphical and historical Description of Boston " (18 17), 
" Picture of Boston " (1829), and others on the Massa- 
chusetts capital. That form of activity is found in a 
number of other cases. There was John W. Barber of 
New Haven, " draughtsman, engraver, author, editor 
and publisher," who issued a number of historical works, 
and who, it is said, devoted his energies not so much 
to accomplishment in engraving as to preaching " the 
Gospel by means of pictures." For at least one of his 
books, the one on Connecticut, he traveled about, collect- 
ing material and making sketches for the illustrations, 
just as Benson J. Lossing did, in later years, when pre- 
paring his " field books " of the Revolution and the War 


of 1812, the volume on the Hudson River, and similar 
books. Several other engravers became known as pub- 
lishers of illustrated books or periodicals. T. W. Strong 
issued " Yankee Notions," " Young America " and other 
serials. Joseph A. Adams, of whom more presently, was 
directly interested in the Harper Bible. Later in the cen- 
tury John Karst was projecting and publishing school 
books and A. V. S. Anthony was superintending for Os- 
good in Boston the preparation of finely illustrated 
books of poetry and other literature, planning text, pic- 
tures and all. 

Returning to our earlier engravers, we find William 
Mason introducing the art to Philadelphia in 18 10, fol- 
lowed by his pupil Gilbert. The latter, as I am informed 
by Wm. Clark (who himself began his apprenticeship in 
1 851), was connected with the " American Sunday School 
Union." Later there were Fairchild in Hartford and 
Horton in Baltimore. 

In 1829, Abraham J. Mason, an Englishman, came to 
America, was made an Associate of the National Acad- 
emy in 1830, and later became professor of wood-engrav- 
ing at that institution, delivering also a course of lectures 
on his art. But it seems that, although he also had a 
bookstore on Canal Street, New York City, he could not 
command a satisfactory income. 

All these and other names are recorded, with much 
interesting comment, in W. J. Linton's " History of 
Wood-engraving in America" (Boston, 1882), which 
appeared originally in the " American Art Review." De- 
spite this increase of engravers, and the large amount of 


work turned out by Anderson alone, Linton says that 
" the cuts done in these days were few; the principal for 
toy books and similar juvenile works, published by Sam- 
uel Wood, Mahlon Day, Solomon King and other New 
York publishers." Yet Abel Bowen, as far back as 1 8 1 2, 
when he issued a rather poorly executed card, " immedi- 
ately," to use his own words, " received orders from the 
principal publishers in the city." So there must have been 
some demand for such work. 

Linton notes that in the forties illustrated books began 
to increase, and, in fact, the change that came at this 
time is quite apparent. The " Family Bible," first pro- 
jected in 1837, was brought out by the Harpers in 1846, 
" embellished with 1,600 historical engravings by J. A. 
Adams, more than 1,400 of which are from original de- 
signs by J. G. Chapman," the exceptions being transfers 
of English cuts. Many of the smaller blocks were en- 
graved by pupils of Adams. There was no use of the 
white line here; it was all straight facsimile work, faith- 
ful rendering of Chapman's lines, which latter, further- 
more, were executed with a fineness and formal pre- 
cision and cross-hatching quite evidently intentionally 
reminiscent of copper-plate work. All of this had to be 
rendered literally, with a resultant mechanical hardness in 
the engraving. This feeling appears also in Chapman's 
" American Drawing Book," issued in several editions 
from 1847 on, with cuts by Kinnersley, Herrick, How- 
land, Wright, Bobbett, Bookhout; "the very perfection 
of mechanism," says Linton, but also " I know no other 
book like this, so good, so perfect in all it undertakes." 


It was one evidence of the considerable English influ- 
ence on American wood-engraving, this quality which led 
Linton to speak of Adams as a possible American 
Thompson, this tendency to apply the methods of copper- 
plate engraving to the wood. This is referred to also by 
S. R. Koehler, in his chapter on the United States, in 
Vol. I (on wood-engraving) of " Die Vervielfaltigende 
Kunst der Gegenwart " (Vienna, 1887). Yet the " Har- 
per Bible " in drawing, engraving and printing was a 
very remarkable production for its time. Linton calls 
attention particularly to Adams's inventiveness and skill 
in overcoming difficulties in preparing his engraved 
blocks for the press, and states that his " printing of his 
own engraving is equal to the best of any time." And 
of his engraving he says that the best work, such as the 
Massacre of the Innocents and Jacob's Dream, is " yet 
unequaled in this country [this in 1882!] and worthy to 
rank beside the best of the great old time in England." 

The Bible is the most easily accessible of Adams's 
works and the one by which he is on the whole best 
known, while the individual print by him probably most 
often cited with approbation is The last Arrow, again 
after a drawing by Chapman, done in 1837 f° r tne " New 
York Mirror." 

The reference to English influence recalls the stimu- 
lating infusion of British blood through the addition of 
such men as Alfred Bobbett, John Andrew, George H. 
Thomas (who subsequently returned to England) and 
Robert Carter ("Frank Leslie") to the ranks of our 
native engravers. 


The increasing skill of our illustrators also counter- 
acted on the engravers. Not only was facsimile repro- 
duction of pencil drawings called for, but washes placed 
on the block by the artist had to be rendered in lines. 
That developed interpretation. By 1852, in which year 
the Putnams issued Irving's " Sketch Book " and the 
" Knickerbocker History of New York," we had such 
able craftsmen as H. W. Herrick and E. J. Whitney 
(both designers also) and B. F. Childs to cut on wood the 
illustrations in a worthy manner. The " Sketch Book," 
at its time " the most beautifully got-up book that had 
appeared," had illustrations by Darley, Hoppin, William 
Hart and others, engraved by Richardson; the " Knicker- 
bocker History " was illustrated by Darley alone. In 
the latter book, one may indulge in interesting compari- 
sons of the work of Childs and Herrick (somewhat ad- 
dicted to inky shadows) and speculations as to the extent 
to which the manner of the individual engraver may have 
modified the design of the illustrator. To these and 
other issues from the presses of the Harpers and the 
Putnams there came a third strong influence toward the 
advance of American wood-engraving and book-illustra- 
tion, — the American Tract Society, to whose activity in 
producing adequate illustration Wm. James Linton pays 
deserved tribute. Engraving became more delicate and 
clear in line, tints became smoother and greater attention 
was paid to tone. Kinnersley, Annin, Hayes, J. H. Rich- 
ardson, Benjamin F. Childs, Bogert, Jocelyn, Bobbett, 
Edmonds and Whitney are names found in the juvenile 
literature published by the Society. Whitney's work 


rather stands out, his engraving of Sir John Gilbert's 
drawings being particularly noteworthy, and some birds 
by Childs and Kinnersley after Herrick are of special 
interest. Furthermore, the Civil War called much illus- 
trated literature into being. 

To the names already mentioned are now to be added 
those of T. W. Strong, D. C. Hitchcock, S. P. Avery, 
W. Roberts, W. Howland, Lossing & Barritt, Bobbett & 
Edmonds, Bobbett & Hooper, J. W. and N. Orr, Jocelyn 
& Annin, Morse, Redding, Orr & Andrews, Richardson 
& Co., Richardson & Cox, Kingdon & Boyd. The fre- 
quent occurrence of firm names indicates a certain com- 
mercialization of production. 

About the fifties or sixties there came also the use of 
tint-blocks, in the manner of the old chiaroscuro prints. 
Much less elaborate, however; it was simply a matter 
of using an extra block to print one tint, — say red, or 
blue, or light yellowish brown, — in which some high 
lights, a few clouds for instance, had been cut out so as 
to appear white in the print. 

Wood-engraving was now the principal reproductive 
medium through which any graphic art was brought be- 
fore the greater public. It served for the illustration of 
books (including the schoolbook with its obvious influ- 
ence on the impressionable young mind), magazines, 
weekly illustrated journals, comic papers, and for such 
an occasional cut as might appear in the daily press, the 
" Herald " of New York, for instance. The illustrated 
daily did not exist in those days, but there were sporadic 
outbursts in the one-issue " blanket sheets," 


All this magazine and periodical work necessitated a 
haste that neutralized much of the good effect which the 
possibility of larger, broader treatment may have had in 
counteracting the tendency to mere technical finesse. 
During the War, especially, illustrators and engravers 
no doubt had to work against time. A number of draw- 
ings made on the field by Leslie's artists, and preserved 
in the New York Public Library, bear written mem- 
oranda to guide those who had to re-draw the sketches 
on the block in the home office. 

While wood-engraving served temporary needs, it also 
answered more and more the demand for pictorial in- 
struction through the reproduction of works of art as 
well as of beauty of natural scenery. 

In the late sixties and the seventies there came an 
increasing improvement in technique, which found em- 
ployment in growing plans for elaborately illustrated 
books. Gift books, editions de luxe of the poets, volumes 
of travel and description were issued with a wealth of 
illustrations. Very likely there were not a few cases in 
which such undertakings were not well-advised, where 
the text even did not call for adornment, where the work 
had no raison d'etre beyond the production of a seller, 
an elegant adornment for the drawing-room table. No 
doubt, too, much of \the engraving in these elaborate 
publications showed " an average of creditable medi- 
ocrity." Yet on the whole the tendency toward refine- 
ment must have tended also to refine public taste, and 
the encouragement afforded both designers and engravers 
no doubt resulted in mutual influence for good between 


the two, increasing ability on each side affecting the 

Linton declaimed vigorously against fineness, against 
meaningless niggling delicacy, against the weak dexterity 
that sought distinction in the imitation of the steel-en- 
graving. But he is careful to except from this condemna- 
tion the fineness that is necessary and fitting, such as is 
found in Henry Marsh's exquisitely delicate rendering 
of the downy, evanescent bloom on the wings of moths, 
the flabby softness of caterpillars, the horny hardness of 
beetles, in Harris's " Insects injurious to Vegetation " 
(1862, — Mallory did some similar work in 1869) or in 
Closson's Winifred Dysart after George Fuller. 

A. V. S. Anthony's " tasteful supervision," during 
1866-89, of the books published by Osgood of Boston, 
notably the quarto edition of Longfellow's works, had 
a good effect on the development of the art. Anthony 
was himself an engraver of ability and of distinction and 
elegance in style. Other engravers at this time were 
Marsh, J. P. Davis, Berlett, Kilburn & Mallory, Morse, 
Annin, Hayes, and John Andrew, under whose " careful 
superintendence " the engravings for the book " Pioneers 
in the Settlement of America " were executed. A note- 
worthy stimulus to good engraving was afforded by the 
publication of " Picturesque America " (Appleton: 1872- 
74) , which stands out even by the very size of the under- 
taking. In those two profusely illustrated volumes, op- 
portunity came to engravers such as John Tinkey, Morse, 
Harley, Filmer, Halliwell, J. A. Bogert, Langridge, 
Karst, N. Orr, J. H. Richardson, Anthony, Annin (whose 


Walls of the Grand Canon, after Thomas Moran, is 
a particularly careful and fine example), F. O. Quartley, 
Slader, Henry Linton, Measom, Cranston, Robert 
Hoskin, Palmer, Alfred Harral, and W. J. Linton, the 
last eight Englishmen, some of whom, at least, became 
acclimated here. They reproduced the designs of 
Thomas Moran, Harry Fenn, John D. Woodward and 
other able draughtsmen. The " calm elegance and deli- 
cacy " of Hoskin, who was not carried away by the 
" new school," was emphasized by S. R. Koehler. 

Among the artists of English birth W. J. Linton was 
prominent. His work has a certain distinction in han- 
dling. It is " firm and honest " (which terms he himself 
uses to express " the first qualification of an engraver ") 
and it exemplifies to a marked degree his theory that the 
engraver should draw with the graver. It illustrates also 
his devotion to the expressiveness of the line and its pos- 
sibilities in rendering form, texture, substance and dis- 
tances. Those qualities he found disregarded in the at- 
tention paid to color and tone, which attained to its high- 
est development in the "new school." Said he: "The 
art of engraving is discoverable, even by the uninitiated, 
in the intention of the lines." After all that has been 
said, one would not look in his engravings for microscopic 
refinement in his lines. Yet, in spite of a certain direct 
vigor and boldness (" coarseness " he designates it), his 
method could produce such an interesting effect of light 
and tone as The Mayflower at Sea after Granville Per- 
kins. In his engravings as in his writings he exerted a 
strong plea for the engraver as an interpreting artist, yet 


his own vigorous individuality found adaptating changes 
of expression to suit the personality of the various artists 
upon whose work he was engaged. 

The cuts in " Picturesque America " form a remarka- 
bly interesting collection of well-engraved landscapes. 
The student of the art has rich opportunity here for sug- 
gestive comparison of differences in treatment. Koehler 
calls the book an epoch-making work, and quotes Linton 
as saying that it contains the best landscapes cut in Amer- 
ica; he himself adds that the companion work, "Pic- 
turesque Europe" (1875), mainly cut in England, was 
on the whole not so good as the American publication. 
The "Art Journal" begun by the Appletons in 1875 is 
also to be noted here, as is the " Aldine, or Art Journal 
of America " (begun in 1871), which latter included cuts 
by Davis & Spier, and early work by Juengling and Cole. 

The number of talented and adaptative craftsmen, not 
a few of them of English or German birth, was increas- 
ing. At the same time the development of technique 
brought about a tendency to greater elaboration, to more 
careful rendering of various textures and of color values. 
And this was strongly influenced by the alliance between 
the wood block and the camera. Before there was de- 
vised the process of photographing the drawing, painting 
or object to be reproduced on to the block, the drawing 
had to be executed directly on the latter with pencil or 
pen, in lines that had to be cut in facsimile by the en- 
graver. At most, there were added washes which the 
engraver had to render in lines. But now the original 
might be executed in any medium and size; pencil, char- 


coal, oils or water color might be used. It was simply 
photographed, reduced in size when necessary, on to the 
wood block, and the engraver then fairly translated it 
into his own language. Furthermore, he did not destroy 
the original by cutting it away as he engraved the block, 
but the photograph on the block was to him simply a 
guide, while the original stood before him. The possi- 
bilities thus opened up were perceived and seized upon 
to a greater extent here than anywhere else, and there 
was formed a distinctly American school of wood-en- 
graving, which enjoyed a successful and lucrative period 
of brilliant achievement. The wish to render tones and 
color values led these new engravers to be deeply ab- 
sorbed in the imitation of textures, to the extent that 
even the brush-marks, for instance, when paintings were 
copied, were faithfully reproduced. Henry Marsh's re- 
markably true delineation of insects (1862) has been 
referred to. In some blocks after drawings by John La 
Farge (e.g., for " Songs of the old Dramatists," Boston, 
1873, or those illustrating scenes in the Arabian Nights), 
done with a solid richness of effect, he proved the adapta- 
bility of his manner and hand, and of the art that he 
practised, to quite different problems. Such cuts, and 
others by other engravers, in a measure lead the way to 
the daring effects of the new school. In Bogert's Caught 
by the Snow (which appeared in " St. Nicholas ") after 
T. Moran, " a cut full of refinement and delicacy, without 
sacrifice of effect," there may be seen, for example, how 
long, sweeping lines, effectively crossed in white, could 
be made to indicate whirling snow. 


With the wakening of new aims, of new ideals, there 
came changes in technique to meet changing demands. 
Broken, short lines, scattered in whatever direction seemed 
best fitted to reproduce a given detail, took the place 
of the more regularly cut and longer sweeps of the graver. 
The work, as T. D. Sugden puts it, was " more or less 
stippled and chopped up with dots, etc." 

It has been contended that J. G. Smithwick's engraving 
of C. S. Reinhart's Drumming out a Tory, in " Harper's 
Weekly" for February 3, 1877, cut, as Koehler says, 
" spot for spot," was the first published application of the 
new method. Again, Timothy Cole in 1906 wrote James 
E. Kelly that The Gillie Boy, from a drawing by Kelly, 
was the first thing of this kind which he engraved and 
the first ever done, and that he " will always regret . . . 
that his modesty prevented him from signing it." This 
appeared in " Scribner's " for August, 1877. But, at a ^ 
events, the illustrations engraved by Frederick Juengling 
(the " boldest and most inconsiderate experimenter among 
the pioneers of the new school," says Koehler) for articles 
dealing with the New York police force, the New York 
aquarium, " A Railroad in the Clouds," etc., appearing 
in " Scribner's Monthly " for 1877, made the first obvious, 
continued assertion of the new point of view. The draw- 


< -a 

S § 


ings for these illustrations were executed by James E. 
Kelly (who subsequently turned to sculpture) in a sweep- 
ing manner, slapped down in broad brush-marks, blocked 
in with a disdain of finish that gave them the effect of 
results gained " by first intention." 

Care was taken to reproduce this style faithfully. The 
cut Engineer crossing the chasm over the Rimac (" Scrib- 
ner's," August, 1877, p. 449) was the second one exe- 
cuted after Kelly's drawing. The first one had been re- 
jected by A. W. Drake (art director of the magazine) 
and Kelly as not correctly reproducing the design. Study 
of impressions from both blocks, in the New York Public 
Library, shows that much detail, indeed, was missed in the 
first attempt. The first Kelly illustration that has come 
to my notice appears on p. 581 of " Scribner's " for 
March, 1877; it bears no engraver's name, and is com- 
paratively timid. The second, on page 585, is signed 
with J. G. Smithwick's initials. But, as already said, it 
is with Juengling's cuts that the new method sets in with 
full swing. 

In this series of Kelly- Juengling cuts, designer and en- 
graver absolutely coincided; here was the opportunity to 
state the newly discovered possibilities of the boxwood 
and graver in straightforward, unmistakable terms. One 
can well imagine that these prints came as a shrill trumpet 
blast to gather adherents to the banner of the new dis- 
pensation. It seems as if artists, engravers, art editors 
and the public were fairly caught in the whirl of this 
new-found power, in the intoxication of this delight in 
astonishing achievement. One strong voice was raised in 


warning, that of W. J. Linton. He laid down his prin- 
ciples in an article on " Art in Engraving on Wood," which 
appeared in the " Atlantic Monthly," and for which he 
was denounced with some acrimony. (There exists a 
manuscript reply by Juengling, never published.) Oppo- 
sition drew from his pen a little volume entitled " Some 
practical Hints on Wood-Engraving for the Instruction 
of Reviewers and the Public" (Boston, 1879). Finally 
he issued his " History of Wood-Engraving in America " 
(1882). The critical and historical account of the devel- 
opment of the art, particularly during 1840-70, will al- 
ways make this an indispensable book of reference. The 
portion relating to the work of the " new school " is of 
interest and value on account of the comments on the 
numerous examples given. Linton, while evidently striv- 
ing to be fair (he has plenty of good things to say, finds 
much to praise), protested vehemently against an undue 
and slavish devotion to textures and tones, to ultra-re- 
finement. He found, too often, the essential sacrificed to 
the unessential, while at the same time the very distinction 
of substance aimed at was missed. As an instance, among 
many, he pointed out Juengling's remarkably clever Pro- 
fessor, after Duveneck, with lip, cheek, eye, hair, coat and 
background " all of the same wooden texture." As a 
result, says he, lines of demarcation indicated by differ- 
ences in color are lost, and the Professor's cranium — the 
hair having faded into the background — appears mis- 
shapen and deeply gashed. He deplored so much real 
talent in all this new work misapplied, " spent on en- 
deavors to rival steel line-engraving or etching, in follow- 


ing brush-marks, in pretending to imitate crayon work, 
charcoal or lithography." 

It was the tendency to render substance rather than 
spirit, to imitate brush-marks rather than to imitate essen- 
tials, to which he objected. He insisted on the importance 
of the line, and of " drawing with the graver." That 
implied, with Linton, despite a certain flexibility of tech- 
nique, an adherence to some conventions, a translation 
into the language of the engraver rather than an inter- 

On the other hand, Timothy Cole quite recently, speak- 
ing of the changes brought about in modern wood-en- 
graving, says : " At last it became apparent that the old 
conventions were inadequate and that they had to go by 
the board. The line had to be tampered with in order 
faithfully to render the qualities characteristic of the 
artist's painting. In other words, the painting came to 
be deemed more important than the exploitation of the 
engraver's skill in the production of lines. All the old 
conception of reproducing textures — a certain sort of line 
for this and another sort of line for that — had to go." 
All very true, yet it was " exploitation of the engraver's 
skill " which called forth Linton's severest strictures. It 
is a question whether Cole, in the maturity of his power, 
has not to a certain extent approached Linton's point of 

As to photographing on the block, Linton points out 
that it was done in the London " Cornhill " days, long 
before the advent of our " new school." And when met 
by the statement that " the freest handling is not attain- 


able [by the designer] on the limited surface of a block," 
he asks : " Was Holbein cramped when he drew the Day 
of Judgment on a block three inches by two? " and con- 
cludes " There is an art in drawing on wood." To which 
one may add the graphic testimony of Adolph Menzel, 
who, being limited to twelve square centimetres in his 
illustrations to the works of Frederick the Great, drew 
an introductory vignette representing a cupid holding a 
huge compass, with the legend " XII centimetres! Max- 
imum! " and underneath " Hie . . . hie salta." 

Linton made a strong plea for the status of the en- 
graver as a thinking artist, who must interpret the orginal 
in his own language and way, and not slavishly imitate 
it ad absurdum. When the engravers are " drilled into 
superfineness," says he, " their work is scarcely distinguish- 
able. This utter subordination of the engraver destroys 
his individuality. Having no individuality of his own, 
will he be better able to appreciate the individuality (the 
real personality, I do not say only the outer clothes) of 
the painter? " 

The battle was fought and is long over; many of the 
actors in it are dead, most of those living have turned 
to other fields of activity. We to-day will probably agree 
that there was at least some basis of common sense and 
of esthetic reason in Linton's strictures, to which Jueng- 
ling wrote a reply, never published, but preserved. 

The late Sylvester Rosa Koehler summed up the matter 
in sane language in his German monograph on wood-en- 
graving, already referred to. American wood-engraving, 
he wrote, began to go its own way; the evolution was 


"justified, indeed necessary." He continues: "Linton 
bases on the erroneous assumption that wood-engraving 
through its material and its tools is irrevocably confined 
within the limits of what has already been accomplished," 
while, in fact, " wood-engraving must adjust itself to the 
character of contemporary art." And that contemporary 
art, that new movement of the seventies, he points out, 
was under the influence of France, of the " reign of tech- 
nique and color," and in its turn naturally influenced wood- 
engraving and illustration, so that the purely technical 
side, " the how rather than the what," became predomi- 
nant. The delicate pencil drawing had already given way 
to a great extent to wash drawings on the block, and now 
came large paintings, photographed in reduced form on 
the block. " Here, then, the wood-engraver was con- 
fronted by a new problem: — he was no longer to draw, 
he was to paint! " Much silly and ugly work resulted. 
" The boldness of the manner degenerated into coarse- 
ness; emancipation from abandoned academic rules seemed 
best proven by impudently violating all laws of nature 
and art, and particularly all demands of beauty." Gra- 
dations of tone and color, textures, the quality of pulsating 
air, all the things which the painter rendered through 
differences in handling of the brush, the superposition of 
layers of color, had to be translated by the engraver with 
his one instrument, the burin. Koehler cites particularly 
a cut, in the " Art Journal " for 1880, after a color sketch 
by Gaugengigl, simply an attempt at harmonizing certain 
colors, form being neglected. But he cites also Jueng- 
ling's reproduction of Monticelli as " a veritable triumph 


of wood-engraving." The imitative spirit went so far 
as the indication of the grain of the paper in white spots 
in water colors. " In the one-sided striving for tonality 
. . . the textures of the materials represented are but 
too often entirely overlooked." 

Koehler's conclusion is that all these efforts eventually 
bore good fruit. The final impression that he gives is 
that in the belief in certain underlying eternal laws of 
fitness and beauty, and of the necessary integrity of the 
line, he and Linton are after all on common ground. 
Linton ends his " History " by saying of the men of the 
" new school " : " Notwithstanding all my censures, the 
revival of wood-engraving is in their hands. They will 
outgrow their mistakes." 

When all is said, the fact remains that the " new 
school " did its work and did it well. After we have 
eliminated what was ill-advised or prompted by an over- 
weening confidence, a somewhat one-sided devotion to 
one principle, so very much remains that we can continue 
to feel great and justified pride in the results of the 
movement. It left the mark of its achievement indelibly 
inscribed in the annals of wood-engraving of all time. 
Not a few of the engravers identified with this " new 
school " were of foreign birth and early foreign train- 
ing, but the traditional assimilativeness of Uncle Sam was 
exemplified here, too. Their talents were enlisted by an 
impetus born of American soil, or at all events carried 
to its highest development here, and it was adapted in its 
expression to meet the needs engendered by that impulse. 
It is an honorable list that can be given here, a list of 


engravers including many whom we can class as Americans 
without any reference to foreign origin other than is made 
by the form of name. 

Frederick Juengling was " a bold, undaunted experi- 
menter, an enthusiast," of whom S. R. Koehler wrote a 
" Memoir," 1890. Frank Juengling's block after Whist- 
ler's dry-point of Riault, the engraver, showed what the 
imitative care of the " new school " could accomplish in 
straight line facsimile work. John G. Smithwick was 
for some time in partnership with Frank French, among 
whose works was a volume of " Home Fairies and Heart 
Flowers " (1886), heads of children from his own draw- 
ings, with text by Miss Sangster. Richard Alexander 
Miiller's ability was well exemplified in On the old Sod, 
from the painting by William Magrath. And there were 
furthermore S. S. Kilburn, William H. Morse, E. Schla- 
ditz, H. W. Peckwell, Richard George Tietze, William 
Miller, W. M. Aikman, S. G. Putnam, J. W. Evans, 
F. H. Wellington, F. W. Putnam, Victor Bernstrom, E. 
H. Del'Orme, Van Ness, J. H. E. Whitney, M. Haider 
and Miss Caroline Powell. All craftsmen with whom 
technical ability and artistic feeling produced the best 
results. Miss Powell, like Mrs. Anna Botsford Corn- 
stock (devoted particularly to natural history subjects), 
studied at the engraving school for women at Cooper 
Institute, New York City. This school was established 
in 1859 and continued until 1890 or '91, being managed 
successively by Robert O'Brien (1859-67), Linton 
(1868-70), Miss Charlotte B. Cogswell (1871-80) and 
J. P. Davis (188 1— ). 


Thomas D. Sugden, an old engraver who learned 
his art with T. W. Strong, and who for years was in 
charge of the block and plate department of the Century- 
Co., has compiled a manuscript volume, " Remarks on 
Wood Engraving, by One-o-them " (1904), unconven- 
tional comments accompanying a number of proofs. An 
enthusiastic devotee of the art he practised and loves, 
he points out such characteristics as the effective manner 
in which the lines follow the swirl of the waves in a 
cut by Tinkey of a storm on a coast, the " soft delicacy 
and sunlight " that pervade certain work by Davis, the 
method of using perpendicular lines to represent water 
used by Juengling, Chadwick and E. Anderson, for in- 
stance, in contrast to the horizontally lined lilies floating 
on its surface, in engravings by the last two. Sugden is 
responsible also for a droll 4-page " History of Wood 
Engraving in the United States in a Nutshell," 1903, 
set up and printed by himself in only four or five 

Not a few of the engravers became identified with 
some specialty in style or subject, or became best known 
through some particular engraving. Thomas Johnson, 
who excelled in portraits, won praise for " calm and 
appropriate treatment " and " effective yet mild light 
effect." Gustav Kruell long devoted himself to portrait- 
ure, producing highly creditable work such as the vigor- 
ous head of Fletcher Harper, and the smaller heads in 
the series of musicians by himself and Johnson (1878). 
In time he developed a style of strength and distinction, 
in which a proper appreciation of tried convention and 


tradition is modified by a sane adoption and adaptation 
of new methods. His large portraits of Wendell Phil- 
lips, W. T. Sherman, Robert E. Lee, Beethoven, Darwin 
(with small " side whiskers "), Webster, Hawthorne and 
Lincoln (clean-shaven) gave him much opportunity for 
personal expression because he was not interpreting an- 
other artist, but rendering in the richness of his burin- 
stroke the matter-of-fact truthfulness of the camera's 
point of view. In the white-line modeling of his faces 
the personalities he pictures rise out of the impersonal 
reflection of the photograph into a fresh and most lively 
characterization, into a new significance, I had almost 

Frank S. King, who later turned to engraving on cop- 
per, numbered among his blocks such quite different un- 
dertakings as a series after Burne-Jones, a portrait of 
Modjeska after Carolus Duran, The Fog after F. S. 
Church and finished productions akin to Marsh's insects, 
for instance a peacock's feather ("Harper's Monthly," 
1878) from a drawing by W. H. Gibson. His Lobster 
Pot (" Scribner's Magazine ") won strong approval from 
Linton because " the rock and the water are really dis- 
tinct substances, and the lobsters have the form and 
texture of lobsters." 

W. B. Closson apparently delighted and certainly ex- 
celled in the reproduction of hazy, vaguely defined effects 
such as appear in the lightness and delicacy of his en- 
graving from a drawing by William Rimmer (Magda- 
len), with its effect of soft, broken, crayon or charcoal 
lines, or even more in his excellent Winifred Dysart after 


George Fuller, cut for the " American Art Review." 
When, later on, he engraved blocks from his own designs, 
this preference for not too sharply circumscribed forms 
was still evident. 

Elbridge Kingsley gives rise to similar observation. 
He was particularly happy in presenting the rich, succu- 
lent foliage of Rousseau or Diaz, or the joyous hymn 
to nature that Corot sang, or D. W. Tryon's dreams of 
misty evening. In like manner he made of his engrav- 
ings executed from nature, transcripts of mood rather 
then of cold form, visions rather than views. He did 
fifteen illustrations " engraved directly from nature " for 
Whittier's " Poems of Nature." 

Ernst Heinemann successfully reflected the airy, trans- 
lucent manner of F. S. Church in that picture of a mermaid 
riding on a horse dimly outlined in a swirling wave, or 
in Nymphe des Eaux (" L'Art," November, 1889). But 
he showed also command of entirely different manners in 
the Guitar Player of Frans Hals, The Studio after T. 
Ribot (medal, Buffalo Exposition of 1901), or his best, 
the Plantin proof-readers. Influenced by the spirit 
of the new school, he was not carried away by its 

John P. Davis, though one of the older men, changed 
his style with the times, and produced such blocks as 
the Dartmouth Moors after R. Swain Gifford, in which 
Linton, while criticising on technical grounds, finds the 
tone " of admirable quality." He, a link between the 
old and the new, was the last secretary of the Society of 
American Wood Engravers. 


Cole and Wolf, working to-day in the full maturity 
of their powers, have developed each an absolutely dis- 
tinct style. Theirs is a manner of expression born of a 
long experience which engendered a remarkable develop- 
ment of technique, placed always fully at the service of 
the particular artist whose spirit was being drawn from 
the canvas at a given time. That is the essential, the 
salient feature in the work of these two men, the regard 
for the personality behind the canvas. They are con- 
cerned not so much with that delight in the power over 
tools that may lead to a camera-like imitation of every 
brush-mark or sweep of the palette-knife, but rather in 
the transposition, into the language of the burin, of what 
the painter has said with brush and color. In the case 
of Cole, who was called to " Scribner's Magazine " by 
its art editor, A. W. Drake, as early as 1875, this is done 
with a simplicity of method and a broad, bold directness 
of expression that give his translations a personal dis- 
tinction. They bring us into touch with the thoughtful 
contemplativeness that grasps and enters into the great 
principles of life actuating the soul that have found voice 
in the technical mastery of the painting before it. It is 
that which constitutes the importance of his series after 
the Italian, Dutch, English, Spanish and French masters, 
begun in 1883 under commission from the Century Co. 
One can well understand that such a sympathetically crit- 
ical temperament should be attracted by the art of other 
days, which he has illumined also in written comment. 
" He handles his tool," says Miss E. L. Cary, " as a 
painter handles his brush, with the same freedom and 


dexterous control, and the same variation of stroke to 
meet various problems." Cole has shown manifold re- 
sources, " from the wildest unbridledness to the fault- 
lessly classical line," as Koehler once said. But his art 
has long since become clarified into the permanent ex- 
pression of calm and serene sureness to-day characteristic 
of this master. 

Where Cole impresses us as a thoughtful interpreter 
speaking to us in the rich tones of his own language, in 
Wolf we find suavity and rafjinement dominant. Wolf, 
devoted particularly to the moderns, brings to his task 
sensitive adaptativeness, discriminating understanding and 
distinguished skill. These have served to disclose or re- 
call the beauties of art of various periods. In recent 
years he has copied, in a spirit in harmony with the in- 
tentions of the artists, a Corot for Mr. George A. Hearn; 
Jonghers's portrait of W. T. Evans; the portrait of a 
girl (Hispanic- American Society) and Balthasar Carlos 
(Metropolitan Museum), both by Velasquez; Ver Meer's 
Young Woman at a Window; Whistler's Miss Alexander 
and Manet's Boy with a Sword. As an interpreter of 
contemporary American figure painting, he has reflected 
the best spirit of that art in terms of his own and with 
sympathetic appreciation. That is evidenced in blocks 
after J. Alden Weir, Horatio Walker, J. W. Alexander, 
W. M. Chase, E. Tarbell. James G. Huneker said of 
him: " He has attacked all schools, all styles, from Frans 
Hals to Homer Martin, from interiors by Vermeer to 
the subtle tonal graduations of Whistler's mother. . . . 
The line ... is clean and significant. He has the 

From "Harper's Magazine." Copyright 1907, by Harper A Brothers 

Girl and Peonies 
After Irving R. Wiles. Wood-engraving by Henry Wolf 


sense of tactile values. Vitality there is . . . , above 
all virility in company with poetic distinction." 

Honors in plenty have come to both of these men. 
Cole has won gold medals at the expositions in Chicago 
1892, Paris 1900, Buffalo 1901 and St. Louis 1904, as 
well as other distinctions. Wolf was awarded various 
medals and other honors, including a gold medal at the 
Salon of 1895 an d silver medals at Paris (1900) and 
Rouen (1903). 

Most of the engravers of the " new school " were iden- 
tified with the " Society of American Wood Engravers," 
which issued in 1882, through the Harpers, a " Port- 
folio " which remains a noteworthy monument to that 
period of brilliant achievement. There are preserved, in 
New York, the diplomas which the Society won as a 
body at the International Exhibition of Art in Berlin, 
1 89 1, and at the International Exhibition of Graphic 
Arts, Vienna, 1895. (In 1894 the Society again ap- 
peared in Berlin, its exhibit at the Chicago Exposition 
being shown in the National Gallery in the German cap- 
ital.) Honors came also to individual members at the 
Paris Exposition of 1889: a gold medal to Kingsley, 
silver medals to Closson and J. P. Davis, bronze medals 
to W. M. Aikman and S. G. Putnam, honorable mention 
to Kruell, Wolf and Henry Davidson, as is set down in 
the catalogue of the " Exhibition of the Society of Amer- 
ican Wood-Engravers " held in the Boston Museum, 
1890. A like exhibition was held at the Grolier Club, 
New York City, in the same year. 

While the general movement exemplified by these vari- 


ous individualities was given a sort of official expression 
in the " Portfolio " of the Society of American Wood- 
Engravers, already referred to, there was also other col- 
lective presentation. The Scribners brought out " A 
Portfolio of Proof Impressions selected from Scribner's 
Monthly and Saint Nicholas" (1879), 102 plates; a 
second series with the same title (1881), 50 plates; and 
a selection from both: "Selected Proofs from the First 
and Second Portfolios of Illustrations from Scribner's 
Monthly and Saint Nicholas" (1881), 57 plates. The 
first series included Cole's Gillie Boy, which has been 
spoken of, as well as his engraving of Whistler's Study 
in White, and Linton's Grand Canon of the Colorado 
after T. Moran. Still another collection of proofs was 
the "Longfellow Portfolio" (1881) of seventy-five 
plates, issued by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

An interesting undertaking was also the edition of 
Poe's "Raven" (1884) with illustrations by Dore cut 
on wood by Americans : Juengling, Claudius, Tietze, W. 
Zimmermann, Kruell, French, Bernstrom, Hoskin, R. A. 
Miiller, King, G. J. Buechner, R. Staudenbaur and R. 
Schelling. Huneker asserts that Dore's French engravers 
made everything of his work, while the Americans en- 
graved him too literally, the inference being, of course, 
that they showed up his weaknesses instead of glossing 
them over. 

It is a matter for congratulation that there are various 
public collections of the productions of this American 
school. The Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Con- 
gressional Library at Washington and the New York 


Public Library have formed particularly large and fine 
general collections, and there are others on the walls of 
the Young Men's Christian Association in Orange, N. J., 
in the Newark Public Library and in the public library 
of Springfield, Mass. ("Aston collection"). The work 
of certain individual artists may be studied in collections 
of noteworthy fullness in certain places. Thus, W. T. 
Evans has presented to the National Gallery at Washing- 
ton a set of proofs of Wolf's engravings, and another 
may be seen at the Lotos Club in New York City. In 
Mt. Holyoke College there is a collection of the works 
of Elbridge Kingsley (catalogue by M. E. Dwight, 
1901), and another selection is in the print room of the 
New York Library. This New York institution has also 
the various series of Cole's " Masters " in selected im- 
pressions, and a noteworthy collection of nearly five hun- 
dred pieces by Juengling. The latter includes a number 
of interesting proofs of small sections of various blocks, 
pulled on little scraps of paper; thus, the heads of John 
Brown and one of the soldiers and various hands, feet 
and other portions in John Brown going to Execution, 
after Thomas Hovenden, are each repeated a number of 
times on bits of paper an inch and a half square, or less, 
showing how the engraver progressively proved various 
portions of his block. So, too, a section of his How it 
happened after M. A. Woolf. Henry Wolf once told 
me that, as far as he knew, Juengling and he were the 
only ones to practise this method. In this Jueng- 
ling collection there are also some impressions from 
metal casts of engraved wood blocks, which casts 


were, of course, intaglio plates like etchings, instead of 
relief blocks. 

Adequate records of the achievements of this interest- 
ing and brilliant phase of American art are thus preserved 
in various places. 



The development of reproductive wood-engraving 
which the United States witnessed in the last quarter of 
the nineteenth century, was carried to what was appar- 
ently the limit of its possibilities in the suggestion of 
tones and textures. The glorious period of success was 
as remarkable in its product as it was short in duration. 
The photo-mechanical processes, particularly the now 
ubiquitous half-tone, swept all before them, and only two 
noteworthy members of the group of men who made 
American wood-engraving famous — Cole and Wolf — are 
to-day still regularly practising the art as a reproductive 
process. Heinemann, Miller, E. H. Del'Orme, F. H. 
Wellington, Chadwick, S. G. Putnam and others entered 
the service of the photo-mechanical processes which sup- 
planted wood-engraving, and added to the plate of the 
half-tone that engraving by hand which emphasizes light 
and shade and corrects the dull uniformity of the screen. 
Frank French has written magazine articles illustrated by 
engravings by himself after his own designs. Thomas 
Johnson executed a number of portraits in etching. F. S. 
King and Walter Aikman have turned to copper-engrav- 
ing, notably in plates done for the Society of Iconophiles, 
portraits of American notables by King (whose " printer's 
devil " plate is noted among collectors) and copies of 



old New York views by Aikman. Oscar Grosch turned 
for a while to the engraving of his own designs on copper 
and to original etching. One might search out other 
like instances and extend the list of those who are exer- 
cising their artistic training in special fields other than that 
with which they were once prominently identified. 

A general resumption of the art of wood-engraving 
as a means of reproducing paintings does not seem prob- 
able. So, at all events, many of us have thought, but 
more recently experiments have been pointed to as show- 
ing that the shallow half-tone plate will not generally give 
as good an electrotype as will the wood block with its 
possibilities of deeper lines. Furthermore, the block, as 
William Aspinwall Bradley points out, gives clean-cut, 
sharply defined printing surfaces, instead of the monoto- 
nous, uniform mesh of the half-tone screen which, besides 
its deadly mechanical effect, is apt to smudge in printing. 
It is, of course, this same mechanical effect and the ab- 
sence of absolute high light that has led to the retouching 
of half-tone plates before turning them over to the printer. 
Bradley, when art editor of the " Delineator," put his idea 
to the test, in engravings by F. H. Wellington (died 
191 1 ) and others. 

The decay of wood-engraving has been deplored in 
print and speech not a few times, and not infrequently in 
apparent forgetfulness of the fact that not only will neces- 
sity insure the survival of that which fits its case, but in 
this case the revival is already with us. But the art has 
arisen in a new form, or rather there is a renascence of 
an old form. We may or may not believe that there will 


ever again be a general use of wood-engraving for the 
purpose of reproducing paintings or drawings or photo- 
graphs. But there is no doubt that an increasing number 
of artists have been turning to the wood block, as they 
have to etching or lithography, as a means of original, 
direct expression. Painter-wood-engraving is coming to 
its own. 

In this country, the desire for original work first took 
the form of engraving direct from nature by some of the 
men who had helped to bring reproductive wood-engrav- 
ing to its high state of development. The original work 
of Kingsley, who has printed some of his blocks in colors, 
and of Closson has already been spoken of. Others, 
likewise long known as discerning interpreters of the de- 
signs and paintings of others, — the late Victor Bernstrom, 
Henry Wolf, Frank French, — have felt the impulse of 
original creation and brought to its service their long 
training and artistic temperament. Wolf has seen 
" Lower New York in a Mist " and shown it with a 
delicacy, a " silvery tone," that recalls Whistler's rhapsody 
concerning the fairyland which London at night opened 
up to him. Bernstrom has some original blocks to his 
credit, — landscapes. Wm. G. Watt, too, has recently en- 
graved his own designs on the wood. In the result of 
all these there is generally completeness of effect, the 
natural outcome of the engraver's previous activity. The 
spaces of their composition are filled with lines to indicate 
tone or local color. 

In the hands of the artists who are not professional 
wood-engravers, but who turn temporarily to wood and 


graver as one of the means through which to find an 
outlet for what they see and feel, the medium is usually 
employed in a somewhat different way, although its char- 
acteristic nature is respected and understandingly utilized. 
Here, there is apt to be indication rather than fulfilment, 
decorative effect of line or space rather than insistence 
on detail. The rendition of form is simplified. Simple 
designs, flat tints of gray or black or color, are generally 
used. Particularly noticeable are a reversion to the line 
of the facsimile engraving (as we see it in cuts after 
Diirer, for instance), with occasionally a touch of archa- 
ism; and the influence of the Japanese chromo-xylograph, 
or wood-engraving in color. But these influences, in the 
work which is worthy of serious consideration, appear 
in assimilation, not in imitation. The key-note in these 
prints is modernity; they are of to-day, and none 
the less original because based on experience of the 

A number of European artists have exemplified the 
widely varying possibilities of individual expression in 
this art of simple, straightforward and yet subtle effects, 
and it is a cause for gratification that some Americans 
have likewise begun to avail themselves of its resources. 
Even a cursory examination of all this work will show 
how responsive this art can be to the personal touch. 
Yet all this display of variety in conception, treatment 
and result is based primarily on an understanding of the 
peculiar nature of the tools used, on a recognition of 
both the range and the limits of their inherent potentiality. 
To know how to produce effects without torturing the 


instrument beyond its proper functions is as necessary in 
art, as it is in literature to produce word-pictures without 
straining the language. 

The few American artists who have heeded the appeal 
of the wood block have tested its possibilities in quite 
varied styles and moods. And the result is most satis- 
factory where the artist does not lose his better self in 
the pursuit of the close imitation of other models, where 
foreign influences are absorbed in a healthy manner while 
the artist's own personality predominates. This is ap- 
parent, for instance, in the works of Arthur W. Dow, 
among them the Ipswich Prints, which he himself calls 
" simple color themes," of which an exhibition was held 
at the Boston Museum in 1895. In them the principles 
of color-printing from wood blocks are well illustrated. 
The late Ernest F. Fenollosa, writing of Dow's experi- 
ments in printing pictures in a few flat tints, emphasized 
the characteristics of the process, its limits, its salient 
features, the delicacy which lies in its very simplicity. 
" The artist," said he, " is as free with his blocks as the 
painter with his palette. . . . Pigment washed upon 
the wood, and allowed to press the sheet with a touch 
as delicate as a hand's caress, clings shyly only to the 
outer fibers, . . . leaving the deep wells of light in 
the valleys, the whiteness of the paper's inner heart, to 
glow up through it and dilute its solid color with a 
medium of pure luminosity." And farther: "This 
method . . . strengthens the artist's constructive sense 
in that it forces him to deal with simple factors. It 
stimulates the faculty of design. . . . Mr. Dow's 


application of it to Western expression and use remains 
an epoch-making event." 

It is this Western expression which forms the interest 
of these prints, the independent adaptation of the Japa- 
nese technique for the presentation of a point of view 
which carries no hint of mere imitation, but is the outcome 
of personal conviction. The Japanese manner is very- 
much more insisted upon in the case of Miss Helen Hyde, 
who, furthermore, has lived in Japan and chooses Japa- 
nese subjects. She has presented some delicate and sub- 
dued color harmonies, such as we see them in old Japanese 
prints as they appear to-day, with the colors toned down 
by time or exposure. Yet with all this there is in her 
pictures an element of Occidental observation. To a 
Japanese, indeed, her work may seem strange, despite the 
fact that we are told that she won a prize in Tokio in 
competition with native artists. The Japanese form is 
there, rather than the spirit. The gesture is Japanese, 
the language is English. And it is well that Miss Hyde, 
despite her Japanese robes, does speak her mother tongue 
— though with an accent. While Miss Hyde is attracted 
by figure-subjects and flat tints, B. J. Olssen-Nordfeldt 
was evidently influenced by the landscapes of Hokusai and 
Hiroshige, and insists somewhat more obviously on the 
line. And in the latter he seems to see picturesque rather 
than decorative possibilities, — foamy wave tops circum- 
scribed into rigidity by curly lines which yet in themselves 
have the restlessness of irregular rhythms. He gets away 
farther than Miss Hyde from the land of Fuji Yama, 
despite the still evident influence of its art. 


An entirely different point of view is evidenced in 
the work of Howard McCormick, rugged, yet aiming in 
its way at full pictorial effect, covering the surface of 
the block with lines. Still, his is not the manner of the 
professional wood-engraver, and not suited to microscop- 
ical examination any more than the impressionistic can- 
vases of Monet or Pissarro or Sisley. It is a method 
well adapted in its vigor to his reproduction of the bust 
of Lincoln in which that homely, honest character has 
been pictured by the virile directness of Gutzon Borglum. 
Usually, however, he engraves after his own designs, as 
in some magazine covers, or in his series of Mexican sub- 
jects. In these latter he handles the graver (burin) with 
the sweep of the brush, using legitimate burin methods, 
but applying them with a free, flickering touch which gives 
a noteworthy impression of life and action and pulsating 

Where McCormick fairly hews out his way in a dis- 
tinct style of his own, A. Allen Lewis shows a touch of 
frank archaism, joined, however, to an equally honest 
individuality of expression. His frequent use of tints of 
color, flat, but with the mottling of delicate variations 
produced by the texture of the wood, is reminiscent of the 
old " chiaroscuro " engravings. It is merely a matter of 
method, however; the work is essentially of to-day. Rud. 
Ruzicka fairly bathes his black line designs, executed with 
both vigor and lightness, in a light-brown tint relieved 
by white lights. The effect invests his metropolitan 
scenes, be it a skyscraper or A bit of old New York, 
with a delightful appeal to the imagination, personal in its 


presentation. W. F. Hopson, like Lewis, has been par- 
ticularly identified with the art of the book-plate, as 
have also Hugh M. Eaton and George Wolfe Plank, of 
Philadelphia, chief inspirer of the short-lived " Butter- 
fly " quarterly. 

In contrast to this art of the small there is the opposite, 
as to size, in the field of the print, the poster. It was 
once, before the more ambitious efforts of lithography, 
wholly the province of the wood-cutter, though a product, 
then, of rough-and-ready effects. The materials used 
may have seemed unpromising: wood-carver's tools 
ground down to the length of a boxwood-graver, the 
blade being grooved to prevent splitting in the wood, and 
very soft basswood, quite free from knots. Yet James 
Britton employed them with bold and broad effect in sev- 
eral vigorously drawn posters for the Connecticut League 
of Art Students, for a studio concert, etc. They bring 
us back to the old truth, that the artist who really has 
something to say will find his own way of saying it, and 
will win the medium to his style. 

All this is not so very much, quantitatively. Its sig- 
nificance lies in the effort to use this oldest of the repro- 
ductive media as a painter-art. Yet it is simply one of 
the forms of graphic art which offer by-paths for incur- 
sions which are not undertaken too often by American 
artists. The present gratifying revival of painter-etching 
in the United States is expressed almost entirely in the 
activity of those who make a specialty of etching; the 
painter who etches occasionally is rare indeed. Lithog- 
raphy is almost entirely neglected. Abroad — in France, 



England, Germany and Austria — one finds much more 
active utilization of such possibilities on the part of artists, 
who turn from canvas or modeling clay to the etching 
plate, the lithographic stone, or the wood block (not to 
speak of forms of applied art such as interior decoration 
or the designing of furniture — or advertisements). They 
bring the personal note which forms the value and attrac- 
tion of such efforts to present the objects of vision in 
various artistic forms. Such occasional changes of activ- 
ity must provide a veritable safety-valve, an opportunity 
for the " other view," a chance of escape from the " usual 
thing " whan that threatens to become too much a matter 
of manner, a road of return to the artist's own self. 


It was a foregone conclusion that lithography should 
find its greatest development here through its commercial 
possibilities. The record of accomplishment in strictly 
original lithography is not extensive, while commercial 
lithography attained to a noteworthy degree of excel- 
lence. Nevertheless, the first attempts in the art, which 
had already been taken up enthusiastically by artists in 
Germany and France, were made here, too (in 1819-20), 
by a painter, Bass Otis. His two little drawings have 
little to recommend them but the interest of priority. 
They gave no hint of the possibilities exploited even at 
that time by Senefelder, Winter, Girodet-Trioson, 
Vernet, Guerin, Gros and others abroad. Our distin- 
guished countryman in England, Benjamin West, had 
tried both crayon and pen on the stone as early as 1801 
(John the Baptist and He is not here) and 1802 (This 
is my beloved Son), and his son Raphael signed a study 
of an old tree in 1802. But over here we had, appar- 
ently, not been in a hurry to test the newly-discovered 
medium. Yet Dr. S. L. Mitchell, according to the " Na- 
tional Intelligencer" of Jan. 8, 1808, had a lithographic 
stone and ink in his possession at that time. 

However, after Otis's unassuming attempts, the facility 
of this new reproductive process evidently aroused some 


rjt$ Ct^ =#W & -S~- 

jD 18 so. 

The two earliest known lithographs produced in the United States. 
Both by Bass Otis. 


interest. At all events, hardly seven years after Otis's 
essays appeared, Rembrandt Peale was awarded the 
silver medal of the Franklin Institute for his copy, on 
stone, of his own portrait of Washington. And we need 
not cite local pride or a backward state of art in this 
country as an explanation of the award. Peale really, in 
this work, showed an understanding of the possibilities 
of the stone which is worthy of note, and which, by the 
way, is not so apparent in other lithographs from his 
hand, — the larger head of Washington, and the smaller 
portraits of John Warren, M.D., Rev. John E. Abbott, 
etc. " I was among the first of the artists," said he, 
" who employed this admirable method of multiplying 
drawings. . . . In 1826 I went to Boston and devoted 
myself for some time to lithographic studies, and exe- 
cuted a number of portraits and other subjects, and 
finally a large drawing of my portrait of Washington." 
His first lithograph was a portrait of Byron, done, like 
others of his drawings, for Pendleton. 

However, painter-lithography, as an autographic art 
practised by the artist similarly to etching, could not, 
from the nature of things, find much expression in a land 
in which the conditions of social and political develop- 
ment left little time for the cultivation of art for its own 
sake. Still, the artistic interest was not entirely wanting, 
even in commercial work, when men such as Henry Inman 
(who formed a partnership with C. G. Childs), Thomas 
Sully, Rembrandt Peale, and Thomas Doughty were 
taking part in the development of the new process. As 
a matter of fact, artistic lithography and the commercial 


product cannot always be separated in the work of these 
early days. Much of it was signed, thus representing 
distinct personalities, instead of bearing only the trade- 
mark of a firm name. But one finds also the signatures 
of geniuses deservedly unknown. 

The commercial importance of the new reproductive 
process was evident from the beginning. As early as 
1825 John Pendleton was engaged in the business of 
lithographic printing in Boston, and Anthony Imbert in 
New York, and it was not long before firms sprang up 
in Philadelphia and other cities. Much of the work pro- 
duced was poor. 

Maverick, the New York engraver, busied himself also 
with lithography, one of his works being Daughter of 
Charles B. Calmody (1829) after Lawrence. Among 
the prints he issued is a view of Wall Street, New York 
City, the rarity and interest of which is in inverse propor- 
tion to its artistic value. It is signed H. R., which letters 
presumably stand for Hugh Reinagle, who signed in full 
a view of St. Paul's, in the same city, printed by Pen- 

In Philadelphia, Cephas G. Childs similarly practised 
lithography as well as copper-engraving. He became as- 
sociated in 1 83 1 with Henry Inman, a versatile painter, 
with facility and a certain swing in his crayon drawings 
on stone. These include portraits, a view of Mount 
Vernon in which the branches of trees outline a spectral 
Washington, and the particularly well done Scraps 
(1831). Of the last, the figure of a little nude boy on 
a stone, a graceful and delicate bit of crayon work, is 


especially noteworthy. Thomas Sully's portrait of R. 
Walsh jun. — C. G. Childs dir. — was also quite well exe- 

The services of other artists were enlisted in the cause 
of the " grease crayon." Such were four who occasion- 
ally drew for Imbert: Archibald Robertson {Grand 
Canal Celebration, 1825), A. J. Davis the architect 
(whose New York City views are well known to col- 
lectors), George Catlin the Indian painter, and David 
Claypoole Johnston (whose work is characterized by the 
colorless uniform gray of his portrait of Webster, after 
Chester Harding, 1831). Another artist who drew at 
least one view (Niagara Falls) for Imbert was G. Mar- 
siglia, N.A. Still other painters gave some attention to 
lithography, but not much of their work calls for special 
commendation. This may be due to a defective knowl- 
edge of drawing, or to insufficient study of the technique 
of lithography, or both. At all events, Lambdin's por- 
trait of Robert Owen has a decidedly amateurish aspect, 
and the Tomb of Washington, at Mount Vernon, by the 
landscape painter Thomas Doughty, done from a draw- 
ing made on the spot by J. R. Smith, and printed in 1832 
by Childs and Inman, is not prominently good. Doughty, 
by the way, did from nature and on stone some fairly ac- 
ceptable animal studies (Summer Duck and Newfound- 
land Dog) for Childs and Inman, as did J. G. Clonney, 
the genre painter, somewhat later, for Mesier. Thomas 
Cole also made attempts on the stone, notably The Good 
Shepherd, with a delicate background of trees and clouds, 
published in 1849 with the inscription to the artists of 


America this print is respectfully dedicated by Maria 
Cole, 1842, and printed in tints by Sarony & Major. 
Finally, John William Hill, one of the American circle of 
Pre-Raphaelites, signed Hackett's Town (1845) an d 
Rockland Lake, both drawn on the stone for Endicott 
& Co. 

Meanwhile there was an increase in professional 
lithographic artists, men who devoted their energies more 
continuously to this specialty. They, too, often signed 
their work, thus in a measure accenting the dignity of 
the artist in contrast with the lithographic firm name, 
although often, indeed, there was little to dignify by the 
name of art. Thomas Edwards, of Boston, was one of 
the first to draw in the crayon manner, and in portraits 
such as the one of James Tilton, M.D., the hesitation, the 
want of familiarity with the new medium is quite ap- 
parent. His Jacob Perkins (1826, printed by Pendleton) 
is already more free in execution. F. Alexander, Wil- 
liam Hoogland and J. R. Pennimann were other Boston 
artists, and the garrulous William Dunlap commends the 
work of John Bisbee and John Crawley Junior, who 
were employed by Endicott and Swett. I have seen no 
prints signed by either Bisbee or Crawley. A picture of 
Washington Hotel, Broadway, New York (1833) was 
drawn from nature and on stone by Moses Sweett, while 
the name is properly spelled on other prints, such as those 
in the "American Turf Register" (volume 1, 1830), 
or the Irving . . . addressing his Countrymen after an 
Absence of ij years. Other names met with are R. 
Cooke, J. M. Roberts and Charles Toppan under 

Lithograph by Rembrandt Peale 


some Imbert prints, W. Ball, W. Kelly, P. Hoas, E. 
Jones, according to my notes, which characterize their 
work as " poor." The interest in all this is antiquarian, 
rather than artistic. There were furthermore J. H. 
Colon (Inauguration of Washington, about 1830), A. 
Hoffy (Tompkins Blues of New York, City Troop of 
Philadelphia, colored plates by P. S. Duval, 1839) and 
R. J. Rayner (Portrait of Washington after Stuart). 
G. Lehman, like Hubard (portrait of Andrew Jackson, 
1833), lithographed for Childs & Inman; I have seen a 
flamingo drawn by him from nature, of a noteworthy 
delicacy, as well as a lithotint in colors, The Pirates' Well. 
In the thirties some of Pendleton's prints were signed 
by J. H. Bufford, who later was in business for himself. 
His drawing of Inman's portrait of Wirt (Pendleton) is 
the best by him that I have seen. 

Signatures increase as we go on in chronological se- 
quence: Bouvier, Penniman (1844), C. W. Burton 
(panoramic view of New York, 1849). F. J. Fritsch's 
pretentious pictures of the 38th Regiment, Jefferson 
Guards (1843) and the First Division (1844) both por- 
tray New York State Artillery organizations with the 
impartial inclusiveness that Banning Cock's company felt 
should have been accorded them in Rembrandt's famous 
" Night Watch." The interest in these two colored 
prints lies, however, in the fact that the first shows the 
City Hall and the second Castle Garden, and for that 
reason they were included in the exhibition of rare and 
important views of New York held in that city's library 
in 19 1 2. Charles Gildemeister signed a View of the 


Narrows and a View of the Hudson River from Fort 
Lee, both published by Seitz in 1851 ; G. W. Fasel drew 
Heroic Deeds of former Times, six scenes in Indian war- 
fare (Seitz: 1 851), and Bachmann a view of New York 
City. Gustavus Pfau and Hardtmuth, who both did por- 
traits for Nagel & Weingartner, J. H. Sherwin (1858) 
and C. Koppel (Jefferson Davis, bust portrait, nearly 
life-size, 1865) may also serve to indicate not necessarily 
importance, but the prevalence of signed work. 

The enlarging proportion of German names in this 
later work will be noted, as it will also in the record of 
firms. But much of the earliest work showed French 
influence. In fact, among Imbert's artists we find the 
names of F. Duponchel (1825), J. Bauncou and Canova, 
— presumably brought over from France as P. S. Duval 
was by Childs & Inman to take charge of the lithographic 
department added to their general engraving business. 
Pendleton, too, had studied the art in Paris and brought 
the materials with him. The miniature painter and en- 
graver Hugh Bridport's portrait of John Vaughan, after 
T. Sully, also shows French influence and is somewhat 
in the style of his pupil, Albert Newsam (1809-64), a 

Newsam was an assiduous student of French models. 
That is apparent in his larger portrait of W. Rawle, 
one of his best drawings, which stands out prominently 
from the many smaller colorless portraits which he pro- 
duced. It is shown notably also in the portrait of John 
G. Watmough after Inman, in the style of Grevedon, 
his finest and most stunning effort. He was originally 


apprenticed to Childs to learn engraving on copper. 
After Childs had gone into partnership with Inman, and 
taken up lithography, Newsam produced many of his 
earlier and best works for that firm, and he was active 
also for years in the service of its successor Duval. De- 
voted principally to portraiture, he was most successful 
when copying, for when he drew directly from the life he 
faithfully reproduced the tired look of the sitters whom 
he could not animate on account of his bodily misfortune. 
His name is indissolubly connected with the history of 
lithography in the United States. J. O. Pyatt, his teacher 
at the deaf and dumb institute, wrote a " Memoir " of 
him (1868), and a catalogue of his " Lithographic Por- 
traits " was issued by D. M. Stauffer in 1901. Two 
collectors at least — D. M. Stauffer and Charles Roberts 
— have directed their energies in his direction, and the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society has a number of proofs 
which once belonged to Newsam. 

Childs himself produced creditable portraits, such as 
those of Miss Clara Fisher, John Adams (partly done 
with the scraper) and Gen. A. Macomb. The first shows 
deep, rich shadows in the hair; the last, printed by Pen- 
dleton, Kearny & Childs, is of a soft, miniature-like effect. 

The technique in this early work was that of the crayon 
drawing, with occasional use of the scraper, the stroke 
of the crayon being usually lost in a uniform, often 
rather grayish, tint. An especially effective example of 
this style at its best is found in M. E. D. Brown's portrait 
of William P. Dewees, after Neagle, printed by Lehman 
and Duval, 1833. I* s deep, inky shadows and indefinite 


contours make it one of the most interesting examples 
of lithographic portraiture that this country has pro- 
duced. In a portrait of David B. Ogden and a reproduc- 
tion of a picture by Newton for " The Amateur 
and Cabinet," Brown fell much below the standard 
which he himself had set in this stunning portrait of 

From the late thirties to the early fifties a little group 
of portrait artists turned out very respectable work, with 
an occasional infusion of decidedly artistic feeling. 
Charles Fenderich's series of political notabilities, issued 
1 837-1 841 in Washington under the firm name of Charles 
Fenderich & Co., are rather uniformly dark, but fairly 
well modeled. His Garret D. Wall is the freest drawing 
by him that I have seen; Worth (1844), a ^ s0 ' * s quite 
good. F. D'Avignon likewise served his portraits in a 
lineless sauce of crayon tint; he ran to rich, shimmering 
grays instead of the sometimes dull heavy blacks that 
others affected. The series of large portraits after 
daguerreotypes by Brady, " Gallery of illustrious Amer- 
icans " (1850), is probably his most familiar work; the 
Baron Stow (Bufford, Boston: 1859) is one of his best 
in execution. A strong contrast to these is offered in 
his delicate miniature likeness of Ralph Izard (Boston, 
1844). The firm of D'Avignon & Brainerd existed in 
Boston in 1859. 

Fabronius, a Belgian, who came to Philadelphia in 
1855 and worked for Rosenthal and Duval, did good 
portraits. Martin Thurwanger, an Alsatian, who was in 
this country during 1850-55, employed the less-used 


medium, pen and ink, for his very carefully executed por- 
traits, such as that of E. Biddle. 

Contemporaneously with this activity in the Middle 
and Eastern States, J. Lion, a Frenchman working in 
Louisiana for many years, was engaged to make a series 
of portraits of the legislature of 1836, which series, 
owing to the death of the projector, was never published 
in collected form. His portrait of J. J. Morgan, New 
Orleans, 1846, shows a little similarity in manner to the 
lithographs of Leon Noel. William Beer, of the How- 
ard Memorial Library, writes me that " the most cele- 
brated head by Lion is one of Audubon," and adds 
that Gaspar Cusachs has about 100 lithographs by this 

Very much later in the century, early in the eighties, 
Max Rosenthal did two hundred or so of small heads 
of Revolutionary and other notabilities with a light, 
smooth touch. 

If the crayon tint is in evidence in the drawings of 
most of the men who have been mentioned, the line is 
insisted upon in those of L. Grozelier (portraits of 
Charles Sumner, Lyman Beecher, 1854, and N. P. Banks, 
1856) and C. G. Crehen (portraits of W. S. Mount, 
1850, and J. C. Fremont, 1856). The former drew for 
Duval and for J. H. Bufford (in the fifties) ; the latter 
for Nagel & Weingartner. Both of them had some- 
thing of the manner of the Frenchman Julien, whose 
" drawing models " were so familiar in our boyhood 
days. Vincent Collyer, similarly, in his large Crayon 
studies from life, gave a suggestion of the style of Jose- 


phine Ducollet's modeles de dessin, perhaps a bit freer 
in treatment. And Jules Emile Saintin, a French painter 
who spent some years in this country, did a portrait of 
Stephen A. Douglas (i860) which is worthy of special 

Lithography drew not a few engravers to its service, 
either directly as draughtsmen on the stone, or as man- 
agers or owners of establishments executing both en- 
gravings and lithographs. Childs and Maverick have 
already been referred to. V. Balch drew upon stone a 
portrait of Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, published, by Imbert. 
Annin & Smith, says Stauffer, " were for some time en- 
gaged in the lithographic business under the name of the 
Annin & Smith Senefelder Lithographic Co., of Boston. 
In 1 83 1 they sold out the lithographic business to W. S. 
Pendleton, who continued the business as the Senefelder 
Co. of the same city." John Cheney drew on stone for 
Boston lithographers two tender, silvery-gray landscapes 
and a figure-piece, The Broken Heart. S. H. Gimber 
did lithographs beside engraving in stipple and mezzo- 
tint. Bridport stippled and lithographed, as did James 
Akin, apparently a " jack of all trades," druggist, res- 
taurant keeper, mechanical draughtsman, and what not. 
And J. B. Martin, of Richmond, executed a portrait of 
John Randolph of Roanoke, printed by Childs. John 
Rubens Smith, who practised in various media, brought 
out A Compendium of Picturesque Anatomy . . . on 
four Folio Lithographic Plates (Boston, 1827) ; James 
Smillie, the line-engraver, did at least one drawing for 
lithographic reproduction {View of Union Park f lith. by 



One of the "Campagne Sketches" 
A series of lithographs by Winslow Homer 


Sarony & Major, 1849) 5 Kimmel & Forster (The Pre- 
servers of our Union, 1864) and H. B. Hall are credited 
with some work on the stone. 

A very large proportion of the production of the first 
half of the nineteenth century consisted of portraiture, 
but other fields were not neglected. There is a little gal- 
lery of landscape art, pictures mainly of topographical 
and local interest. Such are the somewhat dry " Views of 
Philadelphia and its vicinity," from paintings by J. C. 
Wild, " published by J. T. Bowen at his lithographic and 
print colouring establishment" (1848; copyright 1840), 
and the volume, " Scenery of the White Mountains, 
with 16 plates from drawings of Isaac Sprague. By 
William Oakes " (Boston, 1848: B. W. Thayer & Co.). 
Or the numerous views signed by Mrs. Frances F. 
Palmer in the forties and fifties, and published, some by 
F. & S. Palmer and many by Currier & Ives. Not only 
views of large cities (e.g., View of New York from JVee- 
hawken, 1849, or Suburban Gothic Villa, Murray Hill, 
New York), but vistas of small towns and villages, re- 
sponding to local needs and pride. E. Whitefield signed 
a number of views, among them a large one of Brooklyn 
from the United States Hotel, New York (1846). 

Two particularly fine examples of semi-commercial 
landscape work are Taghanic Fall, put on stone by David 
Glasgow (died Jan. 29, 1858, aged 24) after a draw- 
ing from nature by E. Whitefield, and Catterskill Falls, 
by Charles Parsons. Both are good, finished, workman- 
like productions; they have something of the manner of 
J. D. Harding, or perhaps of Calame. Parsons, for 


many years manager of the art department of Harper 
Bros., executed a number of drawings on the stone, par- 
ticularly large pictures of noted vessels, and a view of 
New York City (1858). 

We were shown our country also as seen by foreigners. 
As the Frenchman Milbert had, in the twenties, depicted 
the scenery of the Hudson, so A. Kollner, of Diisseldorf, 
in the fifties, drew a series of American views published 
by Goupil & Co. 

Lithography, for a while, was much used in book-illus- 
tration. An early effort is the title-page design of " The 
Daughter's Own Book " (Boston, 1833), a female figure 
in the manner of the French romantic period, done by 
Pendleton's Lithography. Pendleton seems to have 
printed many illustrations, among them those for A. 
Bigelow's "Travels in Malta and Sicily" (1831). 
Hawthorne's " Visit to the Celestial City " was published 
in 1844 by the American Sunday School Union with droll 
lithographic plates. In the fifties, sixties and seventies 
firms such as Sarony, Major & Knapp and Julius Bien 
were active in this field. A characteristic example of the 
work of the first-named is " Graphic Scenes of the Japan 
Expedition, by W. Heine, executed in colors and tints " 
(1856). They were responsible also for the Composi- 
tions for Judd's "Margaret" (1856) drawn in outline 
by F. O. C. Darley and put on stone by Konrad Huber, 
and for other similar work by Darley and J. W. Ehnin- 
ger. Long before, in 1843, Sinclair of Philadelphia had 
printed outline Scenes in Indian Life, drawn and etched 
on Stone by Darley. Bien's product included the illus- 


trations for " The House that Jack Built," " Five Little 
Pigs," etc., by H. L. Stephens, issued 1864-5 in editions 
of 100 copies, and the "Fables of Msop " (1867) by 
the same artist. 

Lithography was allied also to the comic art, in hu- 
morous weeklies such as " Puck," " Judge " or " The 
Wasp," as well as in separate sheets such as Thomas 
Worth's gaudily colored caricatures of negro life 
(" Darktown Fire Brigade " and the like). These last 
were printed and published by the New York firm of 
Currier & Ives (N. Currier, 1838-62, Currier & Ives, 
1862-1901), who for many years before and after the 
Civil War issued a pictorial record of happenings, — mur- 
ders, battles, shipwrecks, — as well as portraits and views, 
with little art and much color. Portraits, also, they fur- 
nished, and war-time cartoons by L. Maurer and others. 
Also prints with no reference to specific events, such as 
the series of six dealing with The Life of a Fireman by 
L. Maurer and Charles Parsons, or the Summer Scenes 
in New York Harbor (1869) by Parsons and Atwater. 
Even as late as the Spanish-American War their pictures 
formed the simplest and most direct supply of the demand 
for illustration of passing events. Such prints were issued 
also by John L. Magee, of Philadelphia, in the fifties. 
Similar in purpose but better in execution were such 
prints as Lincoln on his Death-bed and Grant's Council 
of War, by Peter Kramer. 

A field in which the stone quite crowded out the wood 
block was that of the theatrical poster. The artists Matt 
Morgan and H. A. Ogden and the firms Strobridge Litho- 


graphic Co., A. S. Seer and W. J. Morgan have been 
particularly identified with this form of lithographic activ- 
ity, into which there have been occasional incursions from 
without, so by Ernest Haskell and B. J. Rosenmeyer 
(portrait of Richard Mansfield). 

As in other countries, the music cover, cultivated in 
France notably by Chatiniere, was likewise the province 
of lithography, from the days of Pendleton to those of 
H. A. Thomas. A title-vignette for a song, printed by 
Pendle-ton, 1831, is signed Lopez; another piece of sheet 
music bears a portrait of Clay (Thayer & Co.'s Litho- 
graph, 1844) ; and J. D. Smillie designed a vignette or 

Many of the names mentioned in this chapter represent 
material for the history of commercial lithography, per- 
haps to be written some day? For us not a few of them 
have mainly the somewhat negative interest that they do 
appear on the prints, that they were not suppressed and 
covered by a firm name, that the artist was given his due. 

Such considerations take us naturally into the record 
of firms. Beside those named elsewhere in this chapter 
there were Childs & Lehman, Lehman & Duval (who 
lithographed the plates in J. O. Lewis's " Aboriginal 
Port-Folio," 1835), Kennedy & Lucas, P. S. Duval & 
Co., Pendleton, Kearny & Childs, and T. S. Sinclair in 
Philadelphia; Endicott & Swett, later Endicott (1832- 
90), G. Hayward, in New York; T. Moore, successor 
of Pendleton, and himself succeeded by Thayer, W. 
Sharp & Co., in Boston; Wegner, Brueckner & Mueller 
in Pittsburg (A. D. Wegner drew portraits) ; R. H. 


Pease in Albany; D. W. Kellogg in Hartford; and sim- 
ilar establishments in Washington, Baltimore and other 
cities in the third to sixth decades of the century. And 
if one comes down to more recent times, the list becomes 
too long for full citation. They were kept busy supply- 
ing demands for comic papers, posters, chromos, adver- 
tisements, cigar-box labels, cigarette cards, Christmas 
and other cards, supplements to periodicals, and the nu- 
merous other forms of pictorial production which came 
from the lithographic press. Not a few of these firms 
were united in the American Lithographic Co. 

A large proportion of this later work has been in 
color. Printed in color, that is, not hand-coloring such as 
it is found in Grandpapa's Pet, Drawn and lithotinted 
by John H. Richards expressly for Miss Leslie's Maga- 
zine, the first Specimen of this Art ever produced in the 
United States, Lith. of P. S. Duval, Phila. Early efforts 
in color-printing are encountered occasionally. For ex- 
ample, the cover, printed in colors by E. W . Bouve, Bos- 
ton, of " The Waif," edited by Longfellow (Cambridge, 
1 845 ) . Or the bust portrait of Washington lithographed 
and printed in oil Colors by P. S. Duval &f Son, Phila- 
delphia. Or the Interior View of Independence Hall, 
Philadelphia (1856), on Stone by Max Rosenthal; Litho- 
graphed and printed in Colors by L. N. Rosenthal. The 
color-plates in J. F. Reigart's " Life of Robert Fulton " 
(1856) were produced by the same combination of de- 
signer and printer. Max Rosenthal, who came to Phila- 
delphia in 1849, we are to ld, "made the chromo-litho- 
graphic plates for what is believed to be the first fully 


illustrated book by this process in the United States, 
' Wild Scenes and Wild Hunters.' In 1854 he drew and 
lithographed an interior view of the old Masonic Temple 
in Philadelphia, the plate being 22 by 25 inches, the 
largest chromo-lithograph that had been made in the 
country up to that time." Christian Schussele, an Al- 
satian, who came to Philadelphia in 1848, worked for 
Duval and subsequently turned to painting, is said to have 
learned chromo-lithography from Engelmann and intro- 
duced it here. He designed a card for P. S. Duval's 
Lithographic £s? Color Printing Establishment, which 
firm executed also his title for " Godey's " for 1850. 
After the early development of this new art through 
these two men came Julius Bien's large undertaking, the 
plates for the i860 re-issue of Audubon's "Birds." 
Among his later color-work was a sheet of gems to illus- 
trate an article by Dr. George F. Kunz (1890) and a 
reproduction of Munkacsy's Christ before Pilate. 

A name of particular significance in the annals of litho- 
graphic color-printing is that of Louis Prang, who issued 
many prints, including reproductions of paintings. The 
culmination of his achievement is to be found in the rendi- 
tion of ceramic ware in the W. T. Walters collection, 
appearing in a sumptuous folio published in Baltimore in 
1884. Finally, there must be noted the color-plates done 
by the Forbes Co. for the sumptuous publication: " The 
Bishop Collection. Investigations and Studies in Jade. 
Catalogue " ( 1906). 

With great improvement in commercial lithography 
there came comparatively few instances of artistic force 

Flower Girl 
Lithograph by William M. Hunt 


or individuality as we find it in the work, say, of Sarony, 
Morgan or Keppler to some extent. The incentive to 
original work, " painter-lithography," weakened. 

As has been indicated, the line bounding original work 
is not always easy to draw absolutely. Napoleon Sarony, 
identified with lithographic printing houses from his thir- 
teenth year, signed some pieces himself, executed with 
a graceful and facile touch and in a smooth manner. 
Shall David D. Neal's Captain John Paty and A. Nahl's 
Thomas O. Larkin (1863), both the work of California 
painters, be considered as original or as commercial litho- 
graphs? Or Seymour J. Guy's large certificate issued to 
subscribers to the Brooklyn and Long Island Fair in aid 
of the U. S. Sanitary Commission? Or the Campagne 
[sic!] Sketches, drawn with crayon and some scraping, 
with noteworthy freedom of touch, by Winslow Homer, 
during the Civil War, and published by Prang & Co. of 
Boston? Or even S. S. Frizzell's suave rendering, with 
crayon and some touches of the scraper, of W. M. 
Hunt's Elaine (1866) ? Decision is not quite so difficult 
if it be borne in mind that the fact that a painter happens 
to make a drawing for a lithographic house does not 
per se constitute the result a " painter-lithograph." It 
is a matter of expression of individuality, that is all. The 
question is simply, does the result clearly bear the impress 
of the artist's personality, is it an outcome of his own 
unhampered self? 

W. M. Hunt, in the sixties, showed true painter quali- 
ties in some original lithographs of a flower girl, a 
Savoyard (hurdy-gurdy player) and other simple sub- 


jects treated in a big way, with remarkable feeling for 
tone and color. About the same time (1870) G. W. 
Nichols of New York published a series of lithographs 
by painters, among them Twilight by A. Delessard, Twi- 
light by F. Rondel after a painting by George Inness, 
Plato by F. B. Mayer, and particularly Hagar and Ish- 
mael, a good, strong bit of work by Edwin White, who 
showed here the same quiet richness that marks some of 
his paintings. 

To these few names must be added those of Thomas 
Moran and J. Foxcroft Cole. Moran is known as a 
painter by the chromatic glories of his Turnerian Venice 
scenes and his depictions of the grandiose beauty of the 
Western United States. Similarly, he expressed in the 
black-and-white of the stone his love of bold, scenic ef- 
fects, towering mountains, forest giants, vistas of wild, 
stern nature. Two of his best-known lithographs are 
Solitude (a wood-interior: No. 1 of his Studies and Pic- 
tures, 1868) and South Shore of Lake Superior (1869). 
The last, a strong and picturesque performance, is his 
best, as he says himself; the stone was unfortunately de- 
stroyed by accident, when but ten or twelve impressions 
had been taken. 

A remarkable contrast to the vigor and sweep of such 
work is offered in the eight pastorals of Cole (six of them 
issued by L. Prang & Co. in 1870 as part 1 of an " Album 
of American Artists "), simple in subject and treatment, 
with a quiet charm in harmony with their characteriza- 
tion as pastorals. Cole, like Winslow Homer and East- 
man Johnson, was originally a lithographer in the estab- 


lishment of Bufford; Homer's oeuvre includes a number 
of little cards of soldier life during the Civil War, issued 
by Prang as were the Campagne Sketches, but approach- 
ing the subject rather more from the humorous side. 

So there was promising material about the year 1870, 
but the period of active interest in the resources of the 
stone was short. And it was not until about 1896 that 
a revival of interest took place. Montague Marks, then 
editor of the "Art Amateur" (New York), enlisted 
the attention of various artists, — J. Carroll Beckwith, 
J. Alden Weir, H. W. Ranger, F. Hopkinson Smith, 
Joseph Lauber, J. G. Brown, Ruger Donoho and Cleve- 
land Coxe, — who at his instigation made attempts in 
lithography. A particular understanding of the effects 
which this medium makes possible to the artist was shown 
by Weir (who used the scraper in some characteristic 
studies of home life) and Ranger, whose On the Seme 
is an admirable rendition of a rainy day with its sky of 
tremulous gray and the reflecting glint of the wet stones. 

That is as far as it went. One drawing, at most two, 
apiece were had from these artists. That was all. 
Marks's idea of an " American Society of Painter Litho- 
graphers " ("Art Amateur," 1896, p. 105; 1897, p. 69) 
was not realized. With so little to record, one feels 
grateful for any farther sign of intelligent and discrim- 
inating interest in the art. Even the fact that Robert 
Blum and W. J. Baer did some retouching on a stone to 
which a pastel by Blum (Japanese peasant girl) had been 
photographically transferred for " Scribner's Magazine " 
is noted here as a historical detail. C. A. Vanderhoof, 


the etcher, once used the stone in the production of a 
series of covers for a magazine. And C. F. W. Mielatz 
showed the same devotion to the nooks and corners of 
New York City, which we know in his etchings, in a 
series of 12 lithographs issued by the New York " So- 
ciety of Iconophiles." This same society a few years ago 
brought out a set of skyscraper studies by Joseph Pennell. 

The last name recalls the fact that a large proportion 
of the best painter-lithographs of more recent date by 
American artists was produced abroad. 

The story of Whistler's introduction to lithography 
by T. R. Way (who says that he found in it " a medium 
which is more sympathetic and personal even than the 
copper-plate ") forms an interesting chapter in the his- 
tory of the art. He abandoned the medium for a time 
and ultimately resumed it to make it peculiarly a means 
of expression for his nervously sensitive artistic person- 
ality. Some of the greatest masters of lithography — 
Isabey, Daumier, Gavarni — had accustomed us to velvety 
blacks, to dark notes of a rich resonance. Even the most 
vaporous passages of Fantin-Latour had richness and 
depth and mass. The battle-pieces of Raffet were verita- 
ble paintings in black-and-white. The landscapes of 
Calame and J. D. Harding were essentially a matter of 
tones. And now came Whistler, did away with tones 
(except in his few lithotints), gave us crayon drawings 
in which the insistence was on the line, limited in quan- 
tity to the least possible, tremulous in its sensitive re- 
sponse to passing mood. With a joyous spontaneity 
Whistler set down these impressions of shifting grace 















in form and movement, with a touch as light as air, of 
an almost evanescent suggestiveness, sometimes height- 
ened by spots of color. His gray line and the summari- 
ness of his method show a marked difference from the 
rich, deep notes, and completeness of effect, characteristic 
of a Decamps, an Isabey or a Menzel. He added a 
highly interesting variant to the illustrations of technical 
possibilities in lithography that the nineteenth century has 
given us. 

Whistler singled out the crispness of Pennell's " Span- 
ish " series for special mention. Pennell has, indeed, 
made interesting trials of various resources of the stone, 
as in Poitiers: Church of St. Hilaire, or in those prints 
showing a castle on a hill, to the right of a broad road, 
with rich unctuous blacks, produced by crayon, brush and 
rags, with lights brought out by the scraper. But his 
preference has evidently been for the pure line of the 
crayon, the grainy effect of which is characteristic of most 
of his work. It is found in the numerous drawings made 
for Irving's " Alhambra " and the " Highways and By- 
ways " series of books on English counties, and in the 
Spanish and Holland series of lithographs. In the last- 
named, more satiety of effect is gained; this, finally, in his 
views of the Rouen Cathedral, sounds in deep, booming 
notes of black that throw the delicate treatment of dec- 
orated form into effective relief. 

John S. Sargent, in some studies of draped models 
drawn on transfer paper, shows much of the style and 
feeling that are admired in his remarkable water-color 
studies. His broad crayon-strokes and rich, dark shad- 


ows form an interesting contrast to the pencil-drawing- 
like manner of Whistler and thus illustrate the pliability 
of the medium in the happiest manner. E. A. Abbey is 
said to have made some attempts, of which I have seen 
only a caricature of Sir John Hare, the actor. And 
Mary Cassatt, of Paris, is represented solely by a Lady 
in a theatre box (1891), an " early and only attempt," 
as she says, of which but five impressions were taken. 

Robert J. Wickenden, on the other hand, took up the 
practice of the art with energy, and produced a number 
of prints, among which La Mere Pannecaye (a char- 
acter study of an old Frenchwoman, rendered with lov- 
ing appreciation) and La Rentree du Troupeau, shown 
at the Salon of 1894 and published in the same year in 
" Les Peintres Lithographes " (first issue). 

Albert Sterner, too, turned to lithography for a time 
when abroad, and produced particularly some portraits 
of distinction. " It is in his lithographs and his crayon 
and chalk portraits," said Christian Brinton, " that Mr. 
Sterner displayed the fullest measure of his ability," and 
adds that he is " subjective and sensitive to a singular 

Home production to-day is almost nil. Not quite; 
some few things are to be recorded, about which the 
general public presumably knows little, principally be- 
cause they have been seldom exhibited. Ozias Dodge, 
in whom professional didactics are mingled with experi- 
mentative and inventive interest in reproductive proc- 
esses, held an exhibition of auto-lithographs in New York 
in 1902. Ernest Haskell drew some clever portraits of 


Mrs. Fiske, the actress (19001901), used as posters, 
and some landscape sketches. Arthur B. Davies presented 
a dozen or so of delightful experiments, no two alike in 
method of production, the process sensitively adapted 
to various needs. John Sloan's incursions into this field 
are similar in spirit and subject to his etchings. A por- 
trait of Ernest Lawson by W. J. Glackens exists, I am 
told, in only three impressions. And Glenn Hinshaw, 
at the American Water Color Society, 19 10, showed A 
Bit of old Paris, done on transfer paper. 

Clever essays, most of these; sporadic attempts, which, 
often seen by but a few, fade away again from notice 
without having had time to make a deep impression. 
There is not even the sustained impulse, the continuous 
effort, that would justify a reference to " voices crying 
in the wilderness." One may speculate ad libitum on this 
apathy, this want of recognition of a medium that in its 
supple responsiveness to the artist's intention offers so 
wide a field for the exercise of the varied shades of tech- 
nique that form the expression of different individuali- 
ties. Is it that the taint of commercialism continues to 
cling, in the mind of many, to the conception of lithogra- 
phy? Have the very men who have had practical ex- 
perience through their early apprenticeship in commercial 
lithography — W. J. Baer, E. Potthast, A. I. Keller, 
Charles Broughton, the late Louis Loeb and C. Schrey- 
vogel — been kept away by this experience? Or is the 
want of good printers, cited by more than one artist as 
the reason why he has not practised the art, the real 
cause of the trouble? 


Whatever the cause, there seems to be no immediate 
ground for the hope that this reproductive process may 
be taken up again as an autographic art, in spite of the 
rich means of expression which it offers the artist. Even 
its facility is in its favor. It does not lay upon the artist 
the burden of a long apprenticeship. In these days of 
transfer-paper we have done away with whatever incon- 
venience the direct working on the stone may imply. It 
is a mystery, almost, that an art so supple in expression, 
so rich in resources, so absolute in its reproduction of the 
artist's touch without the intervention of any other 
agency, should not have called forth a readier response 
to its appeal. 


The history of the reproductive processes is to a great 
extent the history of book-illustration. In the preceding 
chapters it has been shown how line-engraving, etching, 
mezzotint, aquatint, lithography and wood-engraving 
have each had its period of application to the ever-present 
demand for elucidation or adornment of the printed page 
by means of picture or ornament. To a particularly high 
degree is this true of wood-engraving. Its office as an 
agent of pleasure and of pictorial instruction in connec- 
tion with the printing press has been of long duration. 
In this country, too, it long held practically undisputed 
sway until it was supplanted by the now ubiquitous half- 

In the eighteenth century, what little we had of book- 
illustration — an occasional portrait or map was really all 
that the writings of local divines, or other similarly serious 
publications, called for — was done in copper-engraving. 
The glamor of elegance which hung about this latter 
medium in Europe (with us it was the glamor without 
the elegance) similarly overshadowed the humble wood 
block here. With the Revolution there came at least 
some native response to the demand for pictorial illus- 
tration of current events, and activity found still further 

opportunity to increase when political independence was 



assured. We were beginning to take breath while build- 
ing up the nation, and to note natural beauties around us; 
also, pride in national achievements and local develop- 
ment called for tangible pictorial records. All of this is 
dealt with at length in the chapters on line-engraving, 
stipple, aquatint and mezzotint, and the dominance of 
these media extends well into the nineteenth century. 

Periodical literature played its prominent and impor- 
tant part in the fostering of engraving on copper and 
steel in the nineteenth century. The " New York Mir- 
ror " (begun in 1823) published much good work, par- 
ticularly views. Then came other ventures, " Family 
Magazine " (in the thirties), " Picture Gallery " (1843) 
and " Godey's Lady's Book." The last-named took great 
pains to inform its readers that no plates so fine were 
to be found in any magazine and that they were from 
designs expressly for " Godey's." This last is the best 
that can be said of them : poor as they were, they were 
generally after paintings or drawings by Americans. 
George G. White, C. Schussele, Mrs. Lily Martin Spen- 
cer, P. F. Rothermel, H. L. Stephens, E. Brown, John 
R. Chapin, James Hamilton the Philadelphia marine 
painter, Dallas, William Croome and H. Bispham were 
those whose works were thus reproduced between 1840- 

The literary annuals and " tokens " and " keepsakes," 
so numerous in those days, were likewise illustrated with 
steel plates (generally in line, sometimes in mezzotint), 
as were the various " elegant publications, suited for the 
drawing-room table," as one advertisement put it, — 


" drawing-room books," collections of inanely sentimental 
" beauties " of the poets, volumes of local description, 
immortalizations of cemeteries. The plates in the Amer- 
ican editions of the volumes of that peripatetic British 
world-illustrator, William Henry Bartlett, were in many 
instances re-engraved by Americans. The steel-engraving 
as a means of direct illustration survived until after the 
Civil War. So, for example, in certain illustrations by 
F. O. C. Darley, among them the graceful and charac- 
teristic vignettes for the edition of Dickens, issued by 
Houghton and Mifflin. Or in the rather mechanical 
plates done after paintings by Alonzo Chappel (who 
died in 1890 or 1891) for the " National Portrait Gal- 
lery of Eminent Americans" (1862) and other publica- 
tions of Johnson, Fry & Co. Various people have dis- 
covered that Chappel based his work on fairly careful 
preparation in the study of necessary historical data. In 
my own case, my eyes were first opened to that fact by 
the comparison of his picture of the shooting of Elmer E. 
Ellsworth with a photograph of Francis E. Brownell, 
who shot Ellsworth's assassin, in order to verify the 
Zouave costume which the artist has put on him. Chap- 
pel, by the way, collaborated with Darley in the illustra- 
tion of the Stratford edition of Shakespeare, edited by 
W. C. Bryant (1886). That, I believe, was the last 
important work by either of them. 

It is to be noted also that the Cruikshank-Phiz-Leech 
period of etched book-illustration in England had a slight 
reflex in our country. The work of Yeager and Bellew 
is referred to under " Etching," as are the later etched 


illustrations by Colman, those for Dean Sage's book on 
the " Ristigouche," and Sloan's plates. 

Finally, there was some use of lithography for book- 
illustration, — beginning in the thirties and applied in 
black-and-white, in tints, and even in the full colors of 
chromo-lithography, all of which is set down in the chap- 
ter on lithography. Darley's " Scenes in Indian Life " 
(1843) an d his illustrations for Irving's " Rip Van 
Winkle" (1848: American Art Union; re-issued, much 
reduced, in London, 1850, in six etchings on steel by 
Charles Simms), "Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (Ameri- 
can Art Union, 1849), Judd's " Margaret" (1856), all 
in outline, were etched on stone. John W. Ehninger em- 
ployed the same process for his outline plates for Irving's 
" Dolph Heyliger " (1851). The last-named artist's 
drawings for "Ye Legend of St. Gwendoline" (1867) 
were reproduced by photography, an unusual method, 
"because," said H. C. Bunner ("Harper's," October, 
1892), "they were considered too delicate to entrust to 
the engraver's burin." 

But during all this time, wood-engraving, with its 
peculiar possibilities of direct and harmonious combina- 
tion with the type-printed page, was coming to its own. 
Even in the earliest, crude efforts one feels some of this 
connection between woodcut and type-metal printing, both 
relief processes. From the rehabilitation of wood-en- 
graving in the days of Anderson, to its consummate de- 
velopment about two or three decades ago, its applica- 
tion as a means of adornment and as a source of, and 
impetus to, pictorial instruction in connection with the 


printed page was far-reaching and enormous in extent and 
incalculable in its effect on the public. The growing de- 
mand for illustration of historical works, schoolbooks and 
fiction called into being the professional illustrator, a class 
which rapidly increased in numbers and ability. 

One may note, in passing, the early occasional work 
of John Ludlow Morton or D. C. Johnston. But it 
is with the forties that there set in an impetus toward 
freer and more artistic drawing on the block. A partic- 
ularly noteworthy undertaking was the Harper Bible, 
with about 1,400 drawings by John Gadsby Chapman, 
executed with meticulous care in the spirit of the steel- 
engraving. Somewhat freer, but yet with something of 
the feeling of the English artist John Thurston, were 
the Shakespeare illustrations (1853) of T. H. Matteson, 
perhaps his best work. Peter Paul Duggan, N.A., exe- 
cuted some promising designs in his short life. William 
Croome, an accession from the ranks of the wood- 
engravers, illustrated John Frost's " Book of the Navy " 
(1843), "Songs for the People" (1849), an d other 
works with some spirit. And Hammatt Billings, who 
began life as a wood-engraver, became an architect, and 
designed the monument to the Pilgrim Fathers at Ply- 
mouth, illustrated a number of books, among them Whit- 
tier's poems (1849), Waverley Novels (1857-59) an d 
writings of H. B. Stowe, Dickens, Pellico, S. S. Goodrich 
and others, in the fifties. 

With the opening of this new period, in the early 
forties, there appeared on the scene, and soon at the 
front, one who still stands on our records as perhaps the 


most noteworthy example, everything considered, of an 
" all around " illustrator that we have had, — Felix O. C. 
Darley. Darley's industry was as great as his facility 
and versatility, and for years the phrase " illustrated by 
Darley " or " with designs by Darley " appeared with 
never-failing regularity in the publishers' announcements 
of new books. The swing of his style, his big grasp of 
both individual action and the movement of groups of 
bodies, give his work a distinction even to-day. His illus- 
trations, even if we pick faults in details of drawing, are 
really illustrations and not simply painfully exact draw- 
ings without any appreciable reference to the text, or 
pictures of " swagger " young men with stern brows, 
massive chins and padded shoulders, and the ever-beauti- 
ful young woman whom we are tickled to-day to accept 
as the only possible type of an American girl. Darley's 
industry and versatility recall the activity ef Dore. Be- 
fore the mind's eye there rise his early Philadelphia street 
scenes, occasional "comics," title designs (as for "The 
Lantern"), and the illustrations for Irving's "Knicker- 
bocker History of New York," Poe, Wm. Gilmore Simms, 
Stories of Western and Southern life, juveniles, Frank 
Forester's sporting books, Tristram Shandy, Joseph C. 
Neal's humor, "Nick of the Woods," T. B. Thorpe 
(" the bee hunter "), Cooper (whom he illustrated both 
on wood and on steel — over 500 designs for this author 
are credited to him), Dickens (the Boston edition, with all 
the English illustrations, " to which are added the unsur- 
passed designs by F. O. C. Darley and John Gilbert"), 
Lossing's "Our Country" (500 drawings), the outline 

a q 















compositions already mentioned and the later works, 
Evangeline and the Shakespeare plates. To all this must 
be added also the numerous bank-note vignettes and the 
large Civil War framing prints, March to the Sea, etc. 
The mere quantity of it is astonishing, but respect for 
this artist is much increased when one surveys this great 
output, and realizes the high average merit of it all. It 
was inevitable that such unceasing demand on his powers 
should develop a manner, but at its best — and it was 
remarkably often at its best — it approached so closely to a 
style as to challenge a definition of difference. And it 
imposed itself with a virile distinction that exerts its 
own peculiar charm, using that word in its best sense. 
There exist rough preparatory sketches for a number of 
designs later to be drawn on the block, unctuous little 
conceptions of vignettes. And there are also interesting 
examples of the use of the pencil in swirls where the 
line is used in masses to block out movement and com- 
position. These, again, can be contrasted with carefully 
detailed studies from nature, showing how facts care- 
fully observed, noted and stored up formed the founda- 
tion for Barley's easy presentation. 

The strong personality of Darley, while not actually 
imitated, seems to impress its character somewhat on the 
period before and during the Civil War. The swing and 
vigor of his style find a certain reflection in the drawings, 
somewhat exaggerated in strength, of Jacob A. Dallas, 
and in those of Frederick M. Coffin (" Fern Leaves from 
Fanny's Portfolio," 1854) and E. J. Whitney. 

In the fifties, various efforts to establish illustrated 


magazines naturally had their influence on the art of illus- 
tration. In some of the earliest ones, the " International 
Monthly" (New York, volumes 1-5: 1850-52), "Na- 
tional Magazine" (New York, volume 1, 1852) and 
" United States Magazine," the cuts were, indeed, mainly 
copied from other sources. But the last-named had, at 
least, some drawings by John R. Chapin, as well as those 
for Major Jack Downing's " Letters " (1857) by J. H. 
Howard (who illustrated also Downing's " My thirty 
Years out of the Senate," 1859), and all three had por- 
traits by Samuel Wallin. Wallin, clever in his specialty, 
was much in demand, and drew all the heads in the 
" Illustrated American Biography" (1853-55), re-issued 
in 1867 as A. J. Jones's "American Portrait Gallery." 
He was better than J. A. Oertel, had more aplomb, but 
it is interesting to compare his portraits, always done 
with the same recognizable curves, manner more evident 
than characterization, with such a careful production as 
August Will's portrait of Alexander Anderson, published 
in the " Child's Paper" in 1867. 

In the meantime, " Harper's Magazine " had come in 
1 85 1 to stay. The publishers made haste slowly in the 
art department, but gradually the illustrations increased 
and improved. Among this periodical's artists in the 
first decade of its existence were Frank Bellew, J. R. 
Chapin (who reappeared at the end of the eighties in 
the pages of the " American Magazine " and as the illus- 
trator of Edgar Fawcett's " Olivia Delaplaine "), F. M. 
Coffin, W. H. Davenport, Darley, Dallas, C. E. Doepler, 
Hinsdale, D. C. Hitchcock (the " Hitchie " of Vedder's 


" Digressions of V.," 1910), Augustus Hoppin (illustra- 
tor of " Nothing to Wear," 1857, and later of books by 
W. D. Howells, G. W. Curtis, C. D. Warner, D. M. 
Craik and B. P. Shillaber), E. F. Mullen, Thwaites, 
H. L. Stephens, B. J. Lossing, T. Addison Richards and 
David H. Strother (" Porte Crayon"). 

The last three were artist authors, frequently illus- 
trating their own writings. Lossing not only drew the 
illustrations for nearly all of his popular books, such as 
the " Field Books " of the Revolution and the War of 
1 8 12, and "The Hudson from the Wilderness to the 
Sea," but the woodcuts also bear the signature of Lossing 
£s? Barritt as engravers. T. Addison Richards was prob- 
ably the first artist in this country to make a specialty 
of drawing acceptable landscape illustrations on the wood. 
He furnished both drawings and text for " Romance of 
American Landscape " and other volumes. " Porte 
Crayon " illustrated Southern life with pen and pencil, 
a number of his papers being gathered in book form 
under the title " Virginia illustrated." And while on 
this subject of artist-authors, there may be mentioned also 
T. B. Thorpe, Capt. George H. Derby ("The Squibob 
Papers, by John Phoenix. With comic Illustrations by 
the Author," 1865), H. W. Herbert (" Frank Forester " 
of sporting books fame), Thomas Butler Gunn (" Physi- 
ology of the New York Boarding House"), Augustus 
Hoppin, Charles C. Perkins, G. G. White, C. A. Barry 
and H. W. Herrick, the last three responsible for hand- 
books on drawing and painting. In later years the tribe 
increased greatly: Livingston Hopkins, J. Carter Beard, 


Dan. C. Beard ("The American Boy's Handy Book," 
1883), Palmer Cox ("Brownie" books), A. F. Jaccaci, 
Wm. Hamilton Gibson, Frank D. Millet, Mary Hallock 
Foote, W. H. McDougall, C. S. Reinhart, Frank French, 
A. C. Redwood (stories of the war from the Southern 
standpoint) , W. H. Shelton, Frederic Remington, George 
Wharton Edwards, George Gibbs, E. Seton Thompson 
and many more illustrated fiction of their own making 
or stories of their experiences and travels, amused the 
young idea or taught it how to shoot or do other things, 
or established reciprocal emphasis between their drawn 
and written humor. Some of them were rather better 
known as writers, who took up the pencil to add the 
force of graphic representation to their written word, 
as did also Frank B. Mayer, Edward Strahan ("Earl 
Shinn"), W. Mackay Laffan, Wm. H. Bishop, Roger 

But this was a divagation, and we return to the Harper 
artists, of whom Carl Emil Doepler was a German with 
a facile style and a sufficient attention to detail to make 
pleasing illustrations. He was in this country during 
1849-55, an d among his very many designs were those 
for J. S. C. Abbott's "Life of Napoleon" (1871, the 
ilustrations notably numerous) and the Jacob Abbott 
" Rollo " books. A large percentage of the Harper 
draughtsmen were at one time or another engaged in the 
production of " comics " : Bellew, Darley, Hoppin, E. F. 
Mullen (one of Artemus Ward's illustrators and 
"friends all the year 'round"), McLenan and H. L. 


There was still another factor of note in all this move- 
ment, the spread of illustrated weekly journalism. In 
1 85 1 T. W. Strong brought out the first illustrated weekly- 
worthy of note, the " Illustrated American News." Dal- 
las drew the title, and the illustrations were signed by 
Bellew, C. J. Brown, G. T. Devereux, Elliot, Egbert, 
Chapin, D. C. Hitchcock, John H. Goater, Hoppin, Mc- 
Donough, Magee, Masson, W. R. Miller, E. Purcell, 
Howell and Wallin. This publication ended the same 
year and was followed on January 4, 1853, by the " Illus- 
trated News" (issued by P. T. Barnum and Beach, of 
the "Sun"), which lived a year and passed into 
" Gleason's Pictorial," of Boston, in which city Ballou 
also issued illustrated publications. 

These unsuccessful efforts to found a weekly illustrated 
paper on a permanent basis were followed by " Frank 
Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper" in 1855 and "Harper's 
Weekly" in 1857. Leslie had been engaged on 
Gleason's; his weekly eventually came out also in a Ger- 
man edition, and one of its features was the reproduction, 
on a reduced scale, of illustrations in foreign periodicals. 
Among its artists were Joseph Becker, Albert Berghaus 
and Georgiana A. Davis (who in recent years drew for 
the Salvation Army's "War Cry"). There must be 
noted also the " New York Illustrated News " (volumes 
1-6, 1859-62), with A. R. Waud, Lumley, Eytinge and 
Nast. The " Southern Illustrated News " (beginning in 
1862), like the Palmetto series of schoolbooks or the 
novels by Clara Muhlbach issued in wall-paper covers, 
marked the brave attempt of the South to cultivate the 


finer and gentler arts of peace under adverse circumstances, 
in the stress of battle for a separate national existence. 

In the seventies and eighties New York even had a 
daily illustrated paper, the " Daily Graphic," for which 
Fernando Miranda drew cartoons, and which got the early 
work of some illustrators to become more noted later: 
Frost, E. W. Kemble, C. D. Weldon. Philip G. Cusachs, 
a prolific and rapid worker, was at one time art-manager 
of this publication; photo-lithography was the reproduc- 
tive process used. Later, S. H. Horgan, I am told, 
brought out in the same publication the first half-tone 
published in a daily. 

As for the daily newspaper, there were occasional cuts 
in the " Atlas " (1842)," Mercury " and " Herald," and 
Valerian Gribayedoft, in his article on " Pictorial Journal- 
ism " ("Cosmopolitan," 1896), notes that the "Pitts- 
burgh Telegraph" in 1875 commenced using woodcuts 
in its Saturday issue. But illustration as a regular feature 
of the daily press came with the founding of " Truth " 
(New York) in 1877. However, that was not yet illus- 
tration of current events as we understand it to-day, for 
as it took the engraver two or three days to turn out a 
cut by the " soft metal process," he placed on hand a 
series of stock illustrations, used again and again. In 
1883 illustration was tried by "The World" (New 
York) , with which Gribayedoif came into contact the 
following year. From this starting point development 
came. Other papers followed suit, as well as the Ameri- 
can Press Association, with S. H. Horgan as art man- 
ager. Among the newspaper artists of the following 


years were H. Coultaus and J. Knickerbocker of the 
" New York Herald," and John Durkin and O. H. von 
Gottschalk of the " Sun." To-day the number is large 
indeed, even if we except the comic artists. To the zinc 
etching, much used, there has been added the half-tone, 
with results often questionable in effect, but speedy of 
attainment. The " Ben Day " process of quick mechan- 
ical production of tints by " rapid shading mediums " has 
also been a time-saver. 

But if, in the earlier days of the nineteenth century, — 
from which I had momentarily strayed, — the illustrations 
in newspapers were practically non-existent, we did have 
the occasional " blanket sheet " of one issue. Such a one 
was that brought out during the Mexican War, " Brother 
Jonathan: Great Pictorial Battle Sheet" (New York, 
1847). This was an amusing mixture of bona-fide por- 
traits of American generals, and French and other foreign 
cuts appropriated to do duty as delineations of Mexican 
life. These pictures of French cuirassiers and Italian 
brigands posing as Mexican soldiers and civilians consti- 
tute as pretty an example as one could find of the bare- 
faced " fake." 

In the literature relating to the Civil War which ap- 
peared during and soon after that great struggle, the 
names of Alfred R. and William Waud, Christian Schus- 
sele, T. R. Davis, Arthur Lumley, F. B. Schell often 
appeared, the last two mentioned being artist correspond- 
ents in the field, as was also Winslow Homer, whose 
originality was foreshadowed in this early work. No 
doubt engravers and artists often had to work against 


time in those troublous days, but it was probably good 
schooling. A scrap-book of pencil drawings made in the 
field by Frank Leslie's artists, to be redrawn on the block 
in the home office, shows in an interesting manner under 
what conditions the work was done and what short-hand 
cuts the artists made for the " re-drawers." 

With peace assured there came improvement in the 
reproduction of illustrations by wood-engraving, referred 
to in the chapter on that art, where the influence of " Pic- 
turesque America" (1872-74) is duly noted. In that 
work the landscape artists had their opportunity, partic- 
ularly Thomas Moran, Harry Fenn and J. D. Wood- 
ward. Fenn was the suggester and principal illustrator 
of the publication and was prominently identified also 
with " Picturesque Europe " and " Picturesque Palestine," 
beside executing the widely known designs for Whittier's 
" Ballads of New England," 1870, and " Snow-Bound," 
1 88 1. Woodward's sure, skilful pencil was so much in 
demand that in 1881 he wrote to T. D. Sugden that he 
was " driven within an inch of my life." Other artists 
identified with landscape art were Henry Bisbing, who 
later removed to Paris to paint, and John A. Hows 
("Forest Scenes," 1864, and "Forest Pictures in the 
Adirondacks," 1865). The latter drew for " Appleton's 
Journal" (begun 1869), in the pages of which we find 
also the signatures of R. S. Gifford, Granville Perkins 
(with marine subjects as his specialty), J. Hill, E. Forbes, 
A. C. Warren, Thomas Hogan (long associated with 
Frank H. Schell), W. M. Cary (scenes of Western life), 
W. L. Sheppard (illustrator of John Esten Cooke's novels 


and of Carlton McCarthy's "Life in the C. S. A."), 
Frank Beard, Alfred Kappes (a painter of negro pic- 
tures, with a virile understanding of his subject), Will 
H. Low, Charles G. Bush (who drew also for the Har- 
pers), Winslow Homer, Mary A. Hallock (later Mrs. 
Foote), Paul Frenzeny, Darley and W. J. Hennessy. 
The last-named illustrated J. G. Holland, Mrs. Brown- 
ing, Longfellow, Stedman and Tennyson ; his twelve draw- 
ings of Edwin Booth in as many characters, engraved 
by W. J. Linton, 1872, are perhaps as well known as 
any of his work. At about the same time there were 
running "Every Saturday," "Our Young Folks" (Bos- 
ton, 1865-73), the "Riverside Magazine" (1867-70), 
and " Scribner's Magazine" (begun 1871). With en- 
larging opportunities came an increasing number of illus- 
trators. Beside those just mentioned there were E. B. 
Bensell, J. McNevin, W. Momberger, Thomas Nast 
(illustrations for "Robinson Crusoe"), I. Pranischni- 
koff. Sol Eytinge, Jr., drew illustrations for Dickens, 
which won the praise of that author, and for Lowell's 
" Vision of Sir Launfal," and became particularly well 
known through the mellow, kindly humor of his scenes 
from negro life. 

There came also the entrance of women artists into 
this field. Among the earliest were Lucy Gibbons, Jessie 
Curtis (subsequently Mrs. Shepherd), the dainty but 
undistinguished Addie Ledyard and Mary A. Hallock 
(later Mrs. Foote), who illustrated books by Longfel- 
low, Hawthorne and herself. Female illustrators a 
little later, in the eighties and nineties, included M. L. D. 


Watson, Irene E. Jerome ("Nature's Hallelujah," 1886, 
"The Message of the Bluebird," 1886; drawings of 
birds and flowers) , Mrs. Jessie McDermott Walcott 
(child subjects), Allegra Eggleston (daughter of Ed- 
ward), Helen Rosa Lossing ("H. Rosa"; daughter of 
Benson J.), L. B. Humphrey, L. J. Bridgman, Mrs. 
Allingham, Maud Humphreys, not a few of them weak 
or at most pleasingly pretty in their work. Both Mrs. 
Alice Barber Stephens and Mrs. Foote, through the 
breadth and vigor of their drawings, stand out from the 
rest. They connect directly with the present day, where 
we see Blanche Ostertag, Sarah S. Stilwell Weber, May 
Wilson Preston (with the unrestrained manner of 
Glackens), Mrs. Rose O'Neill Wilson (whose style com- 
bines a pleasing charm with unctuous breadth), and those 
clever products of the influence of Pyle, — Elizabeth 
Shippen Green, Violet Oakley, Charlotte Harding and 
Jessie Willcox Smith (children a specialty) exemplifying 
the various possibilities resulting from the application 
of the female temperament to the problems of illustration. 

This diversion, brought about by the all too conveni- 
ent classification by sex, was of course anachronistic. We 
are supposed to be still in the seventies, and there are 
yet to be noted some designs drawn for reproduction by 
John La Farge, scenes from the Arabian Nights and the 
"Wolf Charmer" (which he later repeated in oils), 
personal, unconventional yet balanced, as all of this 
thoughtful artist's work was bound to be. 

And during all these years, the domain of the school- 
book was exploited and developed to a noteworthy ex- 


tent. George G. White, Henry F. Farny, Alfred Fred- 
ericks and others signed the woodcut illustrations in the 
readers over which many of us pored at school. The 
preface of E. J. Lewis's "American Sportsman," 1857, 
in which White made his debut, emphasized his ability 
as a delineator of animals. He had a leaning toward 
the style of Sir John Gilbert, and eventually became con- 
nected with " sporting " and religious publications. 

The influence of the illustrated press continued, quite 
naturally. Henry James, in " Harper's Weekly," June 
14, 1890, wrote of the " art of illustration in black and 
white, to which American periodical literature has lately 
given such an impetus, and which has returned the good 
office by conferring a great distinction on our magazines." 
And Joseph Pennell, in his book on pen drawings, says, 
in the section on America : " The principal credit for this 
development must be ascribed to the intelligent support 
which Mr. A. W. Drake, the art editor of the Century, 
then Scribner's Monthly, was the first to give to the group 
of young men who, about this time, returned from a 
course of several years' study in Munich with the idea 
of revolutionizing art in America." 

Late in the seventies, too, came that new movement 
in wood-engraving, emphasized with especial eclat in 
Juengling's cuts after James E. Kelly's remarkably free 
drawings for " Scribner's:" In these Kelly designs, the 
line was absent; it was painted illustration, which we 
see in preponderance to-day, and it set problems for the 
engravers which were quite in line with the tendency to 
insist on tones and masses. And yet the eighties brought 


not only a remarkable development of illustration, em- 
bracing the most brilliant group of men, as a group, that 
we ever had, but there came a widespread employment 
of the very medium which is essentially and incisively 
expressed in line, — pen-and-ink. 

This artistic exploitation of the possibilities of the pen 
was exemplified in the work of a number of capable 
artists, notably Abbey, C. S. Reinhart, Alfred Brennan, 
W. T. Smedley and Joseph Pennell, who gives discrim- 
inating technical consideration of a number of them in 
his helpful book on " Pen Drawing and Pen Draughts- 
men " (1889). Pennell's book, by the way, is dedicated 
" to A. W. Drake, W. Lewis Fraser, Charles Parsons, 
Richmond Seeley, four men who should be honored for 
their encouragement of pen drawing," this list of four 
including three Americans. 

Edwin A. Abbey, " endowed," as Miss E. L. Cary 
says, " with the instinct for the exquisite and the old," 
reconstructed the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries for 
us in his drawings for " Old Songs " and Goldsmith's 
" She Stoops to Conquer " with a vividness and grace 
that quite obliterate the preparatory labor of his historical 
and antiquarian studies. Furthermore, the light, caress- 
ing strokes of his pen graphically illustrated the easy 
craftsmanship, the finest technique, which attains its re- 
sult with no trace of effort. " For grace and refine- 
ment," wrote Pennell, " he ranks second to none "; those 
were indeed the salient characteristics of his drawings. 
That appears also in his famous Shakespeare illustrations, 
in which W. H. Downes found refinement, tenderness, 

From "Harper's Magazine." Copyright 190S, by Harper & Brothers 

'There Nevf-r Was Anything the Least Serious Between Us' 5 
Illustration for Henry James's "Julia Bride," by W. T. Smedley 


grace, rather than dramatic force or grandeur. Human 
character eluded him in a measure. Large human sym- 
pathies he did not express. " The characters of Shakes- 
peare," writes Samuel Isham, " have become intimate 
personal friends; we are not to be put off with a jeweled 
stomacher, or an Italian terrace. Abbey did as well as 
any one has ever done, and gave us a series of graceful 
figures." Yet there is a charm, an atmosphere in all his 
work that saves it from being a cold record of antiquarian 
facts, and to the artist it is a delight in its command of 
the medium. 

Quite different in character is the work of Charles 
Stanley Reinhart, in whom a forceful directness was 
joined to what some one has described as a " quick grasp 
and holding of characteristics of various national and 
social types." This last point is emphasized in the arti- 
cle on Reinhart by Henry James (" Harper's Weekly," 
June 14, 1890): "He likes to represent characteristics, 
— -he rejoices in the specifying touch." For C. D. War- 
ner's "Their Pilgrimage" (1886) he furnished what 
James termed a " rich and curious pictorial accompani- 
ment," and his numerous designs for G. P. Lathrop's 
" Spanish Vistas " are set down by the same authority 
as " delightful notes of an artist's quest of the sketch- 

In contrast to the incisive rich blacks of Reinhart's tech- 
nique is the more suave, repressed method of W. T. 
Smedley, a method in harmony with the manners of the 
well-bred, comfortable middle class which he has depicted 
with particularly happy seizure of essential nature. He 


has had a keen eye for the individualities which the monot- 
onous sameness of fashionable attire often veils, as well 
as for the character that the very fit of the clothes them- 
selves discloses to the observant eye. This same sym- 
pathetic and subtle psychological analysis penetrating the 
social attitude of well-mannered people is carried also 
into his painted portraits with a quiet effectiveness that 
brings us close to his sitters and enlists our human interest. 
It is a different class that has been pictured with par- 
ticular success by A. B. Frost, that of our farming dis- 
tricts. Joel Chandler Harris said of him (1904) : " The 
one characteristic that marks all the work of Mr. Frost, 
the one quality that stands out above the rest, is its per- 
sistent and ever-present humor." But this humor was 
expressed through a genial sympathy for his subjects, so 
that we get real people in his drawings, people whose 
nature meets our sympathy and interest, and not the fool- 
ish " rube " of the comic sheets. Frost has, as H. C. 
Bunner puts it, " the charm of a convincing naturalness " 
("Harper's Magazine," October, 1892). In his col- 
lection of drawings " Sports and Games in the Open " 
( 1899) » w i tn their joy in out-door life, we feel this same 
whole-souled, kindly absorption in the point-of-view of 
the characters whom he despicts. Robert Bridges, writ- 
ing of Frost in the " Book-Buyer," March, 1894, quotes 
F. Hopkinson Smith as saying that " no man laughs 
effectively with pen or brush who does not laugh with 
his own soul first." He illustrated, with much finish, 
A. W. Tourgee's " Hot Plowshares " (1883), but better 
known, more spontaneous, more the outcome of his na- 


ture, are his little drawings for F. R. Stockton's " Rud- 
der Range." His delightful treatment of two such dif- 
ferent books as H. C. Bunner's " Story of a New York 
House " and " Uncle Remus " is also to be noted. In 
delineating various types of American life he came across 
the negro at various times, his Music for the Dance 
and a negro version of " the ant and the cricket " being 
his most characteristic efforts in that field that I have 

The black man was particularly cultivated by Edward 
W. Kemble ("Uncle Tom's Cabin"). Furthermore, 
in the apportionment of specialties, J. O. Davidson, — 
of whom F. Hopkinson Smith, I think, said he " knows 
our ships, especially the older ones, as no other artist 
knows them," — M. J. Burns and F. S. Cozzens became 
identified with the sea and its ships ; J. Carter Beard with 
animal life; and William Hamilton Gibson with animal 
and plant life. Gibson used pen and pencil in a number 
of volumes (" Sharp Eyes," " Happy Hunting Grounds," 
"Pastoral Days") to familiarize a larger public in a 
charming and graceful manner with characteristic features 
of that life and with " the idyllic qualities of nature," as 
Horace E. Scudder put it in the " Book Buyer," February, 
1888. Gilbert Gaul, H. A. Ogden (with Revolutionary 
times as a sub-specialty), W. H. Shelton, Rufus F. Zog- 
baum and Thure de Thulstrup illustrated military life. 
Zogbaum's work has a certain stiffness of drawing some- 
what appropriate in the delineation of humanity drilled 
into the impersonality of the soldier, whom he has de- 
scribed for us with pen and pencil. As for Thulstrup, 


though he has seemed most at home in military art, he 
has had to treat the most varied subjects, and has acquitted 
himself well, thanks to his good and facile draughtsman- 
ship, his easy command of materials. 

The West was pre-eminently the domain of Frederic 
Remington, who delineated its military types, frontiers- 
men, cowboys and Indians with a vehement realism and 
uncompromising fidelity, an unbiased and breezy freshness 
of original perception that were fascinating. His lan- 
guage was always to the point, even when not quite ade- 
quate, as possibly in some foreign military types. 
" What makes Remington's Indian sketches so real and 
so fine," wrote one critic, " is that he knows it all him- 
self." And Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, reviewing his 
illustrations for the " Song of Hiawatha " (1890), said: 
" Remington is always sincere, spirited, individual and 

One could not find a much greater contrast to Rem- 
ington's rough-and-ready use of pen-and-ink than Alfred 
Brennan's loving and insinuating courtship of the same 
medium. Pennell wrote that he " most certainly was 
and is the master of this school of American draughts- 
men," the school referred to being a group showing " in- 
telligent adaptation of the methods of Fortuny, Rico and 
Vierge, of the artists of ' Fliegende Blatter,' and of 
the draughtsmen of Japan." Those were the days when 
Frederick Lungren showed " great power of expression 
conveyed with very few and simple lines." Robert F. 
Blum drew stunning Fortuny-like things such as his por- 
trait of Joseph Jefferson as " Bob Acres," and Reginald 


B. Birch, in his illustrations for " Little Lord Fauntle- 
roy," combined charm and sweetness and the artistic sense 
in a noteworthy manner. Brennan, who had a vein of 
extravagant fancy, was described as " unconventional and 
often startling," and again ("New York Tribune," Oc- 
tober 16, 1 891) as "an assiduous cultivator of whimsi- 
cality as a fine art." He injected a quite personal ele- 
ment into whatever he did, a peculiar flavor which per- 
vaded even when he was simply re-drawing a photograph. 
Pennell comments thus on a drawing of a stairway: 
" There is nothing stupid and nothing photographic, and 
yet it was made from a photograph." 

In those days, photographs were not rendered directly 
in half-tone; they were re-drawn in pen-and-ink, and this 
work was done by men such as Kenyon Cox, Otto H. 
Bacher, Wiles, Thulstrup, Farny. I remember even 
some small pictures of golf-sticks, carefully delineated by 
W. H. Drake for the " Century " in 1892. 

There are plenty more names of illustrators who were 
actively engaged in this period of the eighties: E. H. 
Garrett, Frank T. Merrill, Henry Sandham (Canadian 
subjects), Frank M. Gregory ("Faust," 1888), Fred- 
erick Dielman (Susan Warner's "Wide, Wide World," 
1888, and " Queechy," 1893), Charles Graham, W. A. 
Rogers, Henry F. Farny (finely drawn bits of Indian 
life), C. A. Vanderhoof, Alfred Fredericks. John W. 
Alexander drew some noteworthy portraits, — that of 
Walt Whitman, for instance. 

The general field of illustration at that time is covered 
in chatty and genial comment in F. Hopkinson Smith's 


"American Illustrators" (1892), while individual fig- 
ures were considered in a series of articles in the " Book 
Buyer," in 1893-4, on Church, Smedley, Sterner, Kemble, 
Wiles, Remington, Gibson and others. 

In the nineties, B. West Clinedinst, H. Denman, Eric 
Pape, Charles Copeland, Charles Broughton, H. C. Ed- 
wards, W. Granville Smith and Andre Castaigne in 
various ways answered to the demand for illustra- 

Many of the artists named were professional illustra- 
tors, entirely devoted to their specialty. But some were 
painters who placed themselves at the service of the sister 
art for a limited period or occasionally. Among these 
was also Walter Shirlaw, who in his drawings for Edward 
Eggleston's " Roxy," or in such magazine illustrations as 
those picturing rolling mills (a subject that attracted the 
painters Menzel in Germany and John F. Weir in this 
country) , carried into the duodecimo or octavo page his 
predilection for rich, succulent tones and broad decorative 
effects. Pennell finds that he " gave some of the most 
artistic renderings of commonplace things ever produced 
in America." In what one writer (F. J. Mather, Jr., 
I think) calls the " shifting membership " of the craft, 
there were temporarily enlisted also such painters as 
Childe Hassam, Irving R. Wiles, W. L. Metcalf, E. W. 
Deming, Francis Day and E. H. Blashfield, who em- 
phasized pictorially the results of antiquarian and his- 
torical research, in " Italian Cities," by Mrs. Blashfield 
and himself. 

Three noteworthy instances of an incursion by a painter 


into the domain of illustration are found in Kenyon Cox's 
pictures for Rossetti's " Blessed Damozel " (which 
Julian Hawthorne, in the "World," N. Y., 1886, pro- 
nounced as " of singular merit"), Will H. Low's " illus- 
trative designs" for the "Lamia" of Keats (1885), and 
Elihu Vedder's accompaniment of drawings for the 
Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (1884). The last-named, 
beside their merit and value as illustrative drawings, gain 
much also from the circumstance that each page of the 
book is drawn, text as well as the surrounding design, 
by the same hand. That emphasizes the advantage and 
importance of having the book, as a mechanical product, 
one connected whole, " cast in one piece." Text and illus- 
trations are thus in harmony, instead of having the latter 
in no relation to the type, a separateness emphasized to- 
day by the frequent appearance of the plate as something 
extraneous to the book, on a sheet of different paper to 
hold the half-tone, tipped in loosely and coming out all 
too easily. 

This matter of unity in the design of a book was 
exemplified in a measure also by the 1887 edition of 
" Odes and Sonnets " by Keats, for which W. H. Low 
designed not only illustrations, — in which, said the " New 
York Tribune" of December 13, 1887, he "approached 
his difficult task in a spirit of perfect sympathy and sin- 
cerity," — and decorative floral panels for each page, but 
the cover and lining papers as well. Illustration as a 
decorative element was emphasized also in the thousand 
marginal drawings for "Ben Hur " (1891) by Wm. 
Martin Johnson, and the same artist's decorative borders 


for Reade's "The Cloister and the Hearth" (1893), as 
also in Albert Herter's illustrations and cover designs for 
Cable's " Creole Days " and " Grandissimes." And 
there was Ludvig Sandoe Ipsen's charming work in an 
edition of Mrs. Browning's "Love Sonnets" (1886), 
which has been described as a magnificent piece of decora- 
tive book-making; " Nothing like this has ever been done 
in this country before," wrote R. H. Stoddard at the 
time. It was indeed a time of holiday books and sumptu- 
ously illustrated editions, graced by the work of George 
Wharton Edwards (Spenser's " Epithalamion," 1895), 
Childe Hassam, Wm. St. John Harper (Keat's " Endy- 
mion," 1888) and W. L. Taylor (Owen Meredith's 
"The Earl's Return," 1886, Tennyson's "Holy Grail," 
1887). There was, too, the archaizing effect of the 
designs made by the brothers Rhead — George W., Fred- 
erick and Louis — for "Pilgrim's Progress" (1898). 

The facile entrance of painters into this field indicates 
influences at work which characterize our book-illustration 
in these later days. The freedom in the choice of 
materials and in the size of the original drawing which 
the artist gained through the method of photographing 
the drawing on to the wood block and through the sub- 
sequent use of the half-tone, would naturally draw the 
painter occasionally into the service of the sister art. 
On the other hand, this same circumstance would lead 
the illustrator to the use of paint and brush, so that the 
line of demarcation between illustrator and painter be- 
came perhaps less clearly defined. 

The continued activity of various illustrators who came 

:""'■ ' 


~ ^~ ^Jt-..,. 

From 'Harper's Magazine." Copyright 1901, by Harper A Brothers 

Viewing the Battle of Bunker Hill 
By Howard Pyle 


into notice in the last fifteen years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury brings us to the present time. 

A particularly noteworthy connecting link between the 
last generation and the present was Howard Pyle. Not 
only by reason of his thirty years of prominent attainment, 
but also through the alertness of his point of view and 
his serious attitude toward his art, which gave him pre- 
eminence until the day of his death. A realist always; 
yet his realism, while stern, was never crass. With a 
style that seemed at first sight inflexible he combined a 
keenness of observation that served him in the treatment 
of scenes in widely different lands, times and strata of 
society. " Versatile," one would say, were there not the 
fear of a by-taste, in that term, of glib facility, — partic- 
ularly foreign to him. The periods and subjects which 
he covered were varied indeed: seventeenth century Eng- 
land and France, the American Revolution and our Civil 
War, buccaneers, Robin Rood, the divers and fishermen 
of our coasts and Holmes's " One Hoss Shay " and 
" Autocrat of the Breakfast Table." For a time he was 
his own author, seemingly equally at home whether writ- 
ing of Robin Hood for boys, or recounting in vivid 
terms the exploits of " The Buccaneers and Marooners 
of America" (1890). "Nowhere," wrote Hopkinson 
Smith, " have I seen text better idealized or illustrations 
better described than in that series of articles by Pyle on 
the ' Buccaneers.' " As Samuel Isham says : " Surely never 
before were pirates so satisfactorily bloody-minded offered 
for the delectation of youth." His picture of a seaman 
marooned sticks in the memory with all the pounding 


emphasis of its simple dramatic force. Pyle became par- 
ticularly identified with the authoritative illustration of 
eighteenth century America. To quote Isham again: 
" Pyle is the only man who seems to know thoroughly 
the colonial and revolutionary epoch. . . . He has 
represented the founders of the Republic as they were, — 
sturdy, hard-headed folk, with strong characters and few 
graces, who wore the rather rigid costumes of the time 
with dignity and not like singers in comic opera or danc- 
ing masters." His careful historical correctness was free 
from possible pedantry through the success with which 
he projected himself into time, place and spirit of each 
scene that he portrayed. Pyle came down full into the 
present period, preserving to the end a steadfast, virile 
thoroughness in his extraction and presentation of essen- 
tial characteristics. Moreover, his use of the pen, with 
an archaic flavor that caused Pennell to characterize him 
as " a careful student of Duerer," was pretty well aban- 
doned, later on, for that of the brush. He painted his 
illustrations; that fact, in itself, brings him in touch with 
the younger men of this day, who are to a great extent 
availing themselves of this method of working for repro- 

Yet one of the first men to come to mind among our 
illustrators of the present time, Charles Dana Gibson, has 
used pen-and-ink almost exclusively, and has in its use 
achieved his finest successes. From his earlier manner, 
in which he delineated Bishop Giillem, Jonathan Trump, 
Penelope Peachblow and Dolly Flicker in various com- 
binations to fit evanescent jokes in the comic press, with 


close-set lines to form tones and local color, he developed 
into a free insistence on the line per se. His command 
of the pen to-day is eminently noteworthy; he has used it 
rarely in illustration proper, usually in what for lack of 
a better term has been called " cartooning." A woman 
art critic once said of him, " As a chronicler of well-bred 
American life Mr. Gibson stands easily first," and the 
Gibson Girl, that rare creature of his fancy — which, as 
shown in " The American Girl Abroad," won enthusiastic 
praise in the " Zeitschrift fur Bildende Kunst " as far 
back as 1897 — still weaves her spell. But Gibson has 
broadened out enough from that to widen his outlook 
on humanity. There is added force and truth in his work 
when he enters more clearly the field of pictorial comment 
and with a smile presents humanity, particularly in this 
country (" Americans," 1900), in its failings and virtues, 
its love and its sadness. He has done this in continued 
performances such as the " Education of Mr. Pipp " 
(1899) and in single leaves from the book of life, scenes 
in drawing-room and street, on ferry boat and in the 
world of the stage, with gentle humor, — satire were al- 
most too strong a word. The point is made by insisting 
enough on the obvious not to trouble the beholder with 
too much subtlety of thought or observation. And the 
manner of presentation, the technique, somehow, is also 
so obviously adequate as to satisfy both the average citi- 
zen and the artist or connoisseur. 

The " American girl " and her entourage has engaged 
the attention of more than one illustrator. Howard 
Chandler Christy (Christy book for 1906: "The Amer- 


ican Girl"), A. B. Wenzell, Henry Hutt, Harrison 
Fisher are prominent figures in a group which strongly 
represents certain tendencies and characteristics of present- 
day illustration. Extraordinary technical facility is put 
to the task of evoking visions of types of girl and man, 
ideals of stately elegance and statuesquely athletic vigor 
that appeal to many. Perhaps they are gratified to feel 
themselves part of an imaginary world of such remarkable 
paragons of physical and mental excellence. It puts the 
beholder in a wonderful land where all is " swell," where 
beauty and luxury reign, a sort of enchanted isle without 
the sensuous languor of Cythere. A round of sumptuous 
drawing-rooms and opera boxes and fine functions, with 
an air of " upper ten " gaiety and the fine perfume of 
the automobile pervading it all. This long array of 
American girls and men of impeccable appearance, both 
creating and responding to a want, a fad of long duration 
perhaps, is interrupted in the case of an artist such as 
James Montgomery Flagg. To dash and facility he joins 
an evident strong sense of humor, a saving grace which 
restores balance in point of view, bringing us more into 
accord again with things as they really are. Flagg, like 
Gibson, is active not so much as an illustrator, but as a 
producer of individual drawings emphasizing each some 
particular idea, a form that enters the realm of pictorial 
satire. The other exponents, who have been named, of 
certain modern tendencies, have also, to a great extent, 
produced work that is issued independently, on its own 
account, and not in accompaniment of any continuous text. 
The art of book-illustrating, which has its finest success 


in the intelligent wedding of picture and text, in the un- 
folding of originality within the limits set, has been and is 
practised, in these times, by a number of able and dis- 
criminating artists. 

Consideration of present-day illustration must be based 
on the principles of the art. Illustration must elucidate 
the text or adorn it; it may do both, but at all events 
it must be in harmony with the text. I have not in 
mind the occasional lapse on the part of an artist, the 
oversight that produces an unwarranted change in the 
appearance of a character, or an anachronism in costume, 
or the construction of a scene distinctly different from the 
author's description. Such matters may be left to the 
letter-writing reader of " literary supplements," who will 
be sure to air his discovery in his paper. Our illustration 
has suffered not so much from such mistakes as from a 
tendency to parade cleverness in place of thoroughness, 
to dazzle the eye by a display of glittering superficiality.' 
One cannot expect all illustrators to adopt the method of a 
Menzel in his accompaniment of pictorial comment to the 
works of Frederick the Great. In fact, such a combina- 
tion of gradgrind industry, technical power and mental 
equipment as he possessed is rather rare. But one may 
at least ask that certain prominent creators of American 
types or matinee ideals shall not use a few models posing 
frankly as the most varying personages. The burden of 
duty toward art is borne rather too lightly when the 
same heroic " full dress " type is employed to represent 
both the society man and the Italian excursion boat fiddler. 
They have unfortunately produced others of this ilk, 


clever imitators, a diluted solution of their undoubtedly 
clever prototypes. Oliver Herford, in " The Astonishing 
Tale of a Pen-and-ink Puppet, or The Gentle Art of 
Illustrating," from one drawing of a man and one of a 
girl constructed manikins which he readjusted into cari- 
catures of the " he and she " drawings familiar to readers 
of books and magazines. 

Luckily we are not wholly dominated by this school, 
although it has often held the center of the stage, brilliant 
in the lime-light's glare. If there have been " stars " 
not free from glittering rant, we have also had a very 
good stock company. 

Smedley's delicate psychological analysis and Pyle's 
thoroughness and insight have been spoken of. To these 
two is to be added Arthur I. Keller, very prominently 
identified with recent de luxe editions of American classics 
(Longfellow's " Hanging of the Crane," etc.) and 
known also as the illustrator of Wister's " Virginian," 
F. H. Smith's " Caleb West " and many other books. 
His conscientious study of the authors' intentions and 
characters is embodied in a style that is free and spon- 
taneous. You feel that his illustrations are adequately 
in harmony with the written word, yet the artist is not 
merely a reflection of the author. The latter, as it were, 
speaks to us in the pictures through a discriminating per- 
sonality that has added life to the characters visualized 
for us. He seems particularly happy in the representa- 
tion of groups of people in their temporary mental and 
physical relations. 

It is work such as that of these three which constitutes 


the real backbone of modern illustration and emphasizes 
the fact that cleverness, the use of dashing types and a 
brilliant, swagger style are not in themselves the sole ele- 
ments of the best art. Serious accomplishment appeared 
also in the illustrations of the late Walter Appleton Clark 
(an appreciation of whose broad, bold, sympathetic work 
appeared in the " International Studio" in 1907), F. C. 
Yohn, the late Louis Loeb and Albert Sterner. Sterner's 
drawings for " Prue and I," by G. W. Curtis, as Hopkin- 
son Smith said, " preserved the very essence and sweetness 
of the aroma of [this] charming story." His art is dealt 
with in an article by Christian Brinton, in " Putnam's 
Magazine " for July, 1907. Other names more or less 
familiar to the public in these days of the ubiquitous illus- 
tration are W. J. Aylward, Stanley M. Arthurs, Jay Ham- 
bidge, the Kinneys, Clifford Carleton, Orson Lowell, Ed- 
mund M. Ashe, W. D. Stevens, Frederic D. Steele, Jules 
Guerin (a painter of delicate visions of city scenes), J. R. 
Shaver, Thomas Fogarty, W. L. Jacobs, C. Allan Gilbert, 
C. K. Linson, G. Wright, Reuterdahl, F. Luis Mora, 
E. L. Blumenschein, Lucius W. Hitchcock, Ernest C. 
Peixotto, Vernon Howe Bailey, W. J. Glackens, L. May- 
nard Dixon, John Cecil Clay, Gordon Grant, John Edwin 
Jackson and Victor S. Perard. If they do not all ex- 
emplify fully the illustrator's function to illustrate, they 
do accentuate the great advance in the general level of 
technique. Also, individual temperament and predispo- 
sition have indicated pretty clearly the line of subjects 
for each one, so, that, for example, we look naturally to 
Glackens, not Grant, for pictures of the " lower order," 


to Bailey, not Guerin, for straightforward statements of 
urban architectural facts, to Steele, not Ashe, for delinea- 
tions of life on the docks. 

An element of importance is the great improvement of 
reproductive methods. The photo-mechanical processes 
have done incalculable good in facilitating and cheapening 
publication, and have brought good art where it was not 
so easily brought before. But they have not been an 
entirely unmixed good. Also, the ease of reproducing 
drawings done in wash or oils has dimmed to sight the 
essential significance of the line. The close relation be- 
tween printing-type and the line-drawn illustration, orna- 
ment or initial, is apt to be overlooked. Recognition of 
the importance of this harmony between component parts 
has caused the production of books with type, pictures, 
end papers and covers designed by one artist. Of Euro- 
pean artists, William Morris or Joseph Sattler are names 
that quite naturally come to mind, although they repre- 
sent different individual taste and temperament. 

As to the question of the raison d'etre of illustration, 
that is not one to be discussed here. It has been brought 
up repeatedly, for instance in a symposium of authors 
and writers in the " Bookman," 1904, and in the " i^cad- 
emy " in the same year. Accepting illustration as an 
established factor, there are certain sane principles which 
may safely be insisted on. Why should a book be illus- 
trated at all hazards, whether the text calls for such 
addition or not? The only reason is that of effecting 
sales, as it is also in the case of pictures with little regard 
to the text, issued to attract attention. Why should not 

permission of trie pub] 

The Bobbs-Merrill Company 

Illustration by Arthur I. Keller. From "Tomorrow's Tangle," 
by Geraldine Bonner 


some discrimination be shown in the choice of an illus- 
trator? When the New York " Times " of October 13, 
1906, cited as instances the selection of E. W. Kemble 
to make drawings for the " Vicar of Wakefield " and 
Elizabeth Shippen Green to illustrate the " City of Dread- 
ful Night," its criticism was derogatory to the publishers, 
not to the artists. If then, finally, there is shown more 
frequently a regard for the book as a product, in itself, 
in its entirety, of craftsmanship governed by good taste, 
we may be content with such a counterbalance to the de- 
teriorating effects of over-production. 


The corrective force of pictorial satire did not enter 
as a factor into the political development of this country 
until the first low rumblings of the coming revolutionary 
thunder storm made themselves heard. And even then, 
American production played no prominent part; the colo- 
nists were too busy in maintaining the contest, in legis- 
lative halls and later on the field of battle, to give native 
talent in caricature — assuming that there was such — much 
opportunity to develop. 

In the inevitable clash between French and British in- 
terests, in the uncertain times w T hen the Revolution cast 
its shadows before, and during the war itself, caricature 
indeed had its part, but its execution was foreign. It was 
abroad that the aid of the comic art was exerted most 
vigorously in favor of the struggling colonies. Not only 
in the countries unfriendly to England, in France and Hol- 
land and Spain, but in England itself did these sharp 
attacks on the policy of the mother country appear. An 
exhibition of Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey's collection of 
cartoons of this period, held in New York a few years 
ago, offered a remarkable review of the nature and extent 
of this pictorial comment. In our present day of facile 
reproduction, when every third daily paper appears to 

have its cartoonist, when every little political local hap- 



pening is humorously pictured next day, the two and a 
half hundred cartoons in the exhibition referred to may 
not at first blush appear a great number. But when we 
consider that every one of these prints, poor even as some 
of them were, had to be more or less laboriously engraved 
on copper, the output seems decidedly large. 

These old cartoons are apt to comment on more general 
and far-reaching events and principles than the little hap- 
penings, or acts of individuals, of minor importance, which 
so frequently form the subject of the pictorial joke of 
our daily press, thrown away on the day it is published. 
There is usually little art to speak of in these old car- 
toons; often they are quite crude, although one occasion- 
ally comes across early designs by Gillray or Rowlandson 
which already foreshadow the facile style of those artists. 
But as historical documents these old engravings are of 
interest and value; in them, contemporary opinion is mir- 
rored in most graphic manner. In these prints the strug- 
gle between France and England for supremacy in the 
Mew World is reflected, and the rise of Scotch influence 
at the English court indicated. Then comes the Stamp 
Act period (to 1773), with prints nearly all friendly 
to America ; in one of them, referring to budget troubles, 
an Indian appears taxed without representation. The 
Boston Port Bill (1774) called forth a series of mezzo- 
tints described in " The Boston Port Bill as pictured by 
a contemporary London cartoonist," by R. T. H. Halsey 
(Grolier Club: 1904) ; one of these deals with the reso- 
lution of the women of Edenton, N. C, to drink no more 
tea and wear no more British clothes. The largest group 


was that dealing with the Revolution, and it consisted of 
English, Dutch and French engravings. In the French 
and Dutch productions, Britannia figuring as a cow, being 
milked by France, Spain and Holland, while America saws 
off her horns (means of defense), is a favorite device. 
One of the Dutch artists shows John Paul Jones castigat- 
ing the queen of the seas, and a French picture depicts 
Arnold as a little boy enraged at seeing himself cheated 
out of the price of his treason. France's glory is dis- 
played in a scene in which she drives England from Amer- 
ica while the inhabitants joyfully dance around a pole sur- 
mounted by a liberty cap. The British caricatures, on 
the whole, were also not unfriendly to the colonies. They 
show a tendency to treat America as a wayward child, a 
dupe of her confederates Monsieur Louis Baboon 
(France), Don Diego (Spain) and Mynheer Frog (Hol- 
land) , which three are frequently and vigorously attacked, 
as is the home government. The American rattlesnake 
holding two British armies (Burgoyne's and Cornwallis's) 
in its coils, and ready for a third, is a striking production. 
The chapter is closed by a picture published in 1783, with 
the inscription: 

" Britannia : ' Come, come, shake hands, and let's be 

" America : ' With all my heart, I've gained my ends.' " 

But the troubles of this period called forth also at least 
a few caricatures by colonial talent, notably some by 
Paul Revere, the silversmith. Whether or not that 
worthy took his famous ride, he did his share in comment- 


ing pictorially on the attitude of Britain to her colonies. 
Not only in his famous Boston Massacre print, but in 
allegorical compositions, A View of the Year 1765 and 
Stamp Act repealed (the obelisk print, 1766), both deal- 
ing with the Stamp Act. Likewise in caricatures : The 
Rescinders, The Able Doctor, or America swallowing the 
Bitter Draught (tea forced down her throat), June, 1774, 
The Mitred Minuet around the Quebec Bill, October, 
1774, and America in Distress, February, 1775, the last 
three published in the " Royal American Magazine." 

Sometimes an event of local interest would occasion 
a satirical design of home manufacture, the engraving of 
which might fall to one with a sense of humor or not. 
Of such sporadic cases a few are noted in the annals of 
engraving on copper. Nathaniel Hurd in 1762 cari- 
catured Dr. Seth Hudson and a certain Mr. Howe, con- 
victed of counterfeiting. Henry Dawkins is credited by 
Thomas Westcott ("History of Philadelphia") with 
several large plates " caricaturing events in the political 
history of Philadelphia in 1764." One of these last- 
named was probably the one showing the advance of the 
Paxton boys upon Philadelphia (1764), suggested by C. 
R. Hildeburn to be by James Claypoole, Jr., but believed 
by Stauffer to be probably the work of Dawkins, it being 
dedicated by " H. D." Two of these plates, relating 
to the election of 1764 and the "Paxton Boys," are re- 
produced in P. L. Ford's " Many-sided Franklin " (New 
York, 1899). 

Franklin himself is associated with the invention of 
two of the most noted satirical designs of the day. One 


was the device of a serpent, cut into pieces, one for each 
colony, with the motto Join or die or Unite or die. This 
appeared in the " Pennsylvania Gazette," the " Boston 
Gazette" and the "Boston News Letter" in 1754, the 
"Boston Evening Post" in 1765 (Stamp Act period), 
and again before the Revolution, in the " Pennsylvania 
Journal," 1774. Lossing, in his " Field Book of the 
Revolution," tells us that the loyal papers roundly con- 
demned this cut, a writer in " Rivington's Royal Gazette " 
calling it a " scandalous and saucy reflection." Albert 
Matthews, in his "The Snake Devices, 1754-1776, and 
the Constitutional Courant, 1765" (Cambridge, 1908), 
says that the famous snake devices " presumably originally 
owed their existence to the suggestion of Franklin." The 
other Franklin cut represented Britain dismembered, a 
limbless trunk, turning tearful eyes to heaven, while 
beside her lie her legs, arms, hands and feet, repre- 
senting the colonies, cut off and leaving her helpless 


James Parton, in his " Caricature and other Comic 
Art" (New York, 1877), ca ^ s attention also to another 
newspaper heading, the row of Boston Massacre coffins, 
mutely voicing the colonists' protest. And there was a 
bit of pictorial humor post festum, the nine copper-plates 
by E. Tisdale illustrating the 1795 edition of Trumbull's 
" McFingal." 

The period about the end of the Revolution was not 
notably productive of caricature. Perhaps the cause is 
to be found in the lack of home talent, perhaps in the fact 
that despite the politico-military cabaling of some generals 


during the war and the growing difference between Fed- 
eral and Republican principles afterward, the country was 
united in the struggle for national existence. Dissenting 
opinion grew, however. William Maclay commented in 
his " Diary " on the excessive adulation of Washington 
and the monarchical tendencies of his followers. Oppo- 
sition to the " Father of his Country " took pictorial form 
as well. Lossing, in " Our Country " (Vol. 2, p. 1 123), 
records that on the day after Washington's arrival in 
New York, as president-elect, a caricature appeared, " full 
of disloyal and profane allusions." In it the president 
was shown mounted on an ass, in the arms of his body 
servant Billy. Colonel David Humphreys, leading the 
animal, is " chanting hosannahs and birthday odes," while 
the devil remarks that " the glorious time has come to 
pass when David shall conduct an ass." Yet in the cata- 
logue of the E. B. Holden sale, No. 1088 is described as 
the " only known caricature of Washington." This rep- 
resents " Mrs. General Washington, bestowing thirteen 
stripes on Britannia " with the lash. 

Most of the caricatures of the day, as will be seen, 
were anti-Federalist, but the idol of the Republican Party 
came in for at least one vigorous pictorial knock. In a 
pamphlet by Robert G. Harper, probably issued in 1797, 
entitled " Observations on the Dispute between the U. S. 
and France," the frontispiece presents a caricature of 
Jefferson in allusion to his alleged atheistic tendencies and 
his attachment to the cause of the French Revolution. 
Similarly, the doctrines of Thomas Paine were dealt with 
in a large and poor plate entitled Church and State } signed 


B. Picart, and issued, we are told, by H. D. Robinson, 
New York, "about 1800." 

A very crude print depicted an exchange of amenities 
in Congress (1798), of a kind that has again occurred 
much more recently in Washington, Matthew Lyon and 
Roger Griswold being the members implicated. Under 
this caricature were these lines : 

" He in a trice struck Lyon thrice 
Upon the head, enrag'd, sir, 
Who seiz'd the tongs to ease his wrongs 
And Griswold thus engag'd, sir." 

The plate appears in the " Historical Magazine " for 
January, 1864, where reference is made also to a carica- 
ture of an earlier fracas between these two gentlemen, in 
which Lyon is represented as the king of beasts on his 
hind legs. That, after all, was a record of a personal 
intermezzo. Of more significance was the comment on 
the proceeding which to this day is termed " gerrymander- 
ing." In 181 1 the Massachusetts legislature rearranged 
the senatorial districts of the state so as to secure power 
to the Democrats, Governor Gerry signing the measure. 
In Essex County the arrangement as to towns was " par- 
ticularly absurd." Gilbert Stuart, seeing a map on which 
the towns thus selected were indicated by particular colors, 
noted the similarity to some monstrous animal. Indicat- 
ing the same with a few touches, he said to Russell, of the 
" Boston Centinel," " that will do for a salamander." 
" Salamander," was the reply; " call it Gerrymander." 
By the time the War of 18 12 loomed in sight, the home 


product in comic art became a little more prominent. 
Quincy's opposition to the " War act " of the Adminis- 
tration (18 12) roused bitter attacks in squibs, epigrams 
and caricatures. One of the last, by William Charles, 
entitled Josiah the First, pictured Quincy as a king (in 
reference to his political domination), with crown and 
scepter, with an inscription in which he proclaimed himself 
King of New England, Nova Scotia and Passamaquoddy 
and Grand Master of the Noble Order of the Two Cod- 
fishes, the last perhaps in reference to the " importance 
of the codfishery to the welfare of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts," as John Rowe put it when proposing the 
placing of the representation of a codfish in the state house 
at Boston, where it hung from 1784 on. 

The Embargo Act of April 14, 18 12, was strongly 
denounced by anti-administration speakers and news- 
papers, and the land trade with Canada, which had become 
suddenly arrested by it, was represented by a bewildered 
serpent, stopped by two trees labeled respectively Em- 
bargo and Non-intervention. The Gallic cock stands by, 
joyously crowing. The passage of the Embargo Act in 
December, 18 13, designed to prevent the furnishing of 
supplies to the enemy and the importation of British 
manufactures in professedly neutral vessels evoked a cari- 
cature designed and engraved by Alexander Anderson. 
A former embargo, during Jefferson's administration, was 
called by the opposition Federalists " a terrapin policy." 
In recollection of that, Anderson has the act of 18 13 
personified by a monstrous terrapin who has seized a 
violator of the law by the seat of his breeches, he crying 


out, Oh! this cursed o-grab-me [embargo spelled back- 
ward] ! The fling was aimed at the New England peo- 
ple, who were supposed to be saving their coasts from 
devastation, and filling their pockets at the same time, 
by supplying the British cruisers with provisions. On 
the repeal of the measure, the " Death of the Embargo " 
was celebrated in verses in the " Federal Republican," 
subsequently republished in the "Evening Post" (New 
York) with a design by John Wesley Jarvis, also en- 
graved by Anderson, whose burin thus served both sides. 
The cut illustrates a poem entitled the Terrapin's Address, 
and beginning: 

" Reflect, my friend, as you pass by, 
As you are now, so once was I." 

All these war prints will be found reproduced in Lossing's 
"Field Book of the War of 1812." 

The Hartford Convention naturally called forth Dem- 
ocratic attacks. The administration party issued a hand- 
bill (reproduced in " Harper's Popular Cyclopedia of 
U. S. History") in which the Federal Party is repre- 
sented by the devil and the Democratic by a comely young 
woman with a palm leaf. 

The most noteworthy productions in caricature en- 
gendered by the war, however, were the dozen or so 
of prints by William Charles. It appears that he was 
a native of Edinburgh, who left that city for this country 
about 1 801 to avoid the consequences of having carica- 
tured some of the magistrates. He practised his art suc- 
cessively in New York and Philadelphia, and died in the 


latter city, where he had a book and print shop, in 182 1. 
His caricatures are typical of the Rowlandson-Gillray 
period; one of them, John Bull making a new Batch of 
Ships to send to the Lakes, being evidently directly in- 
spired by Gillray's Tiddy-Doll, the great French Ginger- 
bread Baker, drawing out a new Batch of Kings. While 
not remarkable, they yet have a certain rough humor 
which no doubt made them popular in those days of 
excitement. A noteworthy one was A Wasp on a Frolic, 
or a Sting for John Bull, giving expression to the exulta- 
tion at the victory of the " Wasp " over the " Frolic," in 
which the somewhat obvious conceit of a huge wasp sting- 
ing John Bull was effectively utilized. Another one 
(September, 18 13) celebrated Perry's victory in a pic- 
torial pun on the word " perry," the name for the fresh 
juice of the pear, which is apt to produce uncomfortable 
digestive phenomena. King George is seated, his hand 
on his stomach, writhing in pain, rejecting offers of more 
" Perry " from Queen Charlotte, who holds an open 
bottle, from which is spouting foam bearing the names 
of the American vessels in the battle. Various inscrip- 
tions add to the humor of the print, which is emphasized 
also in these lines in a ballad of the day: 

" On Erie's wave, while Barclay brave 
With Charlotte making merry, 
He chanced to take the belly-ache 
We drenched him so with Perry." 

" Charlotte " was one of the British vessels, and a pun 
on the queen's name is intended, of course. Charles 


issued also prints relating to embargo ( The Cat let out 
of the Bag, a later impression of which has the title 
The Tory Editor and his Apes giving their pitiful Advice 
to the American Sailors), the Hartford Convention, or 
Leap, no Leap, and the ones entitled John Bull and the 
Baltimoreans, Johnny Bull and the Alexandrians (he de- 
mands their flour, tobacco, provisions, ships, " everything 
except your porter and perry. . . . I've had enough 
of them already") and Bruin become Mediator or 
Negotiations for Peace. 

Another naval victory, that of the " Hornet " over the 
" Peacock," February, 1813, brought Amos Doolittle into 
caricature. His engraving (reproduced in Lossing's 
" Field Book of the War of 18 12," p. 700) showed an 
immense hornet, alighting, with the cry Free trades and 
sailor's rights, you old rascal, on the head of a bull with 
the wings and tail of a peacock. (Doolittle, by the way, 
did also a hand-colored etching representing Napoleon 
hemmed in by the Russian bear, the British lions and 
other animals in the zoological garden of Europe's na- 
tional symbolism.) 

The years immediately succeeding the war do not ap- 
pear to have borne much fruit in comic art. Occasionally 
you will come across a print such as the etching Democ- 
racy against the Unnatural Union. Trial Oct. 14, 1817. 
Designed and executed by one who has neither place nor 
pension, or the colored aquatint showing John Binns 
carrying a pile of coffins, from which emerge Henry Clay 
and J. Q. Adams. It is entitled The Pedlar and his Pack, 
or the Desperate Effort, an Over Balance. 


As Charles had been a rough reflex of Gillray, so 
David Claypoole Johnston (1 797-1 865) was a somewhat 
weak dilution of Cruikshank. Johnston evidently had 
no easy time to make ends meet; he did many things 
and used various methods, all with a certain technical 
fluency up to a certain point: portraits in lithography and 
stipple, book illustrations and caricatures in etching. The 
last he issued in oblong quarto booklets, under the title 
Scraps, during the thirties and forties, of five plates each, 
every plate including a number of sketches, the whole 
in the manner of Cruikshank's Sketch Book. On the last 
sheet of one of the parts he depicted himself figuring the 
price charged for each sheet, — two cents " and no charge 
for letter press matter." A fair example of his work 
may be found also in " Outlines illustrative of the Journal 

of F A K Drawn & etched by Mr " 

(Boston, 1835), rather heavy and a bit coarse. The 
only political squib by him which has come to my notice 
was issued as late as 1863, a sheet on Jefferson Davis, 
The house that Jeff built. Scharf and Westcott, in their 
"History of Philadelphia," Vol. II, page 1063, tell us 
that his hits at dandies and local militia officers were re- 
sented and libel suits threatened, so that he temporarily 
abandoned art for the stage. Another Philadelphia cari- 
caturist was Edward W. Clay (1 792-1 857), — "merci- 
less," Stauffer calls him. His The Nation's Bulwark. 
A well-disciplined Militia (Sketches of Character, No. 1, 
1829) is quite good-natured raillery, however; the na- 
tion's defenders there shown include portraits of actual 
individuals, among them C. G. Childs. Like Johnston 


he did many things, drew views of Philadelphia for 
Childs, engraved in stipple, drew on stone, designed for 
line-engravers. James Akin drew and published A 
down[w]right Gabbler, directed at the eccentric and out- 
spoken reformer Fanny Wright, who was lecturing in 

The period between the War of 18 12 and the Civil 
War had its good share of events to stir the public mind 
and exercise slowly growing facility in caricature. It is 
noteworthy that for some time to come the humor in the 
cartoons issued in separate sheets, lies not in any distor- 
tion in the drawing but in the underlying idea. The re- 
marks of the various persons in the pictures are inclosed 
in loops issuing from their mouths, in the manner ever- 
recurring again, and always marking a distinctly lower 
grade of the art, as in so many of the dreary continuous 
series drawn out through successive issues of our present- 
day newspapers. The designer, too, generally employed 
a number of figures to emphasize his point. He often 
offered a resume, so to speak, of the collective activity 
of a group of politicians and statesmen during a given 
period. To-day we have our pictorial comments so fre- 
quently issued that they deal each with some detail of 
the political situation, some individual affair or person- 
ality, and therefore often show a minimum of effort to 
emphasize a general principle. In those ante-bellum days, 
lithography appeared as a vehicle for caricature at an 
early date. A new Map of the United States, with the 
additional Territories on an improved Plan. Exhibiting 
a View of the Rocky Mountains swveyed by a Company 


of Winnebago Indians in 1828 came from Imbert's estab- 
lishment, and is perhaps one of the earliest examples of 
the entrance into caricature of the lithographic art. The 
latter was employed in this field a little later by H. R. 
Robinson, and then by Currier & Ives, whose long series 
of sheets, both caricatures and illustrations of public 
events, remain a store-house of interest to the student of 
the American phase of what the French call imagerie 

It was with the first administration of Jackson, as Joseph 
B. Bishop ("Century Magazine," June, 1892) notes, 
that caricature in this country became a more frequently 
employed factor in political contests. Jackson's robust 
personality formed good material for caricatures, both 
those assailing and those defending his acts and measures, 
— the fight against the United States Bank, the affair of 
the " Kitchen Cabinet," and so forth. A favorite device 
of the caricaturist, the race between rival candidates for 
nomination or election, appears in A Foot-Race, showing 
Jackson and others, an etching somewhat in the style of 
Johnston. Jackson clearing his Kitchen and Rats leaving 
a fallen House, two etchings published in 1831 and re- 
ferring to the dissolution of the Kitchen Cabinet, were 
designed by Edward W. Clay, already mentioned. This 
artist, who, according to Scharf and Westcott's " History 
of Philadelphia " (Vol. II, p. 1063), was " for more than 
twenty years a noted caricaturist," drew also A Boston 
Notion for the World's Fair (1844) > aimed at the Aboli- 
tion movement. Parton's reference to burlesque proces- 
sions during the presidential campaign of 1832 is apropos. 


The hickory pole, Nicholas Biddle as " Old Nick," and 
other features which figured therein, are akin to the catch- 
words employed by the cartoonists of that time. The 
war on the U. S. Bank (1837) called forth such pieces as 
the shinplaster caricature, Great Locofoco Juggernaut, 
in which Van Buren appears, and the two lithographs, 
The Modern Balaam and his Ass and New Edition of 
Macbeth, Bank-oh's Ghost, the last signed C and printed 
and published by H. R. Robinson. Sub-treasurers taking 
long Steps, also published by Robinson (1838), is signed 
Grennell. Still another publication by Robinson is a little 
volume by " Junius Junior," entitled " The Vision of 
Judgment" (1838), with Jackson caricatures signed 
N. Sarony. 

The candidate's race idea appears again in The Great 
American Steeplechase for 1844 (issued 1843 D Y H. R. 
Robinson). This publisher is the Robinson who, as Fred- 
eric Hudson says, in his history of American journalism, 
" lined the curbstones and covered the old fences of New 
York with his peculiarly characteristic caricatures during 
Jackson's and Van Buren's administrations." 

Then the Mexican War became the topic of interest, but 
apparently not with the quantitative result in the field of 
caricature that one might perhaps have expected to find. 
The few pieces which I have discovered are marked by 
much of the amused disdain for the opponent which is 
found in many of our caricatures of the Spanish-American 
War, but by none of the bitter prejudice which character- 
ized a few of the latter. Uncle Sam's Taylorifics (the 
Yankee snipping a Mexican in two with a huge pair of 


shears) and The Mexican Commander enjoying the Pros- 
pect opposite Matamoras ( 1846), a lithograph by Sarony 
& Major, copyrighted by T. W. Strong, illustrate this 
spirit of complacent superiority. This Sarony & Major 
print is drawn with a certain freedom not common even 
to the best lithographic cartoons of the day. 

Of these caricatures drawn on stone and issued in sep- 
arate sheets, those bearing the name of Currier & Ives, 
who entered the field about 1848, are best known and 
most numerous. Caricature is the common and conveni- 
ent name for this pictorial satire, but the feature of dis- 
tortion was noticeably absent, down through the Civil 
War. As far as the skill of the artist went, the person- 
ages represented were depicted without exaggeration. 
The tendency was to draw groups of political leaders, 
with a free use of loops issuing from their mouths and 
inclosing sentiments which they are supposed to utter. 
The general effect of it all is somewhat stiff and labored. 

But it is an interesting series, this lot of cartoons of 
ante-bellum and war-time days, recalling much detail of 
our political history. As they did not appear at regular 
intervals, but at the time of stirring public events, most 
of them were concomitants of presidential campaigns. In 
1848, Marcy, Cass, Douglas, Buchanan and Houston, 
towed " up Salt River " by fox-bodied Van Buren, are 
labeled Loco Foco Candidates traveling. Fillmore pro- 
tects the " government crib " in Fancied Security, or the 
Rats on a Bender. Webster, Scott and Pierce take part 
in the Great Foot Race for the Presidential Purse ($100,- 
000 and Pickings) over the Union Course, 1852. When 


the slavery and state's rights controversies came to a 
head in the movement which resulted in the formation of 
the Republican Party, public feeling ran high and the 
campaign of 1856 brought out much anti-Fremont mate- 
rial. In The Great Republican Reform Party calling on 
their Candidate, Fremont is promising the prohibitionist, 
woman's rights lady, socialist, free love advocate, the 
Roman Catholic Church and the negro all they want. 
And in The Great Presidential Sweepstakes of 1856 
Beecher and Greeley are helping along a sorry outfit con- 
taining Fremont, which appears again in The Mustang 
Team, the latter particularly free in drawing. One feels 
in such sheets, despite, or perhaps by very reason of, the 
expressed contempt for the new party, the feeling of un- 
certainty and unrest engendered by the approach of that 
irrepressible conflict, to which so many apparently tried 
to close their eyes, but which came on inexorably. 

Some phases of the slavery controversy had been 
touched upon by the satirist's pencil. For instance in 
E. C.'s depiction of Buchanan and the slave question, 
or Practical illustration of the fugitive slave law (the 
slaveholder astride of Webster on all-fours) or What's 
Sauce for the Goose is sauce for the Gander, a lithograph 
by E. W. C., — E. W. Clay, no doubt, — dealing with 
Northern protection of fugitive slaves. In most cases the 
pictures showed pro-slavery leanings. Abolitionism was 
repeatedly attacked, with especial emphasis on the dire 
effects of miscegenation. So in Prof. Pompey magnetiz- 
ing an Abolition Lady (a lithograph issued by T. W. 
Strong, the wood-engraver), and An Amalgamation 


Polka, a lithograph by E. W . C, our Philadelphian, Clay, 
again. Buchanan's attitude gave rise to such cartoons as 
L. Maurer's Ostend Doctrine: Practical Democrats carry- 
ing out the Principle with the president inactive, or South 
Carolina's Ultimatum, in which Gov. Pickens is shown 
as wanting Sumter, while Buchanan entreats: Don't fire 
till I get out of office. In another, Buchanan is riding 
the dragon of slavery, and exclaims, Pull down that fence, 
and make zvay for the " Peculiar Institution," the fence 
being Mason and Dixon's line; Fremont strongly objects. 

Lithography, however, did not monopolize this spe- 
cialty of caricature altogether. The woodcut served for 
a number of these comic sheets, T. W. Strong appear- 
ing as publisher in several cases, the designer usually 
anonymous, in one case signed in full : /. H . Goater. In 
one of Strong's cuts entitled Little Bo Peep and her foolish 
Sheep, the shepherdess, Columbia, seeing her sheep (the 
seceding states) departing, exclaims, Sick 'em, Buck — / 
wish old Hickory were alive, he'd bring 'em back in no 

Then followed the presidential campaign of i860, in 
which political feeling was at a high tension. One cannot 
recall any cartoon issued in New York which really gave 
expression to the Union sentiments which the election of 
Lincoln and subsequent events were to fan into a roaring 
flame. A few designs of well-tempered Republicanism, 
and as for the rest, evasive presentations of not fully 
relevant facts or of distorted views. In The Rail Can- 
didate, the railsplitter, carried by Greeley and a negro 
astride a rail marked Republican Platform, complains: 


" I begin to feel as if this rail would split me, it's the 
hardest stick I ever straddled." Other sheets in this 
series of lithographs are The Nigger in the Woodpile, 
An Heir to the Throne (Greeley and Lincoln compla- 
cently regarding the "heir," Barnum's " What-is-it? ") 
and The Impending Crisis, both by Maurer, and The 
irrepressible Conflict, the last two dealing with Seward's 
failure to obtain the Republican nomination, and Greeley's 
agency in the matter. Mr. Bishop, who had his in- 
formation from James M. Ives, stated that all of these 
caricatures of 1856 and i860 were drawn by Louis 
Maurer. The latter, however, told me that they were 
not all by him, and identified a number of them as his 
work. These include, beside those which I have named 
as his, The Great American Buck Hunt of 1856, The 
Political Gymnasium, Letting the Cat out of the Bag, 
Honest Abe taking them on the Half Shell, Storming 
the Castle and The Great Republican Party. The Cur- 
rier & Ives lithographs have been reproduced in a volume 
with the title : " Caricatures pertaining to the Civil War 
. . . 1856-72," issued in New York, 1892, in an edi- 
tion of 150 copies. 

With the election of Lincoln the storm broke loose, 
and some of the caricatures produced in the white heat 
of excitement in those troublous times were among the 
most telling of the war. And they were often not the 
regular lithographed sheets, but sporadic woodcut issues. 
The conceit which showed the seceding states as mice 
scampering away from " Uncle Abe " in the guise of a 
cat, whose paw holds down a rodent labeled Virginia, and 


which is appropriately entitled Virginia pausing, opens up 
the long series of these war-time pictures. In many cases 
they appeared on envelopes, which method of publication 
was a very much used means for the dissemination of 
both Northern and Southern views; the designs and 
mottoes thus issued were numbered by hundreds. There 
was much patriotic fervor, occasional bitterness and more 
often good humor. I'm glad I'm not in Dixie! Hooray! 
Hooray!; Come back here, you black Rascal! — Can't 
come back nohow, Massa, dis Chile's contraban' ; Music 
by the Contra-Band and Good Noose for Traitors (in 
which a picture of a hangman's rope left no doubt as to 
the pun intended), are sufficiently clear in title and are 
average examples of the kind of humor thus disseminated 
through the mails. I have seen seven different repro- 
ductions in reduced size, on envelopes, of a remarkably 
popular early war-time caricature by Frank Beard, Why 
don't you take it?, representing Davis as a greyhound 
slinking off before the ferocious air of a bulldog (Gen. 
Scott) guarding a rib of prize beef (Washington). D. 
M. Stauffer did several of these envelope designs in 
1862, in small editions, however. Others beside Beard 
made an early appearance in those days. Thomas Worth, 
for instance, in The Voluntary Manner in which some of 
the Southern Volunteers enlist, or Benjamin Day — become 
a caricaturist only through the exigencies of the moment 
— who depicts Lincoln and Davis as prizefighters, in a 
lithograph entitled Caving in, or a Rebel deeply humili- 

A probably casual incursion into a vein of mild humor, 


on the part of E. B. & E. C. Kellogg, the Hartford 
lithographic firm, is entitled Forward March — Uncle 
Sam's old Hens covering their Chickens on the way to 
Richmond, the hens being the gunboats steaming up the 
river and spreading their wings over the chickens, — the 
soldiers marching on the banks. Another publisher's 
name out of the common is that of Hough, of Philadel- 
phia, on a lithograph which proclaims The Southern Con- 
federacy a Fact, because it has been acknowledged by 
the devil. 

It was during the war, too, that Thomas Nast began 
in a series of emblematic drawings that life-work which 
made him famous. Compromise with the South, refer- 
ring to the attitude of the Chicago Convention, made a 
notable hit in " Harper's Weekly," and was subsequently 
used as a campaign document. A. B. Paine, in his vol- 
ume on Nast (1904), quotes Lincoln: "Thomas Nast 
has been our best recruiting sergeant. His emblematic 
cartoons have never failed to arouse enthusiasm and 

Lincoln naturally held the center of the stage in many 
of the pictorial lampoons of the war. The lukewarm 
or straight anti-Lincoln productions apparently greatly 
outnumbered those supporting him. Among the first may 
be named such lithographs as The political Rail Splitter 
driving the wedge " Irrepressible Conflict " into the log 
" Union," splitting it into North and South, or the one 
by Joseph E. Baker of Boston, Columbia demands her 
Children, she asking back her 500,000 sons, to which 
Lincoln remarks, " That reminds me of a story." This 


phrase was used against Lincoln in various ways, and his 
love of humor was assailed most bitterly in a poorly 
drawn sheet entitled The Commander-in-Chief conciliat- 
ing the Soldiers' Votes on the Battlefield. This repre- 
sented him amid dead and wounded soldiers, saying, to 
the horror of the listeners: "Now, Marshal, sing us 
4 Picayune Butler ' or something else that's funny." On 
the other hand, Grand Sweepstakes for 1862 zvon by the 
celebrated Horse Emancipation, a lithograph signed 
Potomac, signalizes approvingly an important act of Lin- 
coln's administration. Occasionally there was a cartoon 
strong for Lincoln; such was A little Game of Bagatelle, 
between Old Abe the R ails plitter and Little Mac the 
Gunboat General, a lithograph published by J. L. Magee 
of Philadelphia, and signed /. L. M. Y our Plan and 
Mine, a Currier and Ives sheet, put the case even more 
strongly in Lincoln's favor; he completely subdues the 
South and keeps the negro free, while his opponent 
weakly attempts conciliation and is ready to restore the 
black man to slavery. Political caricature No. 2, 1864, 
pictures Miscegenation as the Millennium of Abolition- 
ism, and No. 3 of the same series prophesies The Aboli- 
tion Catastrophe, or The November Smash-up. But fate 
willed otherwise ; Lincoln was re-elected, and the war was 
carried on to success for the North. Jefferson Davis' 
attempt to escape from the Union soldiers who had him 
in charge was chronicled in a more or less humorous 
manner in more than one print, even in a pamphlet en- 
titled " Jeff Petticoats," with " graphotype "illustrations 
" drawn by the celebrated artist Frank Bellew on the 


chemical blocks of the Intaglio and Graphotype Co. and 
engraved by them in the short time of two hours." 
These pictures usually did not go very much beyond the 
facts in the case, and there is really more point to the 
grim conception of Jeff Davis on his own Platform or the 
last Act of Secession, in which that prominent representa- 
tive of the " lost cause " stands, with the hangman's noose 
about his neck, on a trap about to be sprung. 

Gen. McClellan likewise came in for some share of 
pictorial applause and criticism, mirroring the hopes which 
he aroused and the general opinion of his generalship. 
He appears in masterly inactivity at his Headquarters 
at Harrisburg Landing, in a lithograph by Potomac, who 
designed another one, The last Round, which was pro- 
McClellan in spirit. The old Bull Dog on the right 
Track (Grant) is contrasted with the protesting " little 
Mac," to the latter's disadvantage. In The true Issue, 
or that's what's the matter, Lincoln and Davis are hauling 
at opposite sides of a map of the United States, the former 
proclaiming " No Peace without abolition " and the lat- 
ter " No peace without separation," while McClellan 
stays their hands, with the sentiment " The Union must 
be preserved at all hazards." This last was probably 
issued at the time of the presidential campaign of 1864, 
which was the occasion of a number of cartoons friendly 
to the general in politics. One, by J. E. Baker, shows 
a wounded soldier forced by a negro guard to vote for 
Lincoln instead of the Democratic candidate, while the 
poll-clerks pretend not to see. The difficulties of his 
position were pictured three times at least in that familiar 


conception of a circus-rider with each foot on a horse, 
the equines striving in different directions. In the one, 
a reproduction of a pen-and-ink drawing somewhat in the 
style of Augustus Hoppin, the horses are labeled re- 
spectively Letter of acceptance and Chicago Platform; 
in the second, Slow and Steady wins the Race, Lincoln 
rides " Slow and Steady," while McClellan's two steeds 
are "Brag and Bluster" and "Fawn and Cringe"; in 
the third, Little Mac in his great Two-Horse Act is striv- 
ing to control his mounts " Peace " and " War," with 
Lincoln as a clown standing by. This last sheet was 
one of T. W. Strong's woodcut publications, the drawing 
by J. H. Howard, a sort of weaker McLenan, and illus- 
trator of Major Jack Downing. Howard designed also 
the engraving of MacClellan as Hamlet holding the head 
of Lincoln: / knew him, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest. 
. . . Where be your gibes now? The Grave of the 
Union, or Major Jack Downing' s Dream, drawn by Zeke 
(a lithograph issued by Bromley & Co., 1864) represents 
Lincoln, Greeley et al. burying the Constitution and free 

There was at least some Confederate response through 
the medium of the comic art. The Battle of Bull Run 
brought forth a derisive whoop in the shape of a very poor 
lithograph from a pfothogr., and B. Duncan of Colum- 
bia, S. C, issued a series of better designed plates with 
the suggestive title Dissolving Views of Richmond, one 
signed with a monogram /. W. But the most interesting 
and, by all odds, best designed Southern production was 
a series of etched War Sketches by V. Blada, partly issued 


abroad (London, 1864). Drawn mainly in outline, with 
a quite free touch, these plates, though free from cari- 
cature — except the slight exaggeration in such a case as 
Valiant men " dat fite mit Sigel " — are satirical and vigor- 
ous arraignments of Northern principles and practice. 
Free Negroes in the North and in Hayti are contrasted, 
and the Substitute Office is derided. 

When we draw a line under the long Civil War column, 
and add up the total the sum is not so very impressive 
qualitatively. The possibilities of the period were per- 
haps not fully grasped by our caricaturists. In fact, we 
had no commanding figure among them, and we must go 
to Tenniel's cartoons in London " Punch " to get com- 
ments more in accord with the importance of this four 
years' struggle. This is said, of course, without reference 
to the ideas and point of view expressed in Tenniel's draw- 
ings. As far as his treatment of Lincoln was concerned, 
he joined with Tom Taylor in an amende honorable 
when the president was struck down by the assassin's 

The years have gone and have begun to envelop the 
events of those war-time days in the haze of intervening 
time. In the lengthening perspective of the passing gen- 
erations, we are becoming able to regard even the bitterest 
examples of pictorial satire, both Northern and Southern, 
with more calmness of spirit, as documents mirroring the 
high-tension excitement of an exciting period. 

The preponderance of the lithographed separate sheets 
in the field of caricature came to an end soon after the 
Civil War. They continued to be issued, notably in the 


distorted, though in a rough way funny, " Darktown " 
negro comics of Thomas Worth, but as an effective 
weapon in the political arena they gave way before the 
work of the comic press and the cartoons in the weekly 
illustrated journals. 


The comic paper entered more decidedly into the field 
of caricature not long after the Civil War. There had 
been previous attempts to found periodicals devoted to 

"Yankee Doodle" appeared in 1856, with Charles 
Martin as the principal artist and Darley as an occa- 
sional contributor. " Yankee Notions, or, Whittlings of 
Jonathan's Jack-knife," issued as a monthly by T. W. 
Strong of New York, made its appearance in January, 
1852. A year later it advertised a circulation of 15,000, 
which rose to 30,000 by December, 1853, and to 150,000 
in September, 1854. It lived about fifteen years. Au- 
gustus Hoppin had a full-page drawing in each number, 
and the contributing artists included the best talent of its 
time and others: John McLenan, Frank Bellew ("the 
triangle"), Thomas Butler Gunn, Magee, Holcomb, G. 
F. F., Brown, H. Egbert, Jr., Folingsby, J. H. Howard, 
Dallas, Wattles, and one signing with skull and cross- 
bones. Some drawings appeared also signed " Carl," the 
pseudonym of G. W. Carleton the publisher, who later 
put a little bird under his sketches (as did "Dicky" 
Doyle of London "Punch"). His very amateurish 
though amusing manner is shown in " Our Artist in 
Peru" (1866) and other similar books. We have seen 



such pleasant dilettante foolery recently, particularly in 
Robert W. Wood's " How to tell the Birds from the 
Flowers " (1907), with its kinship to Lear. By 1859-60 
Thomas Worth and M. A. Woolf were also among the 
contributors to " Yankee Notions," as well as, occasion- 
ally, W. L. Sheppard and, I think, E. F. Mullen. There 
were appropriations from foreign sources too, for while 
aspersions were cast more than once on the wit of London 
" Punch," that journal's cuts were not disdained and were 
used without credit given. 

McLenan was one of the most noteworthy artists of 
this group. His bohemian nature was evidenced both in 
the often carelessly sketchy drawing of his work, and in 
the dash and spirit, the rollicking humor in his " comics." 
As an illustrator he had to turn his hand to various things, 
even Collins's " Woman in White," but it is as a comic 
artist that he really made his mark. The late A. V. S. 
Anthony told me that D. C. Hitchcock discovered Mc- 
Lenan working in a pork-packing establishment in Cin- 
cinnati, where he used to make sketches on the tops of 
barrels. Among the books illustrated by him was " Noth- 
ing to Say " by Mortimer M. Thompson ( " Doesticks " ) , 
issued at the time of the " Nothing to Wear " contro- 

There came and went other periodical vehicles for 
humor: "The Lantern," edited, like "The Bubble," by 
John Brougham, one of whose drawings, hanging in the 
Players' Club, New York City, is signed Brougham, de- 
linquent; "John Donkey" (Philadelphia); "Young 
America"; "The Picayune" (outlet for the humor of 


Mortimer Thompson) ; " The Carpet Bag " in Boston, 
with B. P. Shillaber; " Mrs. Grundy" (three months in 
1865, Nast and Stephens the artists); " Phunny Phel- 
low" (Nast again); "Jolly Joker"; "The Punster" 
(Mobile, early seventies), and what others besides. C. 
G. Rosenberg even tried to establish a humorous daily, 
" Momus," in the fifties. 

The best of all, from the literary standpoint, was 
"Vanity Fair" (New York), with Fitz-James O'Brien, 
" Artemus Ward" (Charles F. Browne), George Ar- 
nold and C. G. Leland among its writers, and Henry L. 
Stephens, E. F. Mullen (illustrator of " Artemus Ward: 
His Book "), J. H. Goater, W. Fiske, H. Helmick, Ben 
Day (whose work was reproduced in " graphotype ") , 
and Carleton as its principal artists. Stephens did the 
cartoons (with the exception of a few, e.g., one by the 
painter R. Wylie), a task for which he was equipped in 
a measure. His drawing, despite evident mannerisms, 
had grace and easy flow of line, but it lacked the vigor 
of expression and of characterization necessary in the 
make-up of a really successful cartoonist. " Vanity 
Fair" held from 1859 on until 1863. Possibly the 
reason for its failure was that the public had no stomach 
in those days for graceful fooling and literary humor. 
It was a time for vigorous blows in the field, on the 
rostrum, in the editorial column, from the caricaturist's 
pencil. There were a few references to incompetent of- 
ficers advanced by political pull, or to dishonest con- 
tractors, as in the small cut by Elihu Vedder depicting 
some soldiers who find their blankets more suited to use 


as fishing nets than for their legitimate purpose. Or the 
pictorial comparison, Heroes of the war (penniless, 
maimed veterans) and He rose by the war (a fattened 
contractor). But there is not much that strikes you as 
a blow from the shoulder, a bull's-eye scored. When the 
cartoons do not show the distinctly anti-administration 
feeling that characterized not a little of the comic art 
of the day, they are apt often to give a lukewarm im- 
pression. It is not so much the telling force of satire 
that is felt as the mildly humorous comment of an amused 
spectator. About the same characterization will describe 
the cartoons in "Punchinello" (April, 1870-December, 
1 87 1 ) , also by Stephens. We meet other familiar names 
under the cuts in this journal: A. Hoppin, J. H. Howard, 
F. Bellew, W. Fiske, Sheppard; and some new ones: F. 
T. Merrill (later known as an illustrator), George B. 
Bowlend, F. S. Cozzens and J. A. Mitchell, by whom 
there is one cut, in no wise foreshadowing his subsequent 
grace of style. 

It was with the advent of Thomas Nast, the Bavarian 
who caught the spirit of the time, that the sledge-hammer 
force of pictorial satire exerted in a just cause was felt in 
all its potency. In 1862, amid the clamor for "peace 
at any price," Nast, who had been doing illustrating 
successively for " Leslie's," the " New York Illustrated 
News " and " Harper's," drew for the last journal a 
double-page emblematic picture entitled Peace. It 
showed Columbia weeping at a Union soldier's grave, 
while the dead one's companion, stripped of arms, is 
shaking hands with a Southern soldier armed to the teeth 


and with one foot on the grave. " That picture made his 
reputation," said "Petroleum V. Nasby " (David R. 
Locke, whose "Struggles of P. V. Nasby," 1872, was 
illustrated by Nast), in an interview (1871) quoted by 
Frederic Hudson in his " Journalism in the United 
States," and added: " It was circulated by the million as 
a campaign document." Nast had done occasional small 
" comics," but in his large drawings he continued in this 
emblematic vein, often surrounding his central composi- 
tion with a number of smaller ones, and appealing now 
to patriotism and human justice, as in War in the Border 
States and Southern Chivalry, and again simply to the 
sentiments of domestic affection, as in Christmas Eve. 
But with the campaign of 1868 he entered definitely into 
political caricature. His strong defence of the Union 
cause, his arraignment of the Canal Ring in New York 
State and his castigation of the Tweed Ring in New York 
City were accomplished with fierce and fearless earnest- 
ness in a series of cartoons that form imperishable pages 
in the annals of caricature. In the case of the anti- 
Greeley compositions in the presidential campaign of 
1872, one's admiration of Nast's bitter, unrelenting in- 
genuity in probing and laying bare every little weakness 
is tempered by sympathy for the chief object of his at- 
tacks, the distinguished journalist who suffered so under 
his defeat, and by respect for men such as Sumner, Curtis, 
Schurz and the principles they stood for. Nast's energy 
never failed him, and he had a remarkable power of em- 
phasizing the salient characteristics of a face. In time 
his strength waned, and his manner dropped into a multi- 


tudinous display of labels all over the drawing, once 
lampooned in " Puck." It is, however, Nast of his best 
period whom we remember with satisfaction and with 
warm appreciation of his great service to the public. 
The story of his life has been well and sympathetically 
told by Albert Bigelow Paine (1904). His biographer 
traces to him the introduction of various symbolical 
devices dear to the caricaturist, — the square paper cap 
of labor, the full dinner pail, the Tammany tiger, and 
the " inflation " rag baby of 1875. 

Nast's best work was done for " Harper's Weekly," 
and that journal's cartoon feature was adopted also by 
" Leslie's," which early in the seventies brought over 
Matt Morgan as a rival to Nast. Morgan had been 
connected with " Fun," in London, a number of his con- 
tributions to that journal being republished in a volume 
of "American War Cartoons" (1879). He had also 
drawn some startlingly bold cartoons for the London 
" Tomahawk," but these attacks on the Queen and the 
Prince of Wales were found too caustic, and the journal, 
begun in 1867, soon went out of existence. Morgan did 
not make his mark in this country as a political cari- 
caturist, however, — although his artistic influence was felt 
in the periodicals with which he was connected, — but in 
the domains of the poster and of scene-painting. Kep- 
pler also cartooned for " Leslie's " before he started his 
New York " Puck." The " Daily Graphic " had Th. 
Wust (1874-5), Charles S. Reinhart (1876), Grant 
Hamilton (1883), A. B. Frost > E - W. Kemble and Fer- 
nando Miranda as cartoonists. And Mirall drew very 


mild and gentlemanly specimens of what the French call 
portraits-charges for " The Hour " in the eighties, — por- 
traits of noted individuals, with a slight admixture of 
witty or satirical allusion. It was a sort of thing often 
well done in " Vanity Fair," of London, and by Bellew 
in the " Fifth Avenue Journal," of New York, and seen 
here notably in Pucko graphs, appearing in " Puck " and 
drawn usually by Keppler and occasionally by J. A. Wales 
and F. Graetz. 

What may be called social caricature, as distinct from 
political, continued mainly in cuts on the last pages of 
weekly and monthly publications. There were the little 
" comics " in the " bric-a-brac " section of " Scribner's," 
in the late seventies, drawn by Livingston Hopkins (who 
wrote and illustrated a comic history of the United 
States and subsequently went to Australia to cartoon for 
the Sydney " Bulletin," — see " Review of Reviews," 
January, 1893), F. B. Opper, F. S. Church, E. A. Abbey, 
Mullen, Addie Ledyard, M. A. Woolf, Bellew and 
Howard Pyle. Elsewhere, too, appeared those little tail- 
end " comics " which have long been a feature in many 
of our illustrated magazines. So the " Book of cheer- 
ful Cats," by J. G. Francis (1892), was made up 
of contributions to " St. Nicholas " and other publi- 

While Nast was cartooning " Harper's Weekly " into 
a political force, attempts to establish journals entirely 
devoted to the comic art still went on. Frederic Hud- 
son, in his " Journalism in the United States " (New 
York, 1873), has a chapter devoted to this phase of our 


periodical press. He stated his belief that the American 
public did not want its humor in weekly doses, but pre- 
ferred it in the morning paper, with its breakfast coffee. 
Recounting the different efforts to found a comic paper, 
he concluded: " and Puck, of St. Louis, how is he? " 

This same " Puck " was founded by Joseph Keppler 
(1838-94), who, coming from Vienna, where he had 
drawn for " Der Floh " and " Kikeriki," had first tried 
his fortunes as an actor in St. Louis, and had then started 
"Die Vehme " (1870) and after its demise "Puck" 
( 1 87 1 ) . On the failure of " Puck " he came in 1873 to 
New York City, where he found employment as a car- 
toonist on " Frank Leslie's Weekly." In 1876 he became 
associated with Schwarzmann in the establishment of 
" Puck," a German weekly, which half a year later began 
to appear also in- an English edition. Previous ventures 
in the field of humorous journalism had usually been 
modeled on the pattern of " Punch," at least as far as 
appearance was concerned. There was a full-page car- 
toon on the two middle pages, and in some of the publica- 
tions a half-page drawing on the front or title-page of 
each number. The drawings were invariably reproduced 
by wood-engraving, excepting toward the end of the Civil 
War, when there was an occasional cut in " Graphotype," 
or perhaps some other chemical process. These conven- 
tions were disregarded in " Puck," which offered three 
cartoons in each number, and with cartoons produced 
by lithography, was soon able to add the effect of color. 
At first the cartoons were printed in black-and-white; 
then two tints — added from wood blocks — were used, one 


at the top, the other, at the bottom, both merging in the 
center. Further effect was gained by lightening by means 
of coarse white lines in the tints. Finally, Keppler's pre- 
dilection for color found fuller satisfaction in the com- 
pleter chromatic glory of hues and tints lithographically 
produced. It was uphill work at first; Keppler drew all 
three cartoons himself, like Mark Twain, " without out- 
side help," as well as some of the smaller illustrations 
and even occasional advertisements. But success came, 
and " Puck " gradually drew to itself the best talent in 
the land, and levied tribute also on its chief artist's father- 
land, Austria. Karl Edler von Stur and F. Graetz were 
successively imported from Vienna (Graetz's views on 
America, expressed with an incisive pen-stroke, were pe- 
culiarly interesting) . Frederick Burr Opper, some of 
whose comics had appeared in " Scribner's Magazine," 
developed remarkably while with " Puck." T. Bernard 
Gillam, an Englishman by birth, who had cartooned for 
the " Graphic " and " Harper's Weekly," had in his 
drawing a severity of manner reminiscent of Tenniel. 
Eugene Zimmerman showed a tendency to grotesquery 
apparently suppressed somewhat. James A. Wales, one 
of the few caricaturists of American birth in those days, 
could hit off a portrait with a sure touch. Dalrymple 
never did better work than under the guidance of Kep- 
pler, — " he is a born caricaturist," said the latter once to 
me. And there were Ehrhardt, a pen-artist of precise 
finish, and Syd B. Griffin, whose humor had an almost 
boyishly rollicking, irresponsible air. Charles J. Taylor 
was essentially an illustrator, good in his satires on so- 

Boss Tweed. "As lone as I count the Votes, what an yon going lo do about It? lajj* 

One of the Anti-Tweed Cartoons in 

"Harper's Weekly," by 

Thomas Nast 

Courtesy of "Puck" 

Cartoon, "Puck," April 28, 1886, by 
Joseph Keppler 


ciety life in its female aspect; he illustrated Philip G. 
Welch's " Tailor-made girl " dialogues, " In the Four 
Hundred and out," and various works by H. C. Bunner 
and others. In recent years this journal has enlisted also 
the services of Joseph Keppler the younger, L. M. 
Glackens, Carl Hassmann, Albert Levering, Arthur 
Young (illustrator of " Hell up to Date," and whose 
cartoons evidence serious convictions on social condi- 
tions), Gordon H. Grant, Will Crawford, Frank Nan- 
kivell, representing as many different styles and almost as 
many specialties. 

During the early years of " Puck," when Keppler not 
only dominated the art department but did nearly all of 
the work, there was a noticeably foreign tone in his car- 
toons, a spirit, with a somewhat Gallic freedom of expres- 
sion, born of his Viennese origin. The somewhat auda- 
cious conception, Forbidding the Banns, is not very likely 
to be echoed to-day. In that picture, Garfield (in female 
garb) is about to be wedded to Uncle Sam, the officiating 
clergyman having a ballot-box for a head, and Schurz and 
Reid standing by as bridesmaids; W. H. Barnum, bearing 
a baby labeled " Credit Mobilier," rushes in, vigorously 
protesting against the continuation of the ceremony. 
" But it was such a little one " is the coy remark of the 
blushing bride. " A Selection of Cartoons from Puck 
by Joseph Keppler; with text and introduction by H. C. 
Bunner" (1893), issued in a limited edition, gives a 
bird's-eye view of the range of Keppler's talent. But the 
best review of his activity will be found in a bound set of 
the journal which he founded and made into a power. 


Keppler developed a partiality for large compositions 
with many figures; he was a sort of Makart in comic art. 
His son, who has taken his place on " Puck," while not 
entirely possessing the father's easy swing of flowing line, 
has a remarkable faculty of scoring telling hits with a 
minimum of figures. One could not better tell the story 
of the presidential campaign of 1908 than he did with 
three figures, Roosevelt as John Alden and the Repub- 
lican Party as Priscilla, Taft as Standish hovering in the 
rear. The mature coyness of the maid, the smile of self- 
satisfaction on the face of the vicarious suitor, are un- 
mistakable. The title is, of course: Why don't you 
speak for yourself? Keppler never allows side issues 
or details to becloud the main idea in his cartoons; it is 
this singleness of purpose which makes them so em- 
phatically effective. 

In 1887 " Judge " was founded, to counteract the Dem- 
ocratic influence of " Puck," I fancy. It received its first 
impulse toward more important rank through the advent 
of Wales from " Puck," that artist being followed sub- 
sequently by Gillam and Zimmerman, which latter artist 
here developed to the full his predilection for exaggera- 
tion. Grant E. Hamilton grew into a manner of note- 
worthy ease and freshness, shown also in pen-drawings 
of easy-flowing stroke done for the " New York Her- 
ald." Frank Beard, J. H. Smith (cowboy scenes), F. 
Victor Gillam (who, until the death of his brother, on 
whose style his own was modeled, used the signature F. 
Victor), Penrhyn Stanlaws (i.e., P. S. Adamson), Flohri, 
James Montgomery Flagg are among the other artists 


whose work appeared in this weekly. " Puck and Judge," 
say A. B. Maurice and F. T. Cooper, in their volume on 
nineteenth century caricature, " led to a distinct advance 
in political caricature in this country." 

The third in the trio of comic weeklies, with the usual 
three cartoons in colors, which succeeded in maintaining 
a foothold for a number of years, was the " Wasp," of 
San Francisco, which subsequently became a general illus- 
trated weekly. There were other attempts to establish 
similar publications, but they usually did not hold out 
long beyond the political campaign which called them 
into being. The Garfield-Hancock struggle of 1880 
evolved " Chic," with chief cartoonist in the person of 
C. Kendrick, better known as an illustrator of juveniles 
with colored pictures. Four years later " Judge's " efforts 
in behalf of Blaine were seconded by " Jingo," which 
died the usual early death. During that campaign of 
1884 the strongest forces in caricature were arrayed on 
the other side. " Puck " offered a remarkable instance 
of sustained effort in its series of " plumed knight " and 
" tattooed man " conceits, mainly by Keppler and Gillam. 
The " tattooed " idea had appeared once before in 
" Puck," in an early issue of the German edition (1876), 
in which Columbia appears anything but a " gem," her 
body covered with the record of all sorts of rings and 
frauds and political misdeeds. And now the idea, utilized 
in a political dime museum drawn by Gillam, in which 
Blaine appeared among the " freaks " as a tattooed man, 
was exploited with an ingeniously varied insistence that 
was terrible in its effectiveness. Some of the cartoons 


were on a particularly high plane; so Gillam's Phryne be- 
fore the Chicago Tribunal (Phryne being the tattooed 
man unveiled by Whitelaw Reid) , a distinct appeal to the 
well educated. The attacks on Cleveland were equally 
bitter, and in the two succeeding campaigns his figure, 
in grossly caricatured obesity, was incessantly held up to 
ridicule. Free-trade friendliness to England, a nineteen 
collar and a number six hat, hypocrisy and self-love were 
some of the sins with which he was charged. The last- 
named attribute formed the theme of a drawing by Gillam 
in which Cleveland's figure, inclined in a bow, forms the 
contours of the United States on the map. 

In succeeding campaigns, Bryan came in for his share 
of attacks. Among the many cartoons directed against 
him there was one, unusually free in conception, by Ham- 
ilton, representing him as the " Angel of Darkness " 
showing the American voter possibilities of power and 
wealth, as seen from a high mountain. The Temptation 
is its obvious title. 

Shortly before the Spanish war, a cartoon by Victor 
Gillam, in which a diminutive Spaniard, looking into the 
mouth of an enormous American cannon, is admonished 
by Uncle Sam : Be careful, it's loaded, explained the state 
of affairs with expressive simplicity. The Spanish cari- 
catures issued during the war, usually variations on the 
theme of the " American hog," may seem to us stupid 
enough, but in such a production as Hamilton's The 
Spanish Brute adds Mutilation to Murder there is an 
appeal to national prejudice which is not pleasant to look 
upon. Even this war is already to an extent ancient his- 


tory, which may be objectively studied, in its caricature 
aspect, in the volume "Cartoons of the War of 1898 
with Spain, from leading foreign and American papers " 


While " Puck " and " Judge " were cartooning their 
way through the devious paths of politics, in the color-full 
blaze of chromo-lithography, there was established in 
1883 a weekly devoted more particularly to social cari- 
cature, and going back to black and white, although a 
more rapid process was used, of course, instead of wood- 
engraving. That was " Life." It is an interesting group 
of artists who have at one time or another been in the 
service of this lively publication. Some of them were 
well characterized by John Ames Mitchell, editor of 
the journal, in his article on " Contemporary American 
caricature" in " Scribner's " for December, 1889. He 
speaks there of the " intellectual quality " of the delight- 
ful and droll conceits of F. G. Attwood (of whose draw- 
ings the Boston Museum of Fine Arts held an exhibition 
in 1901), of C. D. Gibson's "ability to draw a lady," 
a not too common faculty, of the " lively fancy, keen 
wit " of Oliver Herford. Further variations of outlook 
on the humorous side of our fellow-man were offered in 
the earlier volumes of " Life " by W. A. Rogers, W. H. 
Hyde, Albert Sterner, S. W. Van Schaick, C. Gray 
Parker, Palmer Cox, C. Kendrick, H. W. McVickar (il- 
lustrator of "Daisy Miller"), Alfred Gillam, E. W. 
Kemble ("Thompson Street Poker Club" and other 
phases of " Blackville " life, presented with much under- 
standing of negro character, unexaggerated), and John 


Ames Mitchell ("The Summer School of Philosophy 
at Mt. Desert," 1881, and "The Romance of the 
Moon," 1886). More recently there have been con- 
nected with it the painstaking and thoughtful Charles 
Broughton; T. S. Sullivant; Otho Cushing ("The Ted- 
dyssey," 1907), who outlines commanding and divinely 
proportioned Junos, Venuses, Apollos, Jupiters and Di- 
anas, both in their classic garb and in modern dress; 
James Montgomery Flagg, whose humor has a broad 
and spontaneous fling; and W. H. Walker, effective in 
the field of political satire. 

Chip, as F. P. W. Bellew, son of Frank Henry Temple 
Bellew, signed himself, furnished many of his amusing 
little pictures to " Life " (a number of them were repub- 
lished in a volume of "Chip's Dogs," 1895), and 
Mitchell paid pribute to his " limitless invention." Ideas 
are very necessary to the caricaturist. The elder Bellew, 
who in 1866 issued a book on the "Art of Amusing," 
had an inexhaustible fund of them, which never appeared 
to run short throughout his long career. His son was 
indeed a " chip of the old block " in that respect. F. M. 
Howarth was likewise well provided with this inventive- 
ness, which he exploited in series of pictures, with large- 
headed, stare-eyed figures, which enjoyed quite a vogue 
at one time. In Bisbee and the bright and prolific James 
S. Goodwin (died 1890) this faculty mainly served as 
a basis for drawings by others, their own artistic talent 
being a negligible asset. " Idea mongers " some one has 
called these useful members of the craft. 

" Puck," " Judge " and " Life " are in the field to-day, 


but the curious digger after facts may find yet more 
tombstones to note in the cemetery of comic journalism's 
blasted hopes. " Sam, the Scaramouch " was begun in 
Cincinnati in 1885 ; " The Verdict " issued three volumes 
in 1 898-1900; — but it would be an idle task to continue 
the list here. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the power of the cartoon 
has been invoked even by religious journalism in the case 
of the " War Cry," and by the " Ram's Horn " (Chi- 
cago) in its war on drink. The artist for the latter pub- 
lication was Frank Beard, who came prominently before 
the public in his " Chalk Talks," and who wrote of the 
" Art of Caricature " in the " Chautauquan " of Feb- 
ruary, 1887. 

Caricature of the past has its function also in preserv- 
ing records of manners and customs, a fact considered 
in some detail in the present writer's articles on " Social 
History of the United States in Caricature " (" Critic," 
1905). Figures that have disappeared from our streets, 
— the old apple woman, the mutton-pie man, — vagaries of 
fashion that had their little day, habits, such as whittling, 
that have lost their quality as national characteristics, 
these and other things were so much a matter of course 
in their day that the ordinary pictorial press did not 
note them, but the eye and pencil of the comic artist held 
them incidentally to illustrate the point of some joke, 
or directly ridiculed them. Much of our social caricature, 
for a long while, was taken up with the doings of the 
more or less " upper ten." Not a little of the resultant 
work no doubt deserved the late Alfred Trumble's 



stricture that it consisted of " pretty drawings that mean 
nothing to fit text that means less." 

But some of our best " comic artists " have given us 
mainly views of a life of simpler manners, homespun vir- 
tues and plain clothes. 

Frost's healthy and delightful humor, first shown in 
a tendency to grotesquery (as in " Stuff and Nonsense ") , 
has become mellowed with years into an appreciative con- 
templation of the amiable weaknesses of his fellow-man. 
His later drawings of our rural compatriots and of our 
sporting brethren are friendly presentations of human 
traits at which we smile while sympathizing with them. 
One of his colleagues has well said that " one of the 
greatest charms of Mr. Frost's work is the enjoyment 
the artist evidently takes in it himself." 

E. W. Kemble has cartooned for Leslie's and 
Harper's weeklies, but has always been best known 
as a delineator of negro life, a faculty which he em- 
ployed also in the illustration of " Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
W. L. Sheppard, illustrator of John Esten Cooke and 
W. D. Howells, also furnished many humorous draw- 
ings of the black man, done with a sympathetic truthful- 
ness to nature born perhaps of the artist's Southern 
origin. In that field he was emulated for a while by 
Peter Newell, who has since become well known through 
his " Topsys and Turveys," 1893, " The hole Book " and 
similar grotesque conceptions, and by his illustrated 
quatrains of the " wild flower " type, all done with a 
quaintness of drawing and humor peculiarly his own. To 
those who drew the negro without recourse to caricature 


must be added also an earlier artist, Sol Eytinge, who 
gave us many kindly and genial pictures of the black man 
in his happy moods. Thomas Worth, on the other hand, 
in the gaudily colored Currier & Ives lithographs which 
not so long ago confronted one in many shop windows, 
chronicled the doings of " Blackville " in a revelry of 
distorted racial characteristics. He was identified for a 
while with " Texas Siftings " and furnished illustrations 
for the writings of " Bricktop." To those who remem- 
ber these illustrations or the earlier ones for Orpheus C. 
Kerr's " Smoked Glass " (1868) or R. B. Roosevelt's 
" Five Acres too much " it may come as a surprise to 
learn that he furnished designs also for the " Old Curi- 
osity Shop" (1872) ! 

Michael Angelo Woolf, originally a wood-engraver, 
never caricatured, but sketched what Leech called the 
" Children of the Mobility," ragged youngsters from the 
slums and the squatters' shanties of New York (once a 
picturesque subject for caricaturists), sometimes in par- 
ody of adult life, and not infrequently in pathetic appeals 
on behalf of the poor and unfortunate. A number of 
his drawings were collected as " Sketches of lowly Life in 
a great City " (1899). His " How it happened," shown 
at the National Academy in 1884, indicated an ambition 
to shine as a painter, and was accepted by the public as 
a remarkable bit of characterization of tenement house 

The many names mentioned show that not a few of 
our illustrators were enlisted in the service of the comic 
art early in their career; Abbey, Reinhart, Church, Frost 


may be cited as conspicuous examples. So, too, some 
turned to it after they had become known as illustrators: 
Bush, Rogers. The last two, identified with newspaper 
work, bring us to an interesting phase of the subject. 

In our day the cartoon has become a prominent feature 
of the daily press, which has enlisted the services of 
some very clever artists. The thing began, in fact, very 
soon after Gribayedoff did his series of humorous por- 
traits in the "World" (New York), in 1884. From 
that time on, the " World " had among its cartoonists 
Walter H. McDougall (who also wrote and illustrated 
" The Hidden City " and " McD.'s unauthorized history 
of Chris. Columbus"), D. McCarthy, Charles G. Bush 
and his successor Charles R. Macauley; the New York 
" Herald " Grant Hamilton, Charles G. Bush, Ch. Nelan 
("Cartoons of our War with Spain," 1898), and W. 
A. Rogers ("Hits at Politics," 1899); the "Evening 
Telegram" (New York) C. de Grimm during 1884-87 
(he was von Grimm before he left Austria for France) 
and Charles G. Bush; the New York "Recorder" 
Thomas Nast; the New York " Press " Leon Barritt. 

Bush, well characterized by J. A. Mitchell as " a man 
of positive convictions," for some years held a peculiar 
position as the dean of American cartoonists. His work 
had what the Germans call " moral seriousness," bore 
the stamp of sincere purpose, of a consistently high tone. 
These qualities, and the personality behind them, were 
appreciatively emphasized in "World's Work," 1901, 
and by S. H. Horgan in " Inland Printer," October, 


Homer C. Davenport cartooned for the New York 
"Journal" and "Evening Mail"; he originated the 
Mark Hanna $-mark suit of clothes and the giant figure 
of the trusts. Frederick Burr Opper has drawn for the 
"New York Journal" the "Willie and his Papa" 
(1891), "Alphabet of Joyous Trusts" (1902) and 
"John, Jonathan and Mr. Opper" (1903) series. Op- 
per's newspaper work is quite different from that of his 
earlier days, the days of " Puck's Opper Book " (1888). 
In a review of " This funny World as Puck sees it " 
(1890) the present writer said: "Mr. Opper's humor 
draws its happiest inspiration from the life of the middle 
and laboring classes, and in his sphere he is quite inimita- 
ble. As a rule, the element of caricature enters into his 
drawings with just enough force to accentuate the point 
of the joke he is illustrating." To-day the idea is appar- 
ently everything to him; drawing is subordinated into 
an almost elementary simplicity. 

Henry Mayer is with the " New York Times," and 
Boardman Robinson with the " New York Tribune." 
Of the last-named, the " New York Evening Post " said 
(Dec. 30, 191 1) : "in draughtsman's tact and in power 
of summary characterization he should find a place 
among those who have achieved most honor in this 
work." Rollin Kirby's work in the " New York Even- 
ing Mail " has some similarity to the vigorous style of 

In fact, the last three men named execute their draw- 
ings with an artistic feeling which is rather rare among 
newspaper cartoonists, many of whom work in a manner 


that is somewhat elementary, in some cases almost child- 
ishly so. Homespun humor and simple literalness in 
execution are typical of a class of this newspaper 

The list is quite long of those who have commented 
on public affairs with drollery, with humor, even with 
wit, but less often with satire. On the whole, the good- 
humored, a bit clownish spirit predominates; the "sly 
dig " is administered, rather than the sting of the lash. 
John T. McCutcheon of the " Chicago Tribune " depicts 
" the sunny side," as some one has put it. The progressive 
expression on his head of C. W. Fairbanks in the series 
" Problems of the Vice-Presidency " is an amusing ex- 
ample of his humor which has a flavor both spontaneous 
and native. Various manners and methods may be found 
in the work of Charles L. Bartholomew ("Bart") of 
the " Minneapolis Journal " ; John DeMar, " Philadel- 
phia Record"; J. H. Donahey, "Cleveland Plain 
Dealer "; Fred Morgan, " Philadelphia Inquirer "; Rob- 
ert Carter and T. S. Sullivant, in " New York Ameri- 
can"; Fred Richardson, " Chicago Daily News"; Clif- 
ford K. Berryman, " Washington Star," and William H. 
Walker, " New York Evening Post." 

One result of this wide activity is the very frequent 
delineation of certain individuals, so that it becomes pos- 
sible to gather such an overflowing collection of material 
as we find it in Albert Shaw's " Cartoon History of 
Roosevelt's Career " (1910). 

' The American cartoon, despite the undeniable 
amount of trash which its name has covered, is one of 


the most interesting manifestations of our art. There 
is less self-consciousness about it than many other outlets 
for artistic energy to-day can show. It has less pose, 
a characteristic honesty that is above question. It finds 
itself in that situation in which, perhaps, the best art of 
all fruitful periods is found, since it is art in service to 
an actual daily need of utterance and expression." So 
said a writer in the " New York Evening Post " of De- 
cember 30, 191 1. There is much truth in this, if we 
remember that it was written in the face of the work 
of half a dozen artists selected for exhibition at the City 
Club, New York. 

" The modern cartoon is essentially journalistic," to 
quote Maurice and Cooper again, " both in spirit and 
execution." It is bound to be so, from the conditions of 
production; to think out and execute a cartoon a day is 
an undertaking that calls for quick work. Quick pro- 
duction is the rule; as Bartholomew once said to a writer 
for "The World To-day" (February, 1904), "The 
American cartoonist must anticipate the news." The 
widespread use of caricature by papers, in which the daily 
artistic comments on passing events are each in turn 
crowded out by the following one, must of necessity 
weaken its corrective force. It is only the work of a 
few that stands out, or the occasional " hit " ; or the per- 
sistent insistence of a series of consecutive poundings on 
the same issue, as during a political campaign. There is, 
too, the danger referred to by the late C. G. Bush, in 
the words: " In my opinion, the objectionable features of 
some cartoons published to-day are largely due to the 


attempt to make the cartoonist a mere tool in the hands 
of the editor or the proprietor of the paper." 

A number of newspaper cartoons were reproduced by 
"Cartoons" while it lasted (1900); the same journal 
published also portraits and biographical sketches of C. 
K. Berryman, C. R. Macauley, Maurice Ketten, John 
De Mar, and F. Fox of the " Louisville Times." The 
" American Monthly Review of Reviews " and other 
publications have also at various times republished car- 
toons on questions of general interest, thus affording op- 
portunity for comparative study of opinions and of the 
art through which they were expressed. 

But it is not only the domain of political caricature 
that the daily paper has entered. It has come to cater 
extensively to humanity's willingness to laugh. Small 
doses of illustrated humor in daily issues, and more 
voluminous provision in special " comic " sections of 
those masses of printed sheets which overpower us on 
Sundays, offer a sort of continuous comic performance, 
where we formerly had it concentrated in an exclusively 
comic paper once a week. We are indeed carrying out 
Hudson's idea, cited before, that " no one can wait a 
week for a laugh; it must come in daily with our coffee," 
and we get it with our evening tea as well. 

There has been, and is, much simple, clean, healthy 
humor, though not of a particularly high type, in these 
" comics." But in this field of non-political caricature the 
influence of the daily paper does not appear to have 
been invariably good. There is much childishness in 
conception and execution, and, what is worse, bad taste. 


The eternal ebullition of the all-dominating " kid," to 
the discomfiture of its elders, is not exactly a pleasing 
subject for the gaudy " Supplement " for which our chil- 
dren can hardly wait on Sunday. 

Wallace Irwin, in the " New York Times " of Oct. 
22, 191 1, characterized the colored comic supplements 
as " decidedly cockney, both in origin and method," and 
continued: "They are merely an American version of 
4 Alley Sloper's Half Holiday,' showing the same tend- 
ency to make Peck's Bad Boy the hero, to celebrate the 
dill pickle as the classic model of wit, to weave the pun- 
draped Daffydil, and to indicate Comedy as a gentleman 
with green whiskers lying prone at the foot of a stairway 
with a galaxy of stars swimming round his fractured 
skull." It is no spirit of preciosity, of ultra-refinement, 
that prompts this attitude, but the exercise of ordinary 
good taste. Public taste has become somewhat vitiated 
by long continuance of " evil associations." The antics 
of the " slap-stick " element in comic art have dulled our 
powers of resistance and we look, at the very least, in- 
dulgently on the most vulgar vaudeville contortions in 
our daily and weekly charges of pictorial humor. The 
" good " work is even spreading to other lands in which 
our efforts are emulated in dull imitation of our most 
freakish efforts. Even Japan, land of the chrysanthe- 
mum and the color-print, synonym for sensitive exem- 
plification of art principles, is being hooliganized in its 
comic press. The news of the voluntary abandonment 
of the comic supplement by a Boston paper, some years 
ago, came like a ray of hope. And all of this may be 


said without reference to any ethical viewpoint, in strict 
adherence to the domain of art, with which the present 
book is concerned. 

There has been an enormous increase in comic artists. 
Schools, even correspondence schools, for the art exist, 
and the demand, on the part of young men, for books 
in our public libraries on the art of cartooning, is suf- 
ficiently large. As if the true inwardness of pictorial 
satire could be taught by rote! But perhaps the kind 
which evidently pays so well as to have attracted special 
attention, can be? 



While the activity of a nation in the making did not 
in colonial days leave time for a full development of 
taste for art, yet the spread of culture and the formation 
of collections of books brought about the use of the 
book-plate early in the eighteenth century. In fact, 
Charles Dexter Allen, in his " American Book-Plates " 
(New York, 1894; reprinted 1905), lists the book-plate 
of Johannes Williams, 1679. But this was merely a 
printed label, the simplest indication of ownership apart 
from the name written by hand. The addition of an 
ornamental border, or an apt quotation was quite nat- 
ural, and thence grew decorative or pictorial embellish- 
ment. And so, then, our early engravers on silver and 
other metals, entering the field of line-engraving on 
copper, were called upon to produce ex-libris. Through 
the eighteenth century the following were more or less 
so employed: F. Dewing, M. J. Bruls, Henry Dawkins, 
Nathaniel Hurd, Thomas Johnston, James Turner, 
Amos Doolittle, J. M. Furnass, E. Ruggles, Jr., Spar- 
row, Paul Revere, Elisha Gallaudet, Joseph Callender, 
Richard Brunton ("An early Connecticut Engraver and 
his Work," by Albert C. Bates, Hartford, 1906), Abra- 
ham Godwin, A. Billings (an " elaborately designed but 
poorly engraved " book-plate of Richard Varick, 1801), 



Abernethie (Charleston, 1785), Bull, James Smither, 
J. H. Seymour, Francis Shallus, James Akin, Nathaniel 
Dearborn, William Hamlin, James Trenchard, S. Harris, 
S. Hill, P. and P. R. Maverick (the latter " a most pro- 
lific worker in the ' Ribbon and Wreath,' " writes C. D. 
Allen), Anderson, James Akin, Rollinson, Vallance, Al- 
lardice, Thackara, Kearny and not a few others. Some 
of these lived well into the next century, in the first half 
of which Annin & Smith and C. G. Childs also executed 
such signs of bibliothecal proprietorship, as did Dr. John 
Syng Dorsey. 

There was generally no particular originality in this 
work. Not only were English models followed, but 
some of the engravers were content to use the same 
design, with slight variation, for a number of plates. 
Hurd, for example, based the E. A. Holyoke, Thos. 
Dering (1749: the first plate by an American engraver 
that is both signed and dated), Theodore Atkinson, 
Wentworth, Robert Hale and other plates on the same 
design, in which figured, at the base of the escutcheon, 
a shell from which flowed water. Callender also re- ' 
peated himself, and P. R. Maverick. So these early men 
gave Chippendale, Jacobean and Ribbon and Wreath 
plates, in the approved manner, according to their lights, 
and with a certain simple dignity despite their limita- 
tions of craftsmanship. 

Of these early armorial plates, George Washington's 
is naturally of paramount interest. It was printed from 
after the Civil War, and has been counterfeited, the 
spurious copy being utilized at a sale in Washington in 


the sixties to give a fictitious value to the books to be 
auctioned off. Like William Perm's, it was presumably- 
engraved in England. Allen, indeed, notes that in the 
Southern colonies, many men of cultivated tastes and 
aristocratic antecedents had their plates engraved in 
England, while in the North native talent was generally 
engaged. John A. Gade, in " Book-plates — old and 
new" (New York, 1898), states that Thomas Prince's 
(1704) was the earliest one actually executed in 

These early book-plates were mainly armorial, and 
usually engraved in line on copper, although occasionally 
a woodcut was used. But the pictorial element also 
began to appear, at least to the extent of rows or piles 
of books, and the allegorical as well. Patriotism found 
vent in the employment of the American flag or the eagle, 
and T. C. Sparrow, in each of his few ex-libris engraved 
on wood, introduced the thirteen stars of the new nation. 

When our eighteenth century engravers broadened out 
from the scrollwork and scallops and conventional leaf 
designs (for which their practice as silversmiths had 
given them a certain fluency) , the result is not always 
exactly happy. Note, for example, the shepherd, shep- 
herdess and lamb in Dawkins's plate for Benjamin Kis- 
sam, all three of a like woodenness. But it is difficult 
to keep purely artistic considerations unmixed with feel- 
ings of sympathy for the efforts of these early designers 
or of interest in the owners of the plates and in the spirit 
of time and place. 

Neither the pictorial nor the allegorical seem to have 


been particularly numerous, and they were apparently 
more affected by associations than by individuals. One 
recalls the plate of the Society for Propagating the Gos- 
pel in Foreign Parts (1704), representing the savage 
Americans rushing to the shore to meet an incoming ship 
in which stands a missionary holding out a book. Later 
came the plates for Harvard College; Linonian Library, 
Yale College (1804) and Mechanics' Library, New 
Haven (two funny little cupids at an anvil, with the motto 
" improve the moment "), both by Doolittle; Massachu- 
setts Medical Society (iEsculapius healing a wounded 
stag, reproduced by Stauffer), Hasty Pudding Library 
(showing pot of pudding), American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, all three by Callender; Harvard Porcellian 
Club (with a porker prominent) ; Monthly Library of 
Farmington, 1795 (a crude and queer affair, M. Bull's 
and T. Lee's sculp.) ; New York Society Library; Co- 
lumbia College Library, Apprentices' Library, Typo- 
graphical Society of New York, all three by Anderson; 
and New York State Agricultural Society (Ceres, with a 
sheaf of wheat). In such plates, owls, Minerva, Diana, 
Clio, lamps of knowledge, age guiding youth to the temple 
of learning, temples of honor, and similar devices add the 
force of their pictorial lesson. For the New York So- 
ciety Library a conception representing an Indian rever- 
ently receiving a volume from the hands of Minerva, 
was twice engraved by P. R. Maverick, another design 
having previously been cut by Elisha Gallaudet. Ann P. 
Shallus's Circulating Library, Philadelphia, is symbolized 
in the engraving by Francis Shallus in the form ^of a 

Book Plate of George Washington 


female with a cornucopia. And for an orphan asylum 
L. Simond designed, and Leney engraved, a picture of 
Christ blessing children. 

Among the private individuals who used similar em- 
blematic ideas in their book-plates were Bloomfield Mc- 
Ilvaine (J. H. Seymour, engraver, from a design by J. J. 
Barralet) ; Williams and Samuel Walker (both musical 
instruments) and Henry Andrews (Minerva and owl), 
the first and last by S. Harris ; Samuel Parker (Clio hand- 
ing a book to a kneeling youth) ; J. B. Swett and John 
,Green, Jr. (both reminiscent of the dissecting room) ; 
McMurtrie (book-pile and serpent of iEsculapius, Fair- 
man del., Kearny sc.) ; and James Parker, an old railway 
conductor, who launched into the pictorial with an elab- 
orate picture of the first railway train. P. R. Maverick 
depicted a young man reading, in his plate for Jacob 
Brown; a young woman similarly employed figures in 
that of the Farmington Village Library. Books, ink-pots 
and quills are of obvious applicability. The pile or row 
of books was occasionally used, by Doolittle and James 
Akin for instance; the library interior served for Ben- 
jamin Ogle Tayloe's plate. The American flag, cannon 
balls, an anchor and a ship characterize the activities of 
Lieut. E. Trenchard, and a soaring eagle figures in the 
plates of Brigham (engraved by writing-master Gershom 
Cobb), John Preston Mann, Abraham Bancker (by 
Maverick) and others; in W. L. Stone's (by R. Raw- 
don) the eagle is struggling with a serpent. And in 
Edward Livingston's ex-libris, by Maverick, the armorial 
design is supplemented by a dog barking at a squirrel. 


The plates of these early days, through the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century, bring before us a long list of 
names noted in various walks of life. Presidents, patriots 
of the Revolution, orators, signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, loyalists, merchants, preachers, authors, 
lawyers, physicians, military officers, honorable bearers 
of honorable old family names, bound together in this 
pictorial representation by love and respect for books. 
It is a wide field of human activity that rises through 
memory before the imagination at sight of such a collec- 
tion of book-plates. 

In earlier days, the book-plate, to a large extent, as we 
have seen, reflected the importance of heraldry in all the 
pomp of armorial bearings, and was, therefore, an em- 
blem of family dignity rather than an expression of per- 
sonal tastes. To-day the pictorial plate predominates, 
directly or symbolically illustrating a particular individ- 
uality. That, of course, does not exclude the oppor- 
tunity for an unobtrusive introduction of heraldic devices. 
But possibilities for a less hampered effort on the part 
of the artist are immeasurably increased. The ex-libris 
in its modern manifestations is based particularly and 
primarily on the individuality of the person for whom 
it was made. It is the result of a natural impulse to 
indicate ownership in a book by more than a simple sig- 
nature or a printed or typewritten label, by some device 
that shall be distinctive, that shall give some indication 
of the owner's character and tastes. In fact, this im- 
pulse, and the pleasure in its artistic expression, have led 
some people to have more than one book-plate, — Henry 


Blackwell, for instance, C. H. Hart, Walter Conway 
Prescott, T. Henry Foster, W. G. Bowdoin, Dorothy 
Furman, E. P. B. Phillips, Frank R. Fraprie and George 
L. Parmele. 

In these little art products, then, not only the skill and 
individual attitude of the artist are expressed; the per- 
sonality and ideas of the one who orders the plate have 
a paramount influence on the result, and are, in fact, as 
one book-plate designer has well said, the keynote of the 
design. That does not alter the fact that ultimately the 
artist's personality may be the dominating one, and form 
the main reason why particular plates are sought after by 
the collector. The factors in the composition of the 
book-plate are, obviously, the relative mental attitudes of 
owner and artist, and the sympathy of each for the other's 
standpoint. It is this combination of elements which 
makes the charm of the book-plate. 

Mottoes, allegorical allusions, the portrait of the 
owner (alone and self-dependent or seated in his library) , 
pictures of favorite places, the paraphernalia of sports 
or other hobbies, rows of books labeled with the names 
of preferred authors, allusions to personal achievement, 
wit good and poor, the downright pun, — such elements, 
with decorative setting, form material for ex-libris. 
There is plenty of opportunity for the display of poor 
taste. An apparent anxiety to avoid running counter to 
the Scriptural admonition regarding bushel-covered 
lights may result in a parade of self-advertisement that 
weighs down the designer's freedom of expression, as 
the Old Man of the Sea did Sindbad the Sailor. 


(Beraldi boldly asserts that "the worth of a bibliophile 
is in inverse ratio to the dimension of his ex-libris.") 
But if the owner may be too much in evidence, so, too, 
may the artist. An attempt to make a book-plate a com- 
pressed pictorial biography may prove fatuous, but it is 
equally unfortunate to make it a miniature mural decora- 
tion or poster, or to utilize it in the exploitation of super- 
advanced artistic idiotisms. Not stiffness, not even nec- 
essarily absolute seriousness, but a certain dignity is 
called for here; vagaries are out of order. The final 
purpose should always be kept in view. 

Appropriateness is a prime necessity, appropriateness 
in conception, design and execution, the last implying a 
proper regard for the reproductive medium. The prin- 
ciples of taste which govern our judgment of any prints 
hold good here as well. 

The book-plate may indicate the owner's taste with 
no distinct reference to him, as when A. A. Hopkins 
adopts an illustration from the " Hypnerotomachia Poli- 
philii " (Florence, 1499), or another a figure from Bot- 
ticelli's " Spring," or Oliver Wendell Holmes the cham- 
bered nautilus. Or the allusion may be more direct, as 
in Francis Wilson's plate, which represents a court- 
jester lost amid old volumes while time goes on unheeded. 
Lawrence Barrett showed a mask of tragedy and an open 
book, Laurence Hutton's a statuette of Thackeray. The 
one designed for Brander Matthews by Edwin A. Abbey 
depicts an Indian looking at a huge Greek mask of Com- 
edy, with the sentence Que pensez-vous de cette comedie? 
A reproduction of Daniel Maclise's sketch of Lamb 


serves Frank Evans Marshall, Pan charmed shepherd 
and nymphs with his pipes, with le cceur an metier, in E. 
C. Stedman's device, and pen and sword were contrasted 
for George W. Childs. The library interior is a familiar 
form of indicating the love of literature, and the point 
is occasionally made more personal by showing the owner 
among his books. But the influence of literature on life 
may also be expressed allegorically, as in E. Irenaeus 
Stevenson's plate (showing the serpent with the apple of 
knowledge) or John Herbert Coming's (by Henry Sand- 
ham) : Atlas supporting the world of letters. 

The love of both books and nature is indicated in a 
number of plates by a library interior with a window 
giving an outlook on fields and woods and brooks and 
sky: so in those of Georgia Medora Lee and Charlotte 
Anita Whitney. Jack London's " Call of the Wild " is 
personified by the head of a wolf. In Alexander Mel- 
ville Bell's, designed by himself, a pair of lips, a key and 
an open book play their symbolical part, which is not too 
difficult to interpret. 

There may be the reference to the owner's profession 
or occupation, — the bookbinders at work in E. D. 
French's plate for Henry Blackwell, the skull and micro- 
scope in that by J. H. Fincken for Dr. Edwin S. Potter, 
the engraver's tools embodied in Samuel P. Avery's 
plate, as they had been in John Andrew's. 

Similarly the owner's hobbies or passions or favorite 
pastimes form a favorite theme; one has but to think, 
for instance, of the angling plates of Dean Sage, Heck- 
scher, Daniel B. Fearing, Howland or Joseph W. Simp- 


son (both owner and designer). Birds figure, of course, 
in the plate of Olive Thorne Miller, by W. E. Fisher; a 
hornbook indicates George A. Plimpton's specializing, 
as a collector, in educational publications. 

A new form of the old admonition not to steal was 
employed by Dr. George L. Parmele, a trumpeting herald 
bearing a banner inscribed: Verloren! Verloren! Ein 

In such various ways does the ex-libris give us some 
idea of the owner's tastes, theories, pastimes, studies, 
work and surroundings. 

When a plate is to be made for a public or semi-public 
library, institutional aims are to be recorded and not 
personal tastes. In such a case, expression in terms of 
stately impressiveness rather than of sympathetic grace 
is called for. Without insisting on the choice, it may be 
said that the problem was happily solved in such plates 
as French's for Harvard's Hohenzollern Collection, 
Princeton University and the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers; Spenceley's for the University of Mis- 
souri, Harvard University, Boston Public Library, Dav- 
enport Academy of Sciences and Library of the New 
Theater, New York City; Hopson's for the Blackstone 
Public Library, Branford, Conn.; S. L. Smith's for the 
public libraries of Boston, Lynn, Bangor and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and for the Massachusetts Historical 
Society; and Garrett's for the Lowell City Library. 

The preface to the catalogue of the exhibit of the Club 
of Odd Volumes (Boston, 1898) stated that it included 
" many uninteresting and even extremely ugly things " 


gathered for the purpose of " showing how unsatisfactory 
the great number of book-plates used by the public li- 
braries, the libraries of colleges and of other institutions 
of learning, is." In like manner, Sheldon Cheney, writ- 
ing in the "Book-Plate Booklet" for February, 1909, 
on " The Public Library Book-Plate," speaks of the 
" great number of utterly wretched book-plates used in 
our public libraries," but notes also some satisfactory 
ones. These satisfactory ones are to be found not only 
among those which have gained from the stately formal- 
ity of the line-engraving. Not a few plates for libraries, 
reproduced in recent years by processes based on the 
initial action of the camera, have shown artistic feeling 
joined to an appreciative understanding of the problem. 
In fact, they are numerous enough to make choice dif- 
ficult, and it is a selection at random that results in the 
naming of W. E. Fisher's design for the Wadsworth 
Library, Geneseo, N. Y., Mrs. A. R. Wheelan's for the 
University of California, and George W. Edwards's for 
the Public Library of New London (nautical in spirit). 
Among commercial undertakings one would not so 
readily expect to find interesting material, but there are 
the plates of the Alton Railway and of the New England 
Telephone and Telegraph Co. (by W. C. Bamburgh). 
Clubs, on the other hand, naturally seem to offer oppor- 
tunities for the designer, and we have, indeed, such plates 
as those for the Authors' Club and the Grolier Club (the 
first one), both by George Wharton Edwards; the Cen- 
tury Association, New York, by James D. Smillie; Uni- 
versity Club of Boston, by E. H. Garrett; University 


Club of Washington, by Henry Sandham; Boston Brown- 
ing Society, by F. T. Merrill; Chicago Woman's Club, 
by Claude Bragdon, and Woman's Club, Wisconsin, by 
J. W. Spenceley. 

The ex-libris remains in its totality a " document," a 
phase of human activity which not only cannot be over- 
looked, but which repays study, and is of most varied 
charm. It appeals through personal, historical or lit- 
erary association, it attracts as an instance of art applied, 
as one of the many forms in which art may be made an 
integral part of daily life. Specifically the artist's prov- 
ince, when the basic ideas have been decided on, is the 
design, the co-ordination of the various elements into an 
orderly whole. Over-elaboration, here, is as objection- 
able as a slighting of essential possibilities. One of the 
problems always is the arrangement of name and motto; 
a problem similar to that of the ornamental value of 
lettering on medals, exemplified, say, by the work of 
Pisanello. The medium employed — the formal line-en- 
graving on copper, the free etching, the vigorous wood- 
cut, or the photo-mechanical processes frequently used to- 
day — has also its distinct and important part in the result. 
Adjustment of medium to style we find in the best art of 
any kind, and so here also. 

From the heraldic magnificence and stately formality 
of the old line-engraving period we passed to the present- 
day free expression of thought, or of passing mood or 
whim. This expression is quite often transmitted by the 
immediateness of the photo-mechanical processes. But 
it frequently finds a medium also in the older method and 


in wood-engraving as well, and in this very diversity of 
means by which the modern viewpoint finds voice, lies a 
reason for a wider appreciation of this specialty in 
graphic art. 

The best traditions of line-engraving on copper were 
perpetuated by Edwin Davis French, in the late nine- 
teenth and early twentieth centuries, with signal success. 
He employed formalized foliage, as did Beham and other 
German masters, and with a sure control of his particular 
decorative vein that drew endless diversity of effect from 
the same motive without ever striking a forced note. 
There is in his art a dignified beauty of decorative line, 
a calm nobility of expression and a sonority of utterance 
that give it a commanding position, a place apart, that 
have made him a classic in our records of the art. J. 
Winfred Spenceley turned to book-plate engraving on 
copper at about the same time as French, from whose 
style his own differs in having more variety in design 
and a somewhat freer touch. This effect was heightened 
by his use of the etching needle, particularly in landscape 
work. One has no desire nor reason to make invidious 
comparisons between two artists who not only were good 
friends, but neither of whom the lover of book-plate art 
would care to miss. A happy combination of adaptative- 
ness and individuality, of dignity and a certain free, 
etcher-like touch in his landscapes, are the predominant 
characteristics in Spenceley's work. Similar notes of di- 
versity are felt in the line-engravings of Sidney L. Smith 
and W. F. Hopson, who exhibit that combination of 
variety in treatment with dignity and restraint in expres- 


sion which produces the happiest results in these marks 
of bibliophilic proprietorship. Hopson has exercised the 
mastery of the practised engraver also on the wood 
block, which medium W. J. Linton, A. Allen Lewis, 
George Wolfe Plank, Hugh M. Eaton and Rud. Ruzicka 
have also employed, as has William Miller, in a cut of 
noteworthy delicacy after a design by E. Hamilton Bell. 
J. H. Fincken (who uses also etching and stipple), Dr. 
A. J. Brown (working in the spirit of E. D. French), 
Frederick Spenceley and A. N. Macdonald also express 
themselves in the formal stateliness born of the union 
of burin and copper-plate. E. H. Garrett speaks, and 
with fluency and grace, in the freer language of the etch- 
ing needle, which has served the purposes also of W. H. 
H. Bicknell and S. Hollyer (whose plate for Mary An- 
derson has been described as a " most charming bit of 
engraving"). And there are also the etchers who have 
turned aside to do a book-plate, — usually their own only, 
rarely another for a friend, — C. F. W. Mielatz, E. L. 
Warner, Dr. L. M. Yale (for Dr. A. M. Gerster), 
Thomas Johnson, James D. Smillie, R. F. Williams. 

The combination of graver and copper-plate imposes 
its limits and its distinction on the work of the en- 
gravers named, which, while differing in style and in 
degree of freedom, bears in every case a certain stamp of 
reserve. For the artist who draws for the photo- 
mechanical process no such technical limits are set; the 
very facility of reproduction invites free expression and 
tempts those who have a tendency to go beyond proper 
artistic bounds. It is decidedly to the credit of our 


younger designers of book-plates that the whole of their 
work, subjected to so many influences, and with so many 
opportunities for going astray, is so satisfactory. At its 
best, though usually pictorial, it is not overloaded, but 
simple and direct in intent and execution. 

A number of designers have devoted themselves more 
or less habitually to this specialty: L. S. Ipsen, Wilbur 
Macey Stone (with preference for floral themes) , George 
Wharton Edwards, Jay Chambers, William Edgar 
Fisher, Mrs. Albertine Randall Wheelan, George R. 
Halm, D. McN. Stauffer (who did half a hundred 
plates), Louis J. Rhead (pictorial, with decorative poster 
reminiscences), Sheldon Cheney, Howard Sill, E. B. Bird, 
Hugh M. Eaton, H. C. Brown, and The Triptych ("A 
few Book-Plates and other Dainty Devices," 1900, and 
" Book-Plates designed, engraved and printed by the 
Triptych," New York, 1906). Simple lines and flat sur- 
faces, with some employment of color, are characteristics 
which mark much of this modern work. 

In the " Book-Plate Booklet " have appeared articles, 
often accompanied by lists of plates, on W. E. Fisher, C. 
Valentine Kirby, Arthur H. Noll, Claude Bragdon (who 
made the pertinent statement that " a book-plate should 
be simple and personal"), Emma J. Totten, Arthur 
Wellington Clark (not averse to a pictorial pun), Francis 
T. Chamberlain, Margaret Ely Webb, Mrs. A. R. 
Wheelan (an " artist thinker "; her designs mostly sym- 
bolical, with a "Western flavor"), E. J. Cross, G. H. 
Gihon (etcher), Mrs. Mary Eleanor Curran, the last 
four of California, French, J. W. and F. Spenceley, Hop- 


son, Fincken and Plank. And to these may be added the 
names of Christia M. Reade, Mrs. Bertha Jaques, 
Ralph Fletcher Seymour and Emma Kipling Hess, prom- 
inent in the " book-plate number " of the " Sketch Book " 
(Chicago) for May, 1903, as also those of Mary L. 
Prindiville and Frank Chouteau Brown, subjects of arti- 
cles in " Ex Libris " (1896-97). 

In the activity indicated by all the names mentioned 
the amateur has had his part, and a creditable one, wit- 
ness Stauffer, A. J. Brown, H. C. Eno, Cheney, A. H. 
Noll and A. W. Clark. 

A number of able artists have devoted all or much of 
their energy to this form of art, fascinating to many. 
But one notes with a shade of regret the comparatively 
few cases in which an American painter or other artist 
has turned aside from brush and canvas, or other media, 
to design an occasional plate. Some who have turned 
to the designing of a book-plate are: Elihu Vedder, 
E. H. Blashfield, W. H. Lippincott, Winslow Homer, 
Howard Pyle, Henry Sandham, James E. Kelly, C. R. 
Lamb, A. F. Jaccaci, George Gibbs, Joseph Lauber, Joe 
Evans (plate for Richard Hoe Lawrence, 1881), Thom- 
son Willing, Victor S. Perard, Henry Mayer and A. F. 
Matthews. To them may be added the architects Russell 
Sturgis (Avery Architectural Library, Columbia Uni- 
versity: in form of tablet), Charles I. Berg, A. W. 
Brunner, George Fletcher Babb (Theodore L. De Vinne 
plate, with books in a cartouche, flanked by hermes) and 
Howard Van Doren Shaw. 

We seem still too much dominated by the idea that 


art, " high art," is painting or sculpture, and that most 
other forms can be left to the artist-artizan or treated 
as a bit of byplay. The realization must come that art, 
after all, should be the general application of principles 
of beauty in our daily life, and that this application is 
not unworthy of the best talent. 

The committee in charge of the exhibit of the Club of 
Odd Volumes in Boston, 1898, in the preface to the cata- 
logue, summarized its impressions of American achieve- 
ment thus : 

" Although America was one of the last of the nations 
to be affected by the book-plate revival, it has taken the 
lead in the matter of artistic plates and in the number of 
good plates produced. ... It must be remembered 
that the great impetus came only about five years ago. 
In this short time, with the encouragement of enthusiastic 
collectors, our book-plate engravers and designers have 
placed this country ahead of all others in quantity as well 
as quality of work." 

The call of the book-plate has become widespread and 
has occasioned a voluminous literature. The work of 
our American designers is dealt with in general in a 
number of books beside those mentioned elsewhere in 
this chapter. So in W. M. Stone's "Women Designers of 
Book-Plates" (published for "The Triptych," New York, 
1902), the designers including a number of Americans, 
Mrs. Wheelan, Mrs. Beulah M. Clute, Bessie Pease, 
Mrs. Annie Hooper (who won a prize in a competition 
" instituted by the Buffalo Society of Artists "), Pamela 
Colman Smith, Miss Bonsall and Miss Hallowell of the 


Plastic Club of Philadelphia, and others, even a prodigy 
of four and a half years. In the bibliography of our sub- 
ject there figure furthermore Henry W. Fincham's " Ar- 
tists and Engravers of British and American Book- 
plates " (New York and London, 1897) ; W. G. Bow- 
doin's " The Rise of the Book-Plate " (1901) ; " Book- 
plates of To-day" (1902) edited by W. M. Stone; 
" Book-Plates of well-known Americans " by Clifford N. 
Carver; Allen's "Ex Libris: Essays of a Collector" 
(Boston and New York, 1896), and Zella Allen Dixson's 
" Concerning Book Plates: a Hand Book for Collectors " 
(1903). Periodical articles are listed in C. D. Allen's 
" American Book-Plates " and in Bowdoin's book. And 
a number of monographs on individuals have appeared, 
beside those on French and Spenceley, noted elsewhere. 
From the Troutsdale Press were issued volumes on E. 
H. Garrett (1904), D. McN. Stauffer, Ipsen, Spenceley, 
Herbert Gregson, Elisha Brown Bird (1907), Louis J. 
Rhead, Mrs. Marguerite Scribner Frost, Ralph Fletcher 
Seymour and others. In each case there were reproduc- 
tions of a selection of plates by the artist in question, 
with descriptive text, the latter being by W. H. Downes, 
W. Porter Truesdell, F. C. Brown, W. G. Bowdoin and 
others. A similar publication on Jay Chambers was ad- 
vertised by " The Triptych," in 1902. 

Personal reasons, literary associations, the love of pos- 
session, and particularly the diversity of artistic individ- 
uality displayed in these little plates, which may tell so 
much within a small compass, have brought about a spe- 
cialization, in this direction, of the collecting spirit. The 


names of Henry Blackwell, H. C. Eno, Dr. Charles E. 
Clark, the late John P. Woodbury, Wm. E. Baillie and 
many others may be found in lists in the Allen and Dix- 
son books, as also in Blackwell's articles in the " Book- 
Buyer " in the nineties, and in scattered references in 
" Ex-Libris " and the " Book-Plate Booklet." An at- 
tempt was made to unite interest in this subject into asso- 
ciated effort, by the founding of an American Book-Plate 
Society (Washington, D. C), with its organ in the form 
of " Ex-Libris," which lived through four numbers (vol- 
ume 1: July, 1896-April, 1897). In 1907 was formed 
the California Book-Plate Society, the moving spirit 
being Sheldon Cheney, who during 1907-11 issued at 
Berkeley, Cal., the " Book-Plate Booklet," succeeding 
" California Book-Plates." This periodical, now pub- 
lished at Kansas City as the " Ex-Libran," helped to 
rouse and keep alive interest in the West. 

Collectors of ex-libris are to-day not only not few in 
number, but some of them — notably W. Baillie and H. 
Blackwell — have brought together particularly many of 
these plates. To the collector, furthermore, there is due 
directly or indirectly, the publication of most of the vari- 
ous writings dealing with the American side of our sub- 
ject. There are the pioneer contributions to periodicals 
by R. C. Lichtenstein and J. H. Dubbs, C. D. Allen's 
books, already noted, and his paper read before the Club 
of Odd Volumes (1901), and the monographs on E. D. 
French by Paul Lemperly (Cleveland, 1899) and Ira 
H. Brainerd (New York, 1908) and on J. W. Spenceley 
by Pierre de Chaignon la Rose (Boston, 1905) and J. M. 


Andreini (1910). So the collectors themselves have 
worked well to preserve the record of American accom- 
plishment in a specialty which within its limits has offered 
the artist such varied opportunities. 

Exhibitions of book-plates — some consisting entirely, 
others partly, of American work — have been held at the 
Grolier Club (1894: "A classified List of early Amer- 
ican Book-Plates . . . " by C. D. Allen), at the Boston 
Museum of Art by the Club of Odd Volumes (the cata- 
logue, 1898, lists 2,218 pieces, over one-half of them 
American), the Caxton Club, Chicago (1898), the Lynn 
Public Library (Dr. Charles E. Clark's collection, 1907), 
Society of Colonial Dames (Colonial plates, 1908; cata- 
logue, with introduction by D. M. Stauffer), the Cali- 
fornia Book-Plate Society (Berkeley, 1908) and the New 
York Public Library (1910). The " Book-Plate Book- 
let" in 1907 announced that a permanent exhibit of 
plates from the collection of the Library had been set up 
in the library building at Berkeley, that the California 
State Library was preparing a traveling exhibit, and that 
four exhibitions of book-plates had been held at the Li- 
brary of the University of California, in connection with 
the summer library school. " One man shows " were de- 
voted to E. D. French in Cleveland (1899), the New 
York Public Library (1907) and the Grolier Club 
(1909) ; to J. W. Spenceley at the last two named places; 
and to Mrs. A. R. Wheelan in San Francisco (1904). 
Book-plates appear also in New York at the exhibitions 
of the Architectural League, the National Arts Club and 
the Salmagundi Club. 


By E A. Abbey 

By W. F. Hopson 

Nannie Lamberfbiv Wilbur 

By W. E. Fisher 

By E. D. French 

By S. L. Smith By G. W. Edwards 

A Group of Modern Book-plates 

(Courtesy of Charles Scribner's Sons) 


And there are permanent collections preserved in 
public institutions, — the New York Public Library, Co- 
lumbia University, University of California (plates by 
California artists) and elsewhere; also in the British 
Museum, where is housed the large collection of British 
and American plates, brought together by Sir Augustus 
Wollaston Franks, and listed in a three-volume catalogue 
(1903-04) by E. R. J. Gambier Howe. 

In the light of these recent dates, the opinion of Arlo 
Bates (writing to the "Book Buyer," Feb. 10, 1888) 
that " the book-plate collecting craze seems to have died 
out in Boston," looks a bit premature. But perhaps it is 
true, after all; a craze has died out, not the interest. 



Surely, ours is the land of the advertiser. The re- 
sults of his activity confront us at every step. His en- 
terprise is colossal, his inventiveness remarkable, his per- 
sistence mind-penetrating. In general, effect is sought by 
repetition, by the force of unusual size, or brilliancy or 
garishness. However, the " ad " that is in good taste is 
becoming more common; the artistic one is still not over- 
whelmingly in evidence. We have yet to appreciate more 
generally that an advertisement may be effective both com- 
mercially and artistically. Not that there is a want of 
good drawing in many of the advertisements that we see 
in cars and elsewhere. But there is too often nothing 
beyond the dryest pictorial statement of fact. When you 
come across such a conceit as the one shown by Edward 
Penfield in a cover for a March " Harper," — a young 
woman scurrying before the strong wind usually associated 
with that month (which has even whipped her copy of 
the magazine out of her hands), accompanied by a hare 
of sufficient, though self-contained, madness, — it strikes 
with the pleasant effect of the unusual. Whether the fre- 
quent display of a lack of particular concentration or 
thought or a stimulating inventiveness is due to artist or 
client or the public it would, perhaps, be idle to discuss 



here. Perhaps, too, there may be certain condescension 
on the part of some artists who occasionally turn to such 
" minor arts." But a work will surely bear on its face 
the mark of the spirit in which it was approached. If it 
was treated as a "pot-boiler," it will appear as one; if 
it was undertaken with both the earnest desire and the 
ability to put all that was possible into it, the dignity of 
the intention ennobles the result. And so a beer-bottle 
label may rise to a height that many an easel painting 
does not attain. The artists of the Kunstlerbund in 
Karlsruhe, Germany, saw this when they undertook, with 
the necessary knowledge and humility, the designing of 
such labels for bottles and tin cans, of business cards and 
advertisements. German art in this field is not by any 
means to be generally commended; the puerile overcrowd- 
ing of advertisements, the pretension that tries to make 
a mural painting of a poster, is not unknown in Teutonia. 
But the exercise of the great virtue of appropriateness 
which we find in the best work over there, caused a writer 
in the " Evening Post " of October 22, 19 10, to say, with 
reference to the " 3d annual exhibition of advertising art " 
at the National Arts Club, New York City : " The prin- 
cipal lesson of the exhibition is how far superior the Ger- 
mans are to us in the pictorial advertisement." And 
farther on: "The thing to be advertised is forced upon 
you, and inoffensively forced." We have here an inter- 
esting illustration of the fact, pointed out by J. N. Laur- 
vik in a review of the same exhibition (" International 
Studio," December, 19 10) in the words: " A proper sense 
of the fitness of things is the underlying principle of all 


good art." Of course, all this is not said with the idea 
that we are to copy the Germans; it is the spirit in which 
some of them attack the problem that is held up to emula- 
tion. Nor is it implied that our artists lack ability; the 
mere thought would be silenced at sight of drawings by 
F. X. Leyendecker, Penfield, Maxfield Parrish and others 
who have at various times placed their pencils at the 
service of commerce. 

The strongly artistic element in our advertisements, and 
the importance of this phase of art, were well indicated 
by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., in an essay entitled " Do 
the Arts make for Peace?" quoted editorially in "Art 
and Progress," April, 191 2 : " And while our millionaires 
are wresting the accredited treasures of older art from 
aristocracy, in the most democratic fashion possible the 
illustrated magazine and even the advertisement are bring- 
ing a respectable and an improving grade of pictorial art 
to the millions. Here is a jumble of activities, vanities, 
cruder and finer desires, which shows at least that art is 
very alive in our civilization." 

But one feels that there might be a closer relation be- 
tween commerce and art, a better understanding. A 
peculiar comment on the existence of this possibility may 
be found in the fact that the same business interests which 
look, apparently unmoved, on omnipresent disfiguring bill- 
boards and signs, ugly and pretentious architecture and 
paper-littered streets, will speak primarily of the beauty 
and fineness of their home city when commending it to the 

Our present-day " ads," as we see them displayed on 


cards in cars, are mainly text, with pictures thrown in by 
way of emphasis. They are usually statements of fact, 
pointed, sometimes humorous, printed on a card which 
is in part occupied by a picture. There is often no rela- 
tion between type and illustration, the decorative quality 
being absent. The display of humor is comparatively 
rare, and is apt to run to caricature. An example of the 
force of grotesque types, insistently presented in various 
circumstances, is offered by Mrs. Grace G. Wiederseim's 
peculiar infants singing the praises of a certain product 
with the haunting persistence of droll appeal. Another 
set of car-posters, effective both in drawings and text, was 
the " Spotless Town " series of a certain cleaning com- 

There is not a little clever drawing in these advertise- 
ments. It is indeed a far cry from the few and unam- 
bitious efforts which were made at pictorial advertising 
in the days of wood-engraving, to the superabundancy of 
such material in these times of more rapid and cheaper 
reproductive processes. In the first half of the nineteenth 
century they did not go much beyond stock cuts such as 
the little railway trains, or ships, which puffed or sailed 
at the head of newspaper advertisements of transportation 
companies. A little later came the use of woodcuts of 
show fixtures bearing an assortment of hats or shoes (D. 
Haines engraved on copper, in 1822, a high hat on a 
stand on a card for Tweedy & Benedict, hatters). Then 
there were such conceits as an elephant rushing along tri- 
umphantly bearing aloft a pennant on which appeared the 
name of the firm advertised, or a sandwich man with 


similar information. In the advertising columns of the 
"Illustrated American News" of 1851, a thresher, a 
piano, a carriage, a horse, top offers of those articles, 
while the letters " BANNERS," upheld by little nude 
figures, announce the business of a sign-painter. Such 
cuts were used also on business cards, a form of pictorial 
advertising not common now. In cigarette cards with 
portraits of actresses or pictures of military uniforms the 
pictures advertise indirectly, having, of course, no relation 
to the object sold. The same applies to the spool-cotton 
concern's cards with landscape sketches in color by Charles 
Graham, — " exquisite," as H. A. Ogden described them 
to me. 

Continuing this retrospective record of this form of 
applied art, material is found also in the days of copper- 
plate engraving, particularly during the later years of the 
eighteenth century and the earlier ones of the nineteenth. 
Then, a number of our engravers were turning an honest 
penny in producing card plates for business purposes. 
One has but to run over the pages of Stauffer's book on 
American engravers, or of the catalogue of the exhibition 
at the Boston Museum in 1904, to see how frequently 
this was done. Paul Revere, Joseph Callender, William 
Hamlin (who engraved several cards for his own nautical 
instrument business), St. Memin (a card for Peter 
Mourgeon, " copper-plate printer from Paris," of New 
York), Peter Maverick and Childs & Carpenter (1822) 
were among the engravers of such cards, sometimes with 
lettering only, again with added vignettes to illustrate for 
the man who ran. Pictorial billheads were done by 


Revere, Henry Dawkins, Hingston and Callender. And 
on the wood block, Alexander Anderson and Abel Bowen 
did similar cards in the earlier years of the nineteenth 
century. In the copper-plates, the formality and dignity 
of the medium was inevitably mirrored in the result, 
just as to-day the work shows the effect of the freedom 
afforded by the ease of reproduction through modern 
reproductive processes. 

A familiar form of advertising is the poster, and that 
was long the domain of the wood-cutter. The work was 
done on planks of wood, basswood, usually, perhaps; but 
mahogany was also used. T. D. Sugden, the wood-en- 
graver, wrote : " J. Morse . . . working for Mr. 
Welch's circus on mahogany blocks." And W. J. Linton, 
quoting B. J. Lossing (" Memoir of Alexander Ander- 
son," New York, 1872, p. 80) : "The younger Lansing 
then [1838] engraved only the large coarse theater bills, 
using mahogany for the purpose." He continues: 
" Joseph W. Morse, at that time with Strong, was, I 
believe, the first who engraved these on pine with an open 
graver, about 1840; and Strong first produced them, from 
designs by George Thomas, in combination of colors." 

Crude these things were at best, though effective in a 
simple way. The coloring was mainly on the chiaroscuro 
principle; a tint-block or two, with lights cut out in the 
shape of heavy white lines. Some of them were repro- 
duced in "The Modern Poster" (New York, 1895); 
these were done by the Metropolitan Print Co., in one 
case designed by Robert Joste. These woodcut posters 
were used well into the eighties, A. S. Seer issuing many, 


as also Richardson & Foos. They have been seen in New 
York's subway stations quite recently. Moreover, James 
Britton, who engraved some effective posters from his 
own designs a dozen years ago, showed what could be 
done with the simple tools used by the engravers of the 
Calhoun Co. (Hartford, Conn.), wood-carvers' tools 
ground down to the length of a boxwood graver, the 
blade being grooved to prevent splitting in the wood, bass- 
wood, quite soft and free from knots. 

Lithography has long since seized on the specialty of 
the poster. Indeed, Mr. Louis Maurer, the lithographer, 
has recollection of posters designed by Peter Kramer as 
early as 1863 or '4- Mr. Maurer, who was then with 
Major & Knapp, thinks also that Kramer, who, as H. G. 
Plumb says, produced some of the best theatrical posters 
before 1870, did such work on large plates of zinc, add- 
ing that the use of zinc as a substitute for the lithographic 
stone long antedated that of aluminum. Kramer, who 
was with Ferd. Mayer & Sons (Fulton St., New York), 
did for that house a humorous advertisement issued for 
the Liederkranz Carnival of February 4, 1871. 

Theatrical posters — both the large for billboards and 
the small for windows — were particularly numerous dur- 
ing the seventies and eighties. They were always either 
portraits of individual actors (H. A. Thomas, Napoleon 
Sarony and Joseph E. Baker signed many) or illustrations 
of scenes in the play, the more startling and thrilling the 
better. As several posters were sometimes made for one 
play, the boy in those days of the melodramatic Bartley 
Campbell and the resplendently scenic Kiralfy Brothers 


(e.g., " Around the World in Eighty Days ") could often 
gain a fair idea of the delights in store by studying the 
pictures in the various shop windows. A collection of 
such posters shows much very poor work, with at best 
such smooth, sure crayon-drawing, as the facile and rather 
monotonous and fuzzy portraits by Baker for J. H. Buf- 
ford and Forbes Co. 

But there came also the rising influence of Matthew 
Somerville ("Matt") Morgan (1839-90), felt even in 
the later work of such a draughtsman as Vic. Arnold. 

Matt Morgan, brought over as a political cartooning 
antidote to Thomas Nast, found his success in scene paint- 
ing and poster art. He, too, did illustrative (not decora- 
tive) posters, but did them with noteworthy skill. Some 
of his works are remembered to-day; the design for the 
Kiralfy Brothers' Black Venus was one of them. Litho- 
graphs such as the two he did illustrating the frozen river 
scene in Jay Rial's Ideal Uncle Tom's Cabin, were effective 
in a scenic way. But he also executed portraits of 
actresses which, while drawn with a certain freedom in 
the figures, left nothing to be desired, in the faces, in the 
way of smooth, flat, uninteresting reproduction of the 
photographic original. Yet one must be thankful for the 
best of his productions, when compared with such indiffer- 
ent affairs as the one printed by A. S. Seer, for Daly's 
production of the Taming of the Shrew (1888). Much 
of Morgan's work was signed, and this very compliment 
paid to an artist's importance no doubt not only implied 
more than common ability to begin with, but awoke a 
natural desire to live up to the reputation. I found the 


monogram of Henry F. Farny on at least one poster, 
a Venetian moonlight scene done for Bartley Campbell's 
Galley Slave and printed by the Strobridge Co. And 
H. A. Ogden, who did a large number of the pictorial 
class, anonymously, signed his name to two done in 1896, 
for Madame Sans-Gene, each consisting of a single figure 
with some background and the lettering. They are prob- 
ably among his best, posters purely, and not illustra- 

The Strobridge Lithographic Co. (with which Morgan 
was connected and for which H. A. Ogden has drawn 
scenes in many plays, from the late seventies to the pres- 
ent day), A. S. Seer, Forbes Co. of Boston (J. E. Baker, 
their artist), Thomas and Wylie (Dan Smith was with 
Thomas about 1885, says Louis Maurer), W. J. Morgan 
& Co. were prominently identified with this period. 

H. C. Bunner's graceful comments (to be referred to 
later) on America's part in the mural art of advertising 
were illustrated with an interesting series of reproductions 
of theatrical and circus posters by E. Potthast, Matt 
Morgan (both identified with the Strobridge Co.), 
Joseph E. Baker, Theodore Liebler, Hugo Ziegfeld (H. 
C. Miner-Springer Litho. Co.), F. M. Hutchins and one 
by A. Hoen & Co. Most of this was smooth, uninterest- 
ing work in which any artistic originality had little chance. 
Even when a French poster was used for Around the 
World in Eighty Days, it was a small affair drawn by 
F. Lix, engraved on wood, simply a collection of illus- 
trations with figures not over an inch high; not a poster, 
in effect. 


Meanwhile, Cheret arose in France, but the influence of 
the principles which his work expressed was hardly felt 
here, except in frank imitations, such as the figure of a 
ballet girl announcing a run of the Black Crook at the 
Academy of Music (New York) in 1892. C. B. Cochran 
(in "The Poster," London, July, 1898) puts the date 
at 1894, and states that the poster design was bought in 
Paris by Eugene Tompkins and used here. Cochran 
records also that this Cheret poster was followed by two 
by Jacobi for Kiralfy's Eldorado and Koster & Bial's 
Music Hall, respectively, and these by the designs of 
Scotson Clark. There are recorded also such sporadic 
examples as Bradley's poster for The Masqueraders, F. A. 
Nankivell's Marie Hatton poster for Koster & Bial's — 
" indeed a thing of beauty," wrote Cochran — and Wilfred 
Denslow (sometimes a la Bradley, sometimes broadly 
humorous, as W. S. Rogers says), Will R. Barnes and 
others are named. 

Thus the merely illustrative commercial poster did not 
hold the field entirely. Decorative possibilities began to 
be appreciated and efforts were made to establish harmony 
between lettering and design. Charles Hiatt (" Picture 
Posters," London, 1895) and W. S. Rogers ("A Book 
of the Poster," London, 1901) each have chapters on 
American posters, in which many names are cited of which 
some are already but vaguely remembered. This new 
spirit was felt less, perhaps, in theatrical posters than in 
those issued by magazines and newspapers, in which the 
limitations imposed called for exercise of artistic ingenuity. 
The result, indeed, was not infrequently a revel in decora- 


tive effect without relation to the thing advertised, just 
as our magazine covers (used as posters) are often not 
cover designs, but simply pictures slapped on below a 
printed title. Nevertheless, there was much work of in- 
terest, and it all was stimulating. 

In fact there was for a while (about 1894-5) a verita- 
ble poster craze, which, as R. R. Latimer puts it (" The 
Poster," London, Aug.-Sep., 1898), "spread like wild- 
fire . . . and died away after about a year of frenzied 
enthusiasm." It had its own literature, among which 
was C. K. Bolton's " The Reign of the Poster " (Boston, 
1895, x 4 P a g es )- A little poster periodical ("The 
Poster") was issued in New York in 1896. Collections 
were formed; for instance that of Charles Knowles Bolton 
(now librarian of the Boston Athenaeum), who brought 
out in May, 1895, a " Descriptive Catalogue of Posters 
chiefly American in the collection of Charles Knowles 
Bolton with biographical Notes and a Bibliography." 
Other collectors recorded are Alfred Bartlett, of Cornhill, 
William T. Peoples of New York, who specialized on 
French posters, Wilbur Cherrier Whitehead (catalogue 
printed 1895), George Dudley Seymour, of New Haven, 
spoken of by Elbert Hubbard in " Ex-Libris " for Janu- 
ary, 1897, and Henry Lawrence Sparks, whose collecting 
activity embraces various lands and comes down to the 
present time. Part of the Sparks collection was shown 
at the Salmagundi Club, New York, in 19 12. 

Exhibitions were held also during this period, at the 
Brookline (Mass.) Public Library (Feb. 11-20, 1895, 
arranged by C. K. Bolton) ; at the Union League Club, 


New York City, (Feb. 14-16, 1895); Pratt Institute 
(March, 1895: American and French work); Denver 
(Exhibition of artistic Posters, chiefly American, from 
the private Collections of J. H. Warren, " The Book 
Leaf," and the Denver Public Library, July i8g^) ; C. S. 
Pratt's, 169 6th Avenue, New York City, October, 1895 
(J. Brevoort Cox did a poster for this) ; Mechanic's 
Institute, Boston (the catalogue of which was heralded 
by a poster by Claude Fayette Bragdon, " after Willette," 
and E. B. Bird designed one for the poster exhibit of the 
" Mechanic's Fair," Boston, 1895) ; Rhode Island School 
of Design, Providence, 1895 (catalogue printed) ; by the 
"Echo" of Chicago, 1896 (catalogue printed); and at 
the Mercantile Library, New York City (Feb. 12-15, 
1896) . The last-named exhibit consisted of the collection 
of the librarian, W. T. Peoples, comprising mainly French 
work, with the addition of loans of American posters, over 
900 in all. Mr. Peoples subsequently loaned the pick 
of his posters to the Philadelphia Public Library, where 
they were shown for a time, and some of them were also 
borrowed by churches for receptions and like occasions. 
(" The Critic " of Feb. 23, 1895, found that the American 
designs did not carry so far as the French and therefore 
did better within four walls.) A little later (1899) there 
was an exhibit at the Fidelis Club, New York, where, ac- 
cording to Percival Pollard, 1,500 examples were shown. 
An earlier display at the Grolier Club, New York (1890) , 
included only French work. This club itself, by the way, 
contributed to the advancement of the movement by the 
issuance of a delicate and appropriate poster heralding 


its exhibition of Japanese prints and an address by How- 
ard Mansfield, in 1896. This poster, Mr. Mansfield 
tells me, was picked up in a lot by the late E. B. Holden, 
the lettering being added typographically. 

The theatrical poster, not particularly affected by this 
movement of the nineties, continued mainly in the beaten 
path of realistic representation, often on a very large 
scale, and not infrequently attracting attention principally 
by its huge proportions. There were exceptions, as al- 
ready noted. 

But in those days it was the magazine and book pub- 
lishers who were the main support of this new spirit in 
its short-lived tide of conspicuous success. " Art in pos- 
ter-making has in this country found its best inspiration, 
in most cases, from literature," said H. C. Bunner, in his 
chapter on the United States, in " The Modern Poster " 
(New York, 1895). The Harpers, the Century Co., 
the Scribners and others issued a series of posters (mostly 
small, for window display) advertising their magazines 
and books. The " Century Magazine " even went 
abroad, holding a poster contest in Paris in 1895; Lucien 
Metivet won with his January, 1896, Napoleon poster. 
Another foreign-made poster advertising the " Century's " 
life of Napoleon was the equestrian one by Grasset, who 
much later came before our billboard public again with 
his Bernhardt-Joan-of-Arc design. Boutel de Monvel 
was also laid under contribution by the " Century." 

However, home talent was widely enlisted and accom- 
plished noteworthy results. Posters for books were de- 
signed by Henry McCarter (a green tree with purple 


birds for the Green Tree Library), Ethel Reed (A. M. 
Bagby's " Miss Traumerei," with a suggestion of the 
French romantiques, and Mabel Blodgett's " Fairy 
Tales"), Will H. Bradley ("The Modern Poster," a 
peacock, effective in green, blue and white, and R. D. 
Blackmore's " Fringitta "), E. A. Abbey ("Quest of 
the Holy Grail," lettering in harmony with drawing, well 
characterized as "bold and impressive"), I. R. Wiles, 
Peter Newell, Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Abby E. Un- 
derwood ("fashion artist for the New York Sun," said 
C. K. Bolton) and Will P. Hooper (a poster each for 
" Chimmie Fadden"), C. D. Gibson, H. C. Christy, 
F. B. Smith ("Tom Grogan " and "The Delft Cat"), 
Thomas Buford Meteyard (" Songs of Vagabondia " and 
"The Ebb Tide"), Vierge ("On the Trail of Don 
Quixote ") , Palmer Cox (for a new one of his " Brownie " 
books), E. W. Kemble (" Kemble's Coons"), Oliver 
Herford (" Artful Anticks "), and R. W. Chambers (for 
his " King in Yellow " and " Father Stafford ") . It will 
be noted that not a few of these artists thus helped to 
advertise books written, or illustrated, or both, by them- 
selves. It has, in fact, been a not uncommon practice to 
transplant some illustration in a book directly to the 
poster for the same. (More recently, F. Y. Cory, in a 
design in yellow on black, offered a summary and effective 
announcement of Josephine Daskam's " Memoirs of a 

John Sloan, who in those days was quite Beardsley- 
like in manner, did a few publishers' announcements, such 
as the characteristic one for " Cinder Path Tales," in 


black on brown paper. Both he (for " Philadelphia In- 
quirer " and "Philadelphia Press") and McCarter 
" Lourdes," for the " New York Herald ") designed il- 
lustrations for stories in the " poster style," as he says. 
Sloan describes his own as " black and white, in flat tints," 
and adds that he was " started in this direction partly 
through a Japanese in Philadelphia, Beisen Kuboda, art 
commissioner to the World's Fair, Chicago." Here, the 
personal weight was presumably added to the general 
Japanese influence which in the second half of the nine- 
teenth century made itself felt in Caucasian art. McCar- 
ter's " Lourdes " illustrations R. W. Chambers character- 
ized as " intensely sincere and decorative," adding that 
neither the " Herald " nor the public liked them. 

It was, however, the announcements for magazines, 
more than those for books, which gave opportunity to 
poster artists. In these years, 1894-96, the " Century" 
issued designs by I. R. Wiles (July, 1894), George 
Wharton Edwards; Edward Penfield; Charles H. Wood- 
bury; Louis Rhead (Christmas number: woman holding 
aloft a peacock on a dish) ; the three prize winners in the 
mid-summer poster competition, 1896: J. C. Leyendecker 
(1st prize), Maxfield Parrish (2d), Baron Arild Rosen- 
krantz (3d) ; E. Potthast (highly commended in the same 
competition); H. M. Rosenberg (1896); E. B. Bird; 
H. M. Lawrence; and later F. Berkeley Smith. "St. 
Nicholas " used designs by Louis Rhead and Moores. 
" Scribner's " (for which H. C. Brown had drawn as 
early as 1891, and Victor S. Perard in 1892) employed 
L. L. Roush (1894), Francis Day, Kenyon Cox (March, 


1895, figure and lettering in effective harmony), Birch, 
Will Carqueville, W. Granville Smith, L. J. Rhead, W. 
H. Low, W. T. Smedley, Sergeant Kendall (portraits of 
C. S. Reinhart and R. F. Blum as artist contributors) ; 
Geo. M. Reevs, H. McCarter, Hy Mayer ("Olympic 
Games " number). Furthermore, there were posters for 
"Harper's Bazar" by Rhead; " Lippincott's " by Will 
Carqueville and J. J. Gould, Jr.; "Atlantic" by R. R. 
Emerson (July, 1895); "Youth's Companion" by W. 
L. Taylor; "Illustrated American" by Archie Gunn; 
" Bookman " by Rhead and G. C. Parker; " Overland 
Magazine" by L. M. Dickson (1895) and E. B. Bird; 
"Quarterly Illustrator" by W. J. Yegel; "Outing" by 
H. S. Watson; " Truth " by Hy Mayer and E. Haskell; 
" Chap Book " by W. H. Bradley and E. B. Bird; " Black 
Cat " by E. B. Bird; " Inland Printer " by Will Bradley 
(1894-5) and E. B. Bird; " Bostonian " by A. G. 
Learned; and " Moods " (Philadelphia) by John Sloan, 
who describes this periodical as the " nearest attempt a la 
1 Yellow Book ' done in this country," and states that it 
went through a couple of numbers. 

The newspapers at this time (still 1894-95) availed 
themselves to a noteworthy extent of the aid of the poster 
in its new manifestation. Drawings by Miles C. Gard- 
ner, Wm. M. Paxton, Charles M. Howard, Ethel Reed 
and E. H. Garrett were issued for the " Boston Sunday 
Herald"; by Rhead for the "Boston Transcript"; by 
Frank King, R. F. Outcault (Easter number, 1895), 
M. de Lipman, Alder (had " all the go and deviltry and 
1 chic ' that Guillaume possesses," said R. W. Chambers) 


for the " New York World," for which Dan Smith, in 
1903, did a huge announcement of its anniversary number 
of May 10th; by Charles Hubbard Wright (Easter, 
1895) for the " New York Herald "; by de Yonghe for 
the "New York Times"; by Henry B. Eddy and E. 
Haskell for the Sunday issues of the " Journal " (New 
York) ; by Will H. Bradley for the Chicago Sunday 
"Tribune" and "Echo"; by Biorn and Nankivell for 
the "Chicago Echo"; by Will W. Denslow for the 
"Chronicle," "Herald" and "Times-Herald," all of 
Chicago; by Ottmann for the "Chicago Tribune"; by 
Mrs. Alice R. Glenny for the woman's edition of the 
" Buffalo Courier "; by Claude Fayette Bragdon for the 
" Rochester Post-Express," and by Louis J. Rhead for 
the " New York Sun." 

As one looks over the list of the artists drawn to the 
service of the magazine and newspaper advertiser in those 
days, an interesting agglomeration of personalities is en- 
countered. The names of the many who were laid under 
contribution by the spirit of poster improvement empha- 
size the inclusiveness of the choice, though it did not 
always fall on those who showed peculiar fitness for the 
task or a full appreciation of its nature and possibilities. 
Discrimination, understanding and singleness of purpose 
were perhaps not always evident in the results, though 
they were in a remarkably large number of cases. At 
least the designs were usually in good taste, and the in- 
dividual artist was given some opportunity. 

Bradley was one of those who attacked the problem 
with serious intent. He brought to the task some of the 


influence of Beardsley, more, perhaps, of the spirit of 
the old wood-engravers, and certainly a decorative in- 
stinct quite his own. The complete, a little involved, ex- 
pression of this bent toward ornamental fullness some- 
what detracted at times from the absolute effectiveness 
of his works as posters, an element less apparent in his 
color-plate for " Modern Posters," already referred to, 
than in some of his line work. The " Inland Printer " 
posters and particularly those for the " Chap Book " are 
noteworthy products by one who was a prominent exam- 
ple of what Percival Pollard, in " Poster," London, Feb- 
ruary, 1899, called " the earliest efflorescence of the Amer- 
ican poster." His poster for the " Historical Musical 
Exhibition under the auspices of Chickering & Sons " 
(Boston, 1902) is somewhat Parrish-like, with an eigh- 
fleenth-century woodcut effect. It represents a taste for 
quaint, old-time spirit which has frequently been exercised, 
in this country, but not always with as good taste as here. 
Bradley even attempted a magazine for the " exclusive 
display of his various efforts in decorative art," with the 
title: "Bradley: His Book." 

Simplicity and directness, two important factors in the 
attainment of the poster's prime function, — to advertise, 
to attract attention and to hold it, — have marked the 
work of Edward Penfield, who has been particularly 
happy in some of his conceits. One of his " Harper " 
posters was referred to at the beginning of the present 
chapter; in another, a sportsman is so absorbed in his 
magazine that he entirely overlooks two hares almost 
within reach of his hand. His work is strong in its em- 


phatic directness of line and its broad, flat tints. Bunner 
used his " March hare " Harper design as a text for a 
little disquisition on native art: " In the lightness, fresh- 
ness and purity of that humor, in the composition, free 
without license and unconventional without extravagance, 
in the striking yet inoffensive use of color, in the frankness 
and unaffected innocence and happy simplicity of the 
whole thing, I find a quality which, I am grateful to think, 
comes to the American artist as his natural and honest 
birthright." Penfield himself, in his introduction to 
" Posters in Miniature," summarily states a basic prin- 
ciple : " A poster should tell its story at once — a design 
that needs study is not a poster, no matter how well it is 

The work of Louis Rhead, who was doing posters for 
the Harpers and the Century Co. as early as 1890-91 
(see Gleeson White's article on him in the " Studio " for 
1896), was striking, at times based on daring color 
schemes; it had not necessarily any relation to the thing 
advertised. As I remember his posters, even the colors 
were not always those of nature. These qualities were 
quite apparent in that design of a young woman walking 
in a field used by the " Sun." There was method in this 
outlandishness. Few lines, flat tints, the simplest possible 
composition were combined, in that particular poster, for 
instance, into a harmonious whole which, with a certain 
aloofness from material facts, attracted, attention with a 
blare that had none of the shrillness of vulgar over- 
emphasis. In a second article on posters, in the " New 
York Times," February 23, 1896, Robert W. Chambers 


gave much space to Rhead and those who " out-Rheaded 

To all the names already cited may be added the fol- 
lowing, listed by C. K. Bolton: S. Cruset, H. McVickar, 
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue and Julius A. Schweinfurth 
(Boston Festival Orchestra, 1895). And the curious 
may find still more in the book by W. S. Rogers. 

A considerable number of the posters by the artists 
mentioned were reproduced in " Some Posters reproduced 
by Wm. Troyon Higbee " (Cleveland, 1895; the edition 
I saw was limited to 15 copies) and in " Posters in Minia- 
ture, with an Introduction by Edward Penfield " (New 
York, 1896), both of which books contained also por- 
traits of a number of the poster designers: Abbey, 
E. B. Bird, Bradley, Carqueville, C. D. Gibson, Nanki- 
vell, Penfield, Ethel Reed, Rhead, John Sloan, F. B. 
Smith, etc. 

In the days of the poster excitement that centered about 
the year 1895, even the art world was seized with the 
fever, to this extent that the National Academy of De- 
sign and the American Water Color Society in 1895 each 
used a poster designed by George Wharton Edwards, 
while Charles Herbert Woodbury is credited with one 
for the Society of Painters in Water Colors of Holland 
(exhibition in Chase's gallery) in the same year. The 
American Water Color Society's catalogue cover for 1895, 
by George Wharton Edwards, was a bit overloaded, per- 
haps, but well drawn and effective in its way. Inciden- 
tally it was a punning design, the young woman splash- 
ing " water " from the fountain, and the peacocks sug- 


gesting " color." In recent years, the water-colorists have 
used on their covers a vignette by F. S. Church. 

A poster, done no doubt in the early eighties, for a 
" Grand concert of the Gotham Art Students " (New 
York), printed by Thomas & Wylie, but drawn or in- 
spired quite evidently by artist or art student, illustrated 
a probably not uncommon error of the designer who has 
more respect for art than understanding of poster needs. 
It was chaste enough, but the attempt to be artistic in the 
figure and in the lettering resulted in a colorless affair 
and was fatal to clearness. 

Subsequent noteworthy efforts to advertise art do not 
come to mind, beyond an occasional affair such as the 
one by Britton, already referred to, for the Connecticut 
League of Art Students, or the simple, dignified per- 
formance of E. H. Blashfield for the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the Art Students' League, of New York, in 
1900. Some of the little posters of this same League's 
" Society of American Fakirs " are of an effective direct- 
ness in their exuberant humor, for instance the one for 
the " fifteenth annual slam," — Satan in black and red. 
The Society of American Artists used the figure designed 
for its catalogue cover by Will H. Low, and the National 
Academy of Design similarly uses its cover design. 

An element that must not be overlooked is the impetus 
given by business. Even among old woodcut posters I 
came across an announcement of " gifts," issued by Paul 
& Curtis, 594 Broadway, with the traditional Santa Claus 
preparing to slide down the chimney. In 1896 the New 
York " Poster " reproduced various designs for the Co- 


lumbia Bicycle, including Maxfield Parrish's, which won 
first prize. Charles D. Farrand also did a poster for 
this bicycle, and Bradley one for the " Victor," in those 
days of the cycling fever. " Pearline " (1895) and 
Lundborg's Perfumes were decoratively advertised by 
L. J. Rhead; Hood's Sarsaparilla by various artists, in- 
cluding Bradley, who also heralded " Narcoticura," 
while R. Wagner, it appears, was engaged by tobacco 
houses. " Aetna Dynamite " was dealt with by Penfield 
(his design showed an Italian with a red flag, with a 
suggestion of a volcano in the background), and the 
Hartford Building and Loan Association as well as the 
Millyer Institute, Hartford, by Wilbur Macey Stone. 
In recent years some of the dry-goods houses as well as 
other business concerns have been testing the efficiency of 
the large poster on elevated and subway railroad stations. 
Or there may come such surprises as Jessie Willcox 
Smith's children in a home made cheerful by a certain 
brand of radiators. 

We have long been accustomed to seeing the shop win- 
dow turned into a portrait gallery of candidates in the 
weeks before an election. But where the poster has 
entered the political field as an argument it has quite 
naturally been typographical in the main, and only excep- 
tionally pictorial. In the latter case the vein of caricature 
is apt to appear; an effective newspaper cartoon may be 
reproduced on a large scale, or a pictorial skit drawn 
specially for the occasion, vide Tammany's " Spotter's 
Town " series in New York. In the campaign of 1903 
in New York City the Citizen's Union in its fight for 


Seth Low against Tammany utilized designs by Chester 
Loomis and Ella Condie Lamb. Allegorical figures (usu- 
ally one) stood for the various departments of the city's 
government or for matters of vital public interest, and 
served as a sort of background for pithy printed state- 
ments and comparisons. Police, Charities, Health, 
Parks, Schools, Tenements, Transportation, Honesty, 
and " Our City " were thus treated in simple and direct 
manner. These, as well as work by G. W. Edwards, 
James Preston, W. W. Fawcett, F. D. Steele, R. E. 
Gould Co. and O. J. Gude Co. were shown at an exhi- 
bition of artistic posters and advertising matter held by 
the Municipal Art Society of New York at the National 
Arts Club of that city in 1906. 

So we have come to more recent times, and the ques- 
tion naturally arises: did the ebullient poster enthusiasm 
of '95 leave any good results? In reply, one need but 
make the time-honored comparison of " before using " 
and " after." Since the advertising world swallowed the 
dose of '95, things have not been quite the same. Not 
that everything is rosy; the very diversity of racial ante- 
cedents, of training and environment, of esthetic and 
ethical viewpoint, in our land, especially in that congeries 
known as the metropolis, produces much that is objection- 
able in the general whoop to be heard. But it strikes 
one that the average artistic merit, and the average taste, 
of the pictorial advertisement is better and at the same 
time applied with more appropriateness and effectiveness 
than " before the poster war." And if, as was said 
at the beginning of the chapter, much of our poster and 


car advertising is typographical rather than pictorial, 
that may perhaps be due to the fact that our growing 
taste for better art has not yet overcome our national 
tendency to talk. 

Occasional opportunities for review are offered, as in 
the exhibits of advertising art at the National Arts Club. 
On memory and on catalogues of such shows one may 
draw for names of those who have used their artistic 
capabilities in this field, — Robert J. Wildhack, F. G. 
Cooper, Orson Lowell, Walter Meyner, Gil Spear, Syd- 
ney Adamson, Darwin Teague and others. 

In the field of public entertainments on a large scale 
we have had the poster for the Electrical Show, Madison 
Square Garden (New York City, 1905), signed " B " and 
printed by Seiter & Kappes; or that of the Pan-American 
Exposition, Buffalo (1901), produced by Gies & Co., an 
iridescent personification of Niagara Falls. The latter 
is different indeed from such an affair as that of the Lewis 
& Clark Exhibition, the usual bird's-eye view, though 
effective, perhaps, through the very positiveness of its 
appeal. A disappointment is such a piece of work as the 
" proclamation " for the New Orleans Mardi Gras of 
1904. (I name here posters which happen to have come 
my way, without pretense at general inclusiveness, for 
the poster is elusive indeed.) Here, too, may be noted 
tHe chaste announcement of the 150th anniversary of 
King's College, 1904. 

The circus poster has gone on its accustomed way of 
effective illustration of the alliterative and imaginative 
grandiloquence of the text. T. Arthur Jacobsen's hurdle- 


jumpers for " Squadron A. games," and Max F. Klep- 
per's equestrian scene for the military tournament, both 
in New York City, were attempts to characterize shows 
by typical pictorial generalities rather than by depiction 
of specific acts. 

In recent years there has appeared occasionally, on 
very large theatrical posters, the use of a figure or two, 
life size or over, in combination with a minimum of text 
drawn in huge letters, the whole forming a not unpleas- 
ing effect. Once or twice, too, a welcome change from 
the mammoth illustrative poster has been found in the 
swirling lines of Hy Mayer or the vivaciousness of 
Archie Gunn. And Ernest Haskell has drawn several 
studies of Mrs. Minnie Maddern Fiske which attracted 
attention by their very reticence, which stood out by the 
simplicity of means by which they were produced. There 
was that head in profile to left, crayoned with an almost 
pertly incisive characterization; the small " Becky 
Sharp" in full-length; the seated figure for Mary of 
Magdala, with its aroma of Byzance and mosaics. It was 
unusual to see a painter-lithograph actually appear on 
a billboard, the unaltered reproduction of the artist's 
own touch, not seen dimly through the intermediate work 
of the practised lithographer. S. de Ivanowski's almost 
life size full-length presentation of Nazimova attracted 
attention on similar grounds. 

There was dignity in the archer used for Ulysses, by 
Stephen Phillips (no signature but that of the Metro- 
politan Printing Co.). And some years ago the same 
printers signed an announcement of The Ajax of Sopho- 


cles enacted by the Greeks of New York at Clinton Hall; 
appropriate in style, modern, yet with a classic strain, 
with a suggestion of Greek vase decoration in its color. 
Quite different in style, with kinship to Forain, was the 
drawing by Boardman Robinson used by the Coburn 
Players at Columbia University in 191 1. And there was 
that series of window posters put out one season by 
Francis Wilson, sketches, by various artists, of that 
actor of facile fun-making. 

Without the help of any craze, posters and advertise- 
ments are being produced which command attention by 
their good qualities. Some commercial ones have been 
mentioned incidentally while discussing earlier work. 

More recently there has been seen an occasional effort 
to do something out of the ordinary in magazine posters. 
One recalls with amused satisfaction Frank A. Nanki- 
vell's " Mr. Bibliocrank " crowded out of his house by 
his books (done for the defunct " Literary Collector ") 
— engraved on wood by the artist, and tinted from two 
color blocks etched on zinc. Arthur Wesley Dow's de- 
sign for " Modern Art " edited by J. M. Bowles will al- 
ways remain an interesting example of true artistic feel- 
ing and mood expressed with a simplicity of means, and 
a terseness of statement in its uninvolved composition and 
color, that form a straightforward and effective response 
to the prime requisites, the basic demands in poster art. 

Generally, the magazine poster to-day is a printed list 
of contents for the current month with a noteworthy illus- 
tration of that issue thrown in, or a reproduction of the 
cover. For the cover of the magazine, changing each 


month, is a poster in itself, a striving for novelty, in fitful 
anxiety to be heard and seen. The unchanged cover, 
become a household word — like the old one for " Har- 
per's," or the one by Vedder which long served the " Cen- 
tury " — is the exception. The cover is an " ad." Pic- 
torial, too, like so many posters and advertisements, pic- 
torial not infrequently without the slightest reference to 
the general nature of the magazine or the contents of 
the specific number. The spirit of thoughtless devotion to 
a type, and to the flourish of an up-to-date manner, is felt 
here as in illustration. In fact, cover designing is often 
enough simply illustration. 

The list of names that appear on cover designs includes 
those of many able artists. Among them are Will Brad- 
ley, Wm. Martin Johnson ("Harper's Bazar," 1893- 
95), Maxfield Parrish, George Wharton Edwards, Jo- 
seph C. and Frank X. Leyendecker, George F. Tobin, 
Guernsey Moore, Binner, Jessie Willcox Smith, Henry 
Hutt, John Cecil Clay, and Victor S. Perard. 

Not a few of their products are, as already indicated, 
drawings on covers rather than cover designs. But there 
are always some which show that the artist really had 
something to say, something that had to do with the 
matter in hand. 

The West has had its " Sunset " posters, often repro- 
ducing the cover design and often very good. Meth- 
fessel has done some of these, and particularly Maynard 
Dixon; there is quiet humor in the latter's design for 
December, 1904: Santa Claus with an Indian on one arm 
and a cowboy on the other. These " Sunset " drawings 


have a freshness and swing born of the soil and with 
no weakness of super-sensitive preciosity or swagger up- 

There has been a noteworthy improvement in the 
get-up of dealers' catalogues, an improvement with which 
the influence of such publications as " Printing Art " and 
" The Graphic Arts " has presumably had something to 
do. This has extended also to some of the railway guide- 
books. Penfield, Haskell, Perard are a few among those 
who have decorated the catalogues of book-sellers and of 
various industrial concerns. Signatures, however, rarely 
appear on the products of this phase of art, which was 
dealt with in " Twentieth Century Cover Designs " 
(1902), a collection of nine essays issued by V. H. and 
E. L. Briggs. 

Cover designs, meaning, of course, paper covers, nat- 
urally suggest book-covers of cloth or leather. Those, 
however, are not quite within the province of our survey, 
and there must not be more than a mere reference to a 
specialty in which Walter C. Greenough (see " American 
Bookmaker," July, 1890), Alfred Brennan, Miss Amy 
Sacker of Boston, and very many others have done good 

But since we have got away from the advertising at- 
mosphere which has pervaded much of the present chap- 
ter, a few lines may be given to the holiday card. To-day 
that represents a form of activity enlisting both native 
and foreign energy, and so extensive and commercialized 
that detailed consideration is not called for here, beyond 
the recording of the fact that there are some evidences 


of individuality, as in the designs of Mrs. Bertha E. 
Jaques and others in Chicago and elsewhere. In such 
the tendency is toward decorative rather than pictorial 

The earlier history of the Christmas card in this coun- 
try is interesting on account of the names associated with 
it. The first ones, flower cards, were designed by Mrs. 
O. E. Whitney, who, it is said, based her idea on the 
decorated business card of Louis Prang, the lithographer, 
shown at the Vienna Exposition of 1873. Then came the 
impetus given by the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. In 
1880, Prang arranged a competitive exhibition at the 
American Art Galleries, New York, Samuel Colman, 
Richard M. Hunt and E. C. Moore being the judges. 
The prizes were won by Rosina Emmet ( 1st) , Alexander 
Sandler (2d), Alfred Fredericks (3d), and Anna G. 
Morse (4th). At a second competition in 1881, the 
judges being Samuel Colman, John La Farge, and Louis 
C. Tiffany, the first prize went to Elihu Vedder, the sec- 
ond to Dora Wheeler (later Mrs. Keith), the third to 
Charles Caryll Coleman, the fourth to Rosina Emmet 
(later Mrs. Sherwood). At a third competition, 1881, 
two groups of prizes were awarded, one by the ballot of 
artists and art critics, the other by popular vote. The 
first group went to Dora Wheeler (1st), Miss Lizbeth 
B. Humphrey (2d and 3d), Alfred Fredericks (4th). 
The " popular " prizes were won by Dora Wheeler 
(1st), Walter Satterlee (2d), Frederick Dielman (3d), 
Miss Florence Taber (4th) . For the fourth competition, 
1884, Mr. Prang commissioned twenty-two artists of 


standing to paint cards, which were then entered in a 
competition. The artists were J. Carroll Beckwith, E. 
H. Blashfield, Robert F. Bloodgood, I. H. Caliga, 
Thomas W. Dewing, Frederick Dielman, Rosina Em- 
met, Frederick W. Freer, Alfred Fredericks, I. M. 
Gaugengigl, W. St. John Harper, Lizbeth B. Humphrey, 
Will H. Low, Leon Moran, Percy Moran, Thomas 
Moran, H. Winthrop Pierce, A. M. Turner, Douglas 
Volk, J. Alden Weir, C. D. Weldon, Dora Wheeler. 
The prizes were awarded by dealers 1 vote, and were 
taken by C. D. Weldon, Will H. Low, Thomas Moran 
and Frederick Dielman, in the order indicated. 

To these names were added, in the same firm's Easter 
card list for 1887, those of Fidelia Bridges, Henry Sand- 
ham, Lizbeth B. Comins and others. A number of de- 
signs by these artists are reproduced in " Christmas 
cards and their chief Designers," by Gleeson White, who 
says of these cards: " The charm of the coloring is not 
to be attributed entirely to a larger number of color 
printings, or superior chromo-lithography ; both these 
factors no doubt helped to give the peculiarly harmonious 
result; but one can feel beyond this, that the artists em- 
ployed recognized from the first the limitation of all me- 
chanical reproduction, however perfectly manipulated, 
and designed accordingly." 

The story of these Prang competitions is told in the 
catalogue of the Prang sale (Boston, 1899) and in an 
article in the "Evening Post" (New York) for De- 
cember 9, 191 1, where attention is called to the "very 
real influence in the education of taste " exerted by these 


bits of pasteboard. It is for this last reason that I have 
given this matter so much space, and for the spirit of the 
projector who laid so many well-known or promising 
artists under contribution. Here was one example of the 
application of art to things near at hand, the entrance of 
art into daily life. And the problem of such service on 
the part of art without a loss of its ideals, a service that 
shall be just to both parties, is always with us. 

To indicate just two possible openings: cards of invi- 
tation and menus are pretty generally executed under 
the name, and in the spirit, of large commercial houses. 
To find an artist's signature — T. Sindelar's, for instance 
— on the bill of fare of some banquet, is the exception. 
The Kit-Kat and other clubs of artists have occasionally 
sent out cards of invitation designed by members. And in 
the eighties and nineties, exhibitions of the works of indi- 
vidual artists, arranged by dealers, were occasionally ad- 
vertised by cards designed by the artist in question. But 
such scattered instances do not, of course, indicate any 
general interest in an application of artistic principles, as 
a matter of course, to daily commercial needs. 

Where the artists have an incentive to put their ener- 
gies really to the task we get results that attract because 
they are attractive within the bounds of appropriateness. 
Always one reverts to the old truth that the medium, the 
object and the artist's personality must be considered in 



Abbey, Edwin Austin, book-plate, 
298; caricatures, 272, 283; etch- 
ings, 10; illustrations, 222, 223; 
lithographs, 202; poster, 325, 

Abernethie, 57, 65, 282 
"Academy," cited, 238 
Academy of Design: See National 

Academy of Design. 
Academy of Fine Arts, 141 
Academy of Natural Sciences, 82 
Adams, Joseph Alexander, 91, 144, 

145, J 46 

Adamson, P. S., 276 

Adamson, Sydney, 335 

Advertisements, chapter xiv, 334; 
on copper, 79, 316, 317; on 
stone, 195; on wood, 140, 315, 
316, 317, 318; See also Cards; 

Aid, George C, 44, 48 

Aikman, Walter M., etchings, 12; 
line-engravings, 104, 171, 172; 
wood - engravings, 161, 167; 
cited, 36 

Aitken, Robert, 57, 63-64, 65, 72 

Akin, James, 68, 80; book-plates, 
292, 295; caricatures, 252; lith- 
ographs, 190 

Alder, 327 

"Aldine, or Art Journal of 
America, The," 152 

Alexander, F., 184 

Alexander, John W, illustrations, 
227; paintings reproduced, 166 

Allard view of New York, 52 

Allardice, Samuel, 80-81; book- 
plates, 292 

Allen, Charles Dexter, cited, 291, 
292, 293, 308, 309, 310 

Allen, James, 55 

Allingham, Mrs., 220 

Allston, Washington, 100 

Aluminum used in lithography, 

American Antiquarian Society, 58 

American Art Galleries, New 
York, 340 

" American Art Review," 26, 27, 

33, .131. 144. 164 
American Art Union, 5, 88, 117, 

American Bank-Note Co., 95, 96 
American Book-Plate Society, 309 
" American Bookmaker," cited, 

"American Gallery of Art," 115 
American girl, illustrated, 233, 234 
American Lithographic Co., 195 
"American Magazine," 18th cen- 
tury, 56 
"American Magazine," 19th cen- 
tury, 212 
" American Monthly Review of 

Reviews," cited, 288 
American Press Association, 216 
American subjects, in etching, 39- 
43 ; in line-engraving, 86, 88, 89 
American Sunday-School Union, 

144, 192 
American Tract Society, 147 
" American Universal Magazine," 

72 _ 
American Water Color Society, 
11, 38, no, 130, 135, 203; pos- 
ter, 331, 332 
"American Whig Review," 117 
" Analectic Magazine, The," 75, 

Anderson, Alexander, book-plates, 
292, 294; caricatures, 247; line 
and stipple engravings, 71, 81, 
93, 104; wood-engravings, 140- 
142, 145, 208, 247, 248, 317; 
his portrait, 212 
Anderson, Anna, 142 
Anderson, E., 162 
Anderson, I., 83 
Andreini, J. M., cited, 309-310 
Andrew, John, 146, 150, 299 
Andrews (Orr & Andrews), 148 
Andrews, Joseph, 87, 89, 92, 100, 

Andrews, William Loring, cited, 
52, 55, 58, 59, 60, 62, 66, 67, 
70, 73, 105, 109 




Animal subjects, in etching, 18; in 
illustration, 220, 221, 225 ; in 
lithography, 183, 185; in wood- 
engraving, 140, 141, 142, 148, 
150, 163 

Annin, William B., 147, 148, 150, 
151; Annin & Smith, 128, 190, 
292 ; Annin & Smith Senef elder 
Lithographic Co., 190 

Annuals, 98-100, 114, 115, 116, 206 

Anthony, Andrew Varick Stout, 
144, 150; cited, 267 

Apollo Association, 88, 97, 117 

Appian, A., influence of, 15 

Appleton, Thomas G, 6 

Appleton & Co., 150, 152 

"Appleton's Journal," 218 

Aquatint, 19, 21, 45, in, chapter 
vi, 122-133; accessory to etch- 
ing, 131-133; in color, 122, 125, 
126, 127, 128, 130, 132; for il- 
lustrations, 122, 123, 125, 126, 
127; as a painter-art, 130-133 

Archer, John, 82 

Architectural League, 310 

Armstrong, Miss, 24 

Arnold, Vic, 319 

"Art, L'," 33, 164 

"Art Amateur, The," 199 

Art Club, New York, 134 

" Art Journal," 159 

"Art and Progress," 44, 314 

Art Students' League, New York, 
etching class, 38; poster, 332 

Art Union. See Apollo Associa- 
tion; American Art Union; Art 
Union of Philadelphia; Western 
Art Union. 

Art Union of Philadelphia, 117 

Arthurs, Stanley M., 237 

" Artist's assistant in drawing " 
[etc.], cited, 2 

Ashe, Edmund M., 237, 238 

Aston Collection, Springfield, 
Mass., 169 

"Atlantic Monthly," cited, 155 

"Atlas" (1842), 216 

Attwood, Francis G, 12, 279 

Atwater, 193 

Atwood, John M. (Story & At- 
wood), 68 

Audubon, John J., 128, 196 

Avery, Samuel Putnam, wood- 
engravings, 148 ; his portrait, 
30; his book-plate, 299 

Avignon, F. d', 188 

Aylward, W. J., 237 

B., poster, 335 

Babb, George Fletcher, 306 

Bacher, Otto H., etchings, 13, 24, 
25, 46; monotypes, 133, 135; pen 
drawings, 237; cited, 6 

Bachmann, 186 

Baer, William J., 199, 203 

Bailey, Vernon Howe, 237, 238 

Baker, George H., paintings re- 
produced, 79 

Baker, John, 3 

Baker, Joseph E., caricatures, 260, 
262; etchings, 12; posters, 318, 
3i9» 320 

Baker, William Spohn, cited, 1, 
66, 70, 98, 100 

Balch, Vistus, 100 

Ball, W., 185 

Ballou, Maturin Murray, 215 

Bamburgh, W. C, 301 

Bank-note engraving, 5 ; early, 54, 
61-62; on wood, 138, 139; 19th 
century, 75, 80, 94-97, 101, 103, 
106; vignettes, 96, 143, 311 

Barber, Alice. See Stephens, A. 

Barber, John Warner, 63, 143 

Barker, William, 55 

Barnard & Dick, 82 

Barnes, Will R., 321 

Barnum, Phineas Taylor, 215 

Barralet, John James, 71, 82, 83, 
94,. 295 

Barritt (Lossing & Barritt), 148 

Barritt, Leon, 284 

Barry, August, 35 

Barry, Charles A., 213 

Bartholomew, Charles L., 

("Bart"), 286, 287 

Bartlett, William Henry, 101, 207 

Barton, Emery H., 12 

Bassett, W. H., 81 

Basswood, for posters, 318 

Bastien-Lepage, Jules, paintings 
reproduced, 34 

Bates, Albert C, cited, 62, 291 

Bates, Arlo, cited, 311 

Bauer, W. C, 16, 28 

Baulch, A. V., 101 

Bauncou, J., 186 

Beal, W. Goodrich, 16 

Beard, Dan. C, 214 

Beard, Frank (Thomas Francis), 
219, 259, 276, 281 

Beard, James Carter, 213, 225 

Beardsley, Aubrey, influence of, 
325, 327. 329 



Beatty, John W., 17 

Becker, Joseph, 215 

Beckwith, H. E., 103 

Beckwith, J. Carroll, 28, 199, 341 

Beer, William, cited, 189 

Bell, Alexander Melville, 299 

Bell, E. Hamilton, 304 

Bellew, Frank Henry Temple, 4, 
207, 212, 214, 215, 266, 269, 272, 

Bellew, Frank P. W. ("Chip"), 

Bellows, Albert F., 13, 86 

Bennett, William James, 84, 91, 
125, 127, 128 

Bensell, E. B., 219 

Benson, Frank W., 28 

Beraldi, Henri, cited, 298 

Berg, Charles I., 306 

Berghaus, Albert, 215 

Berlett, 150 

Bernstrbm, Victor, 161, 168, 173 

Berryman, Clifford K., 286, 288 

Best, E. S., 89 

Bewick, Thomas, influence of, 137, 
140, 142 

Bible illustrations, in line-engrav- 
ing, 59, 73"74, 80; in wood-en- 
graving, 140, 144, 145, 146, 209 

" Bibliographer," 62 

Bibliophile Society, Boston, 29, 

Bicknell, Albion Harris, 28 

Bicknell, Frank Alfred, 28 

Bicknell, W. H. W., 29, 105, 304 

Bien, Julius, 192, 193, 196 

Bierstadt, Albert, 85, 86, 101 

Bigg, W., 72 

Billheads, engraved, 56, 316, 317 

Billings, A., 57, 291 

Billings, Hammatt, 143, 209 

Billings, Joseph, 62 

Bingham, G. C, 117 

Binner, 338 

Biorn, Emil, 328 

Birch, Reginald Bathurst, 226-227, 

Birch, Thomas, 83 
Birch, William, 2, 78, 83, 84 
Bird, Charles, 120 
Bird, Elisha Brown, book-plates, 

305, 308; posters, 323, 326, 327, 

Bisbee, 280 
Bisbee, John, 184 
Bisbing, Henry, 218 
Bishop, Joseph B., cited, 253, 258 

Bishop, William H., 214 

Bishop Collection: Jade, 196 

Bispham, H., 206 

Blackwell, Henry, cited, 309 

Blada, V., 263-264 

"Blanket Sheets," 148, 217 

Blashfield, Edwin Howland, book- 
plates, 306; card, 341; illustra- 
tions, 228; poster, 332 

Blom, E. van, 127 

Bloodgood, Robert Fanshawe, 16, 

Blum, Robert Frederick, etchings, 
I 5, 2 5> 27, 46; lithograph, 199; 
illustrations, 226, 327 

Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, 237 

Blyth, Benjamin, 109 

Bobbett, A., 145, 146, 147 

Bobbett & Hooper, 148 

Bogardus, James, 94 

Bogert, J. A., 147, 150, 153 

Bolton, Charles Knowles, cited, 
322, 325, 331 

Bona del, 68 

Bonner, Capt. John, 55 

Bonsall, Miss, 307 

" Book-Buyer, The," cited, 224, 
225, 228, 309, 311 

Bookhout, E., 145 

Book-illustration. See Illustration. 

" Bookman, The," cited, 238 

" Book-Plate Booklet," 301, 305, 
309, 310 

Book-plates, 56, 104, 105, 178, 
chapter xiv: 291-311 

Booth, T. D., 87 

Borglum, Gutzon, sculpture repro- 
duced, 177 

Boston views and plans, in aqua- 
tint, 123, 127, 131; in etching, 
7, 39; in line-engraving, 52, 55, 
56, 58, 62, 64, 104; in mezzo- 
tint, 108 

Boston Art Club, 92 

Boston Etching Club, 12 

"Boston Evening Post," carica- 
tures, 244 

"Boston Gazette," 139, 244 

" Boston Magazine," 58, 72 

Boston Massacre, 62, 63, 243, 244 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
See Museum of Fine Arts. 

" Boston News Letter," caricatures, 

Boston Port Bill, 241 

" Boston Transcript," cited, 58 

Bourne, publisher, 82 



Boutet de Monvel, 324 

Bouve, E. W., 195 

Bouvier, 185 

Bowdoin, W. G, cited, 308 

Bowen, Abel, 77, 139, 142-143, 

145, 317 
Bowen, J. T., 191 
Bowes, Joseph, 57, 72 
Bowlend, George B., 269 
Bowles, J. M., 337 
Boyd, wood-engraver, 148 
Boyd, Edwin, 76 
Boyd, John, 77 
Bradish, A., 116 
Bradley, Will H., 321, 325, 327, 

328, 329, 331, 333, 338 
Bradley, William Aspinwall, 172 
Brady, daguerreotypes, 188 
Bragdon, Claude Fayette, 302, 305, 

323, 328 
Brainerd (D'Avignon & Brainerd), 

Brainerd, Ira H., 309 
Brennan, Alfred, book-covers, 339; 

etchings, 17; pen drawings, 221, 

226, 227 
Breton, Jules, paintings repro- 
duced, 34 
Bridges, Fidelia, 341 
Bridges, Robert, cited, 224 
Bridgman, Frederick Arthur, 

painting reproduced, 33 
Bridgman, L. J., 220 
Bridport, Hugh, 2; lithographs, 

186, 190; stipple, 77 
Briggs, V. H. and E. L., cited, 


Brigham, Clarence S., 58 

Brinton, Christian, cited, 134, 135, 
202, 237 

British Museum, American book- 
plates in, 311 

Britton, James, 178, 318, 332 

Bromley & Co., 263 

Brooklyn, Scr archers' Club, 12 

"Brother Jonathan: Great Pic- 
torial Battle Sheet" (1847), 217 

Brougham, John, 267 

Broughton, Charles, 203, 228, 280 

Brown, caricaturist, 266 

Brown, A. J., 304, 306 

Brown, C. J., 215 

Brown, E., 206 

Brown, Frank Chouteau, 306, 308 

Brown, George Loring, 5, 7, io, 
97, 100, 143 

Brown, H. C., 305, 326 

Brown, John George, 199 

Brown, M. E. D., 187-188 

Browne, Hablot Knight ("Phiz"), 
imitated, 4, 207 

Brueckner, 194 

Bruls, M. G. de, 55, 291 

Brunner, Arnold W., 306 

Brunton, Richard, 62, 291 

Bry, T. de, 51 

"Bubble, The," 267 

Buechner, G. J., 168 

Buell, Abel, 55, 62 

Buffalo Society of Artists, 307 

Bufford, J. H., 185, 188, 189, 319 

Bull, M., 292, 294 

Bunker Hill, Battle of, 3, 63, 64 

Bunner, Andrew Fisher, 28 

Bunner, H. C, cited, 208, 224, 
275. 320, 324, 330 

Burgis, William, 55, 56, 108 

Burne-Jones, E., paintings repro- 
duced, 163 

Burnet, John, 123 

Burney, 81 

Burns, J. F., 135 

Burns, Michael J., 28, 225 

Burr, Frederick M., cited, 142 

Burr, George Elbert, 47 

Burt, Alice, cited, 88 

Burt, Charles, 79, 88, 89, 90, 92, 
97. i°6 

Burton (Burton & Edmunds), 95 

Burton, C, 82, 98 

Burton, C. W., 185 

Bush, Charles G., 219, 283, 284, 

Bush-Brown, Mrs. H. K., 22 

Butler & Long, 126 

"Butterfly, The," 178 

Buttre, John Chester, 102, 103, 118 

Buxton, 55, 69 

C, caricaturist, 254 
C, E., caricaturist, 256 
C, E. W. See Clay, E. W. 
Cadart, A., publisher, 7, 8, 10 
Calahan, James J., 17, 27 
Calhoun Co., 318 
Calico printing, 53, 140 
California Book-Plate Society, 309, 

" California Book-Plates," 309 
California State Library, 310 
Caliga, Isaac Henry, 341 
Callender, Joseph, 57, 72, 316, 317; 

book-plates, 291, 292, 294 
Calyo, Nicolino, 127 



Campbell, R., 81 

Canot, 52 

Canova, 186 

Cards, business, 1, 56, 57, 79, 80, 
140, 196, 316, 317, 340; holiday, 
*95> 339-342; of invitation, 80, 
104, 342; visiting, 79. See also 

Caricature, 139, 202, 210, 233, 
chapter xii, 240-265 ; the comic 
paper, 148, 193, 195, 224, 232, 
chapter xiii, 266-290; news- 
papers, 216, 252, 284-290, 333; 
in aquatint, 125 ; in etching, 249, 
250, 251, 253, 263-264; in lithog- 
raphy, 193; in mezzotint, in; 
color in, 279; English imitated, 4 

"Carl" (G. W. Carleton), 266 

Carleton, Clifford, 237 

Carleton, G. W., 266, 268 

Carmiencke, Hermann, 5 

Carolus Duran, painting repro- 
duced, 163 

Carpenter (Childs & Carpenter), 

" Carpet Bag, The," 268 

Carqueville, Will, 327, 331 

Carter, Robert ("Frank Leslie"). 
See Leslie, Frank. 

Carter, Robert, cartoonist, 286 

Carter, Andrews & Co., 142 

Cartoons. See Caricature. 

" Cartoons," 288 

Carver, Clifford N., cited, 308 

Cary, Elizabeth Luther, cited, 6, 
165, 222 

Cary, W. M., 218 

Casilear, John W., 85, 97 

Casilear, Durand, Burton & Ed- 
munds, 95 

Cassatt, Mary, etchings, 21, 22, 23, 
132; lithograph, 202 

Castagnary, J. A., cited, 8 

Castaigne, Andre, 228 

Catalogue covers, 331, 332, 338, 

Catherwood, F., 129 
Catlin, George, 183 
Cauldwell, Leslie, 135 
Caxton Ciub, Chicago, 6, 310 
Centennial Exhibition, Philadel- 
phia (1876), etchings at, 9; in- 
fluence of, 340 
Century Co., 161, 165, 324, 330 
" Century Magazine," illustrations, 
221, 227; posters, 324, 326; cited, 

Certificates, engraved, 56, 79, 104, 

123 ; lithographed, 197 
Chad wick, Charles Wesley, 162, 

Chaignon la Rose, Pierre, 309 
Chamberlain, Francis T., 305 
Chambers, Jay, 305, 308. See also 

Triptych, The. 
Chambers, Robert W., poster, 325 ; 

cited, 326, 327, 330 
Champlain, " Voyages," 51 
Champney, J. Wells, 27 
Chandler, G. Walter, 45, 46 
Changed plates, 67-68 
Chapin, John R., 206, 212, 215 
Chapman, Carlton T, 16 
Chapman, J., 67, 71 
Chapman, John Gadsby, etchings, 
4> 5» 6). 7; illustration, 145, 
146, 209; works reproduced, 
100, 127 
Chappel, Alonzo, 102, 207 
Charles, William, caricatures, 4, 
125, 247, 248-250, 251; soft- 
ground etchings, 2, 81 
Chase, William Merritt, 25, 134, 

" Chautauquan, The," cited, 281 
Cheney, Ednah D., cited, 100 
Cheney, John, 93, 100, 190 
Cheney, Seth Wells, 91, 100 
Cheney, Sheldon, book-plates, 305, 

306 ; cited, 47, 301, 309 
Cheret, Jules, influence of, 320-321 
" Chiaroscuro " wood - engraving 

(tint-blocks), 177, 317 
" Chic," 277 

" Chicago Daily News," carica- 
tures, 286 
Chicago Society of Etchers, 38, 47 
Chicago " Tribune," caricatures, 

Child subjects illustrated, 220 
" Child's Paper," illustrations, 212 
Childs, Benjamin F., 143, 147, 148 
Childs, Cephas G, book-plates, 
292; line-engravings, 80, 81, 84; 
lithographs, 182, 187, 190, 252; 
caricatured, 251 ; Childs & Car- 
penter, 316; Childs & Inman, 
181, 183, 185, 186, 187; Childs 
& Lehman, 194; Pendleton, 
Kearny & Childs, 194 
"Chip" (F. P. W. Bel lew), 

Chippendale style in book-plates, 
56, 292 



Christmas cards. See Cards, 

Christy, Howard Chandler, 233- 

234. 325 
Chromo-lithography, 195, 208, 273, 

2 74 

Church, Frederic E., paintings re- 
produced, 85, 86, 90 

Church, Frederic Stuart, carica- 
tures, 272, 283 ; cover design, 
332; etchings, 13, 14, 17, 27; 
illustrations, 228; paintings re- 
produced, 163, 164 

Ciconi, I., 134 

Cigar box labels, 195 

Cigarette cards, 195 

Cincinnati Etchers' Club, 12 

City Club, New York, 287 

Civil War, in caricature, 193, 251, 
255, 257-264, 268-269, 270, 271; 
in etching, 7; in illustration and 
wood-engraving, 148, 149, 217- 
218, 231; in lithography, 198, 

Clark, A. (Rawdon, Clark & Co.), 

Clark, Arthur Wellington, 305, 306 

Clark, Jonas, 63 

Clark, Scotson, 321 

Clark, Walter Appleton, 237 

Clark, William, 141, 144 

Clarke, Thomas, 71, 72, 73 

Claudius, 168 

Clay, Edward W., 251, 253, 256, 

Clay, John Cecil, 237, 338 
Claypoole, James, Jr., 56, 57, 103, 

Clements, Gabrielle De Veaux, 22, 

Cleveland "Plain Dealer," 286 
Clinedinst, Benjamin West, 228 
Clonney, James G., 87, 183 
Closson, William Baxter Palmer, 

150, 163, 167, 173 
Club of Odd Volumes, Boston, 300- 

301, 307, 309, 310 
Clute, Beulah M., 307 
Cobb, Gershom, 295 
Cochin, C. N., 66 
Cochran, C. B., cited, 321 
Coffin, Frederick M., 211, 212 
Cogswell, Charlotte B., 161 
Cole, 109 
Cole, Miss, 22 
Cole, J. Foxcroft, etchings, 1, 7, 

18, 27; lithographs, 198, 199 

Cole, Thomas, lithograph, 183 ; 
paintings reproduced, 85, 90, 100 

Cole, Timothy, 152, 154, 157, 165, 
166, 167, 168, 169, 171 

Coleman, Charles Caryll, 340 

Collyer, Vincent, 189 

Colman, Samuel, 14, 19, 27, 29, 
208, 340 

Colon, J. H., 185 

Colonial Society of America, 29 

Color, in aquatints, 122, 125, 126, 
127, 128, 130, 132; in etchings, 
21, 45, 47, 132; in line-engrav- 
ings, 56, 62, 63, 78 ; in litho- 
graphs, 185, 193, 195, 196, 273- 
274, 279; in mezzotints, no, 
119, 1 20; in monotypes, 134, 
135; in posters. See Posters 
(practically all references to 
posters indicate color-work) ; in 
wood-engraving, 148, 167, 173, 

174, 175, 177, 317 
Coloring, print, 56, 62, 63, 78, 

191, 195 
Columbia Bank-Note Co., 94 
Columbia University, book-plate 

collection, 311 
" Columbian Magazine," 72, 98 
Comic papers, " Comics." See 

Comins, Lizbeth B., 341 
Comstock, Anna Botsford, 161 
Concord, Engagement at, 63 
Cone, Joseph, 77, 103 
Confederate caricatures, 263-264 
Confederate publications, 215-216, 

Congdon, Thomas Raphael, 47 
Congressional Library, 168 
Connecticut League of Art Stu- 
dents, 178, 332 
Conny, or Cony, John, 53, 54 
Cooke, R., 184 
Cooper, F. G, 335 
Cooper, Frederic Taber, cited, 277, 

Cooper Institute, New York City, 

Copeland, Charles, 228 
Copley, John Singleton, 108 
Corbould, Henry, 81, 
Cornwallis, Surrender of, 64 
Corot, J. B. C, paintings repro- 
duced, 164, 166 
Corwin, Charles A., 24 
Cory, Fannie Young, 325 
" Cosmopolitan, The," cited, 216 



Coultaus, Henry C, 217 
Counterfeiting, 61-62, 94 
Covers, catalogue, 331, 332, 338, 

339; magazine, 177, 337, 338 
Covey, Arthur, 47 
Cox, wood-engraver, 148 
Cox, J. Brevoort, 323 
Cox, Kenyon, 227, 228-229, 326- 

Cox, Palmer, 214, 279, 325 
Coxe, Dr. John Rodman, 3 
Coxe, Reginald Cleveland, 29, 199 
Cozzens, Frederick Schiller, 225, 

Craig, W. M., 
Cranston, wood-engraver, 151 
Crawford, Will, 275 
Crawley, John, Jr., 184 
Crehen, Charles G, 189 
Cremona, T., 134 
" Criblee " manner, 141 
"Critic, The," cited, 281 
Croome, William, 96, 143, 206, 

Cross, E J., 305 
Cruikshank, George, imitated, 4, 5, 

207, 251 
Cruset, S., 331 
" Curio, The," cited, 32 
Curran, Charles Courtney, 28 
Curran, Mary Eleanor, 305 
Currier, Nathaniel, 193 
Currier & Ives, 191, 193, 253, 255, 

258, 261, 283 
Curtis, Jessie, 219 
Cusachs, Gaspar, 189 
Cusachs, Philip G, 216 
Cushing, Otho, 280 
Cyclopedias. See Encyclopedias. 

D., H. See Dawkins, Henry. 

"Daily Graphic," 216, 271, 274 

Daingerfield, Elliott, 27 

Dakin, J. H., 82 

Dallas, Jacob A., 206, 211, 212, 
215, 266 

Dalrymple, L., 274 

Danforth, Mosely Isaac, 82, 91, 
92, 100 

Danforth, Perkins & Co., 95 

Daniels, John H., printer, 9, 62 

Darley, Felix Octavius Carr, 
bank-note vignettes, 96 ; illus- 
trations, 147, 207, 208, 209-211, 
212, 214, 219; desiigns repro- 
duced in lithography, 192, — in 
steel-engraving, 89, 101, 210 

Davenport, Homer C, 284 
Davenport, William H., 212 
Davidson, Henry, 167 
Davidson, Julian O., 225 
Davies, Arthur B., 203 
D'Avignon, F., 188 
D'Avignon & Brainerd, 188 
Davis, Alexander Jackson, 98, 183 
Davis, Georgiana A., 215 
Davis, John Parker, 150, 152, 161, 

162, 164, 168 
Davis, Theodore R., 217 
Davis & Spier, 152 
Dawkins, Henry, 56, 57, 62, 139, 

2 43» 3 Z 7> book-plates, 291, 293 
Day, Benjamin, caricatures, 259, 

268; Ben Day process, 217 
Day, Francis, 228, 326 
Day, Mahlon, 145 
Dearborn, Nathaniel, 57, 65, 142, 

Declaration of Independence, 64, 

90, 96 
De Haas, M. F. H. See Haas, M. 

F. H. de. 
Delaplaine, Joseph, 75, 76, 91 
Delessard, A., 198 
" Delineator, The," 172 
Del'Orme, Edward H., 161, 170 
DeMar, John, 286, 288 
Deming, E. M., 228 
Denman, Herbert, 228 
Denslow, William Wallace, 321, 

Derby, Capt. George H. ("John 

Phoenix"), 213 
Derby Gallery (Chauncey L. 

Derby, New York City), 7 
Devereux, George Thomas, 143, 

Deville, H., 40, 48 
Dewing, Francis, 53, 55, 140, 291 
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 341 
Dexter, Elias, 128 
De Yonghe, 328 
Diaz de la Pena, N. V., paintings 

reproduced, 164 
Dick, Archibald L. (Barnard & 

Dick), 82 
Dickens, Charles, works illustrated 

by Americans, 4, 99, 101, 207, 

209, 210, 219, 283 
Dielman, Frederick, 34, 227, 340, 

Dies, bank-note, 94 
Dillaye, Blanche, 22 
Diplomas, engraved, 104, 140 



Dixon, L. Maynard, 237, 327, 338 
Dixson, Zella Allen, cited, 308, 

Dodge, Ozias, 41, 202 
Dodson, Richard W., 91, 92 
Doepler, Carl Emil, 129, 212, 214 
Dog collars, engraved, 53, 79 
Domenichino, 93 
Donahey, J. H., 286 
Doney, Thomas, 117, 118 
Donoho, Ruger, 199 
Doolittle, Amos, 57, 60, 63, 64, 65, 

71, 74, 80, 104; book-plates, 291, 

294, 295 ; caricature, 250 
Door-plates, engraved, 53, 79 
Dore, Gustave, designs engraved 

by Americans, 168 
Dorsey, John Syng, 292 
Doughty, Thomas, lithographs, 

181, 183; paintings reproduced, 

85, 100 
Dow, Arthur Wesley, 175, 176, 

Downes, W. H., cited, 222, 308 
Drake, Alexander W., 155, 165, 

221, 222 
Drake, William Henry, 227 
Draper, John, 83, 95 
Drayton, J., 125 
Dry-point, 19, 23 
Dubbs, J. H., 309 
DuCreux, " Historian Canadensis," 


Duerer, Albert, influence of, 232 

Duggan, Peter Paul, 209 

Duncan, B., 263 

Dunlap, William, etchings, 2, 6; 
design reproduced, 81 ; his por- 
trait, 119; cited, 1, 4, 70, 79, 
108, ii2, 124, 184 

Duplessis, Joseph Sifrede, 66, 92 

Duponchel, F., 186 

Durand, Asher Brown, bank-note 
designs, 96; line-engravings, 57, 
84. 85, 90, 91, 92, 93. 95. 97, 100, 
103, 106; mezzotint, 113; his 
paintings reproduced, 89; as a 
painter, 85; portraits of, 68, 92 

Durand, Cyrus, 94 

Durand, John, 90, 96 

Durand & Co., 95, 103 

Durand, Perkins & Co., 95 

Duret, Theodore, cited, 6 

Durkin, John, 217 

DuSimitiere, Pierre Eugene, 66 

Duval, P. S., 185, 186, 187, 188, 
195, 196; P. S. Duval & Co., 

194; P. S. Duval & Son, 195; 

Lehman & Duval, 194 
Duveneck, Frank, 13, 24, 46, 135; 

his paintings reproduced, 156 
Duyckinck, E. A., 102, 142, 207 
Dwight, M. E., 169 

Eames, Wilberforce, cited, 55, 138 

Earle, Ralph, 63 

Eaton, Charles H., 28 

Eaton, Charles Warren, 135 

Eaton, Hugh M., 178, 304, 305 

Eaton, Wyatt, 9 

Eckstein, John, 77 

Eddy, Henry B., 328 

Edmonds, Charles, 147, 148 

Edmonds, Francis W, paintings 
reproduced, 86, 88 

Edmunds, 95 

Edwards, George Wharton, book- 
plates, 301, 305; covers, 338; 
illustrations, 214, 230; posters, 
326, 331, 334, 338 

Edwards, Harry C, 228 

Edwards, S. Arlent, 119-120 

Edwards, Thomas, 184 

Edwin, David, 70, 71, 72, 75, 80 

Egbert, H., Jr., 266 

Eggleston, Allegra, 220 

Ehninger, John Whetton, 192, 208 

Ehrhart, J., 274 

Elliot, 215 

Ellis, George B., 100 

Elten, H. D. Kruseman van. See 
Kruseman van Elten. 

Emerson, R. R., 327 

Emmes, Thomas, 54 

Emmet, Rosina. See Sherwood, R. E. 

Emmet, Thomas Addis, 102 

" Emporium of Arts and Sciences," 

3, 75 
Encyclopedias illustrated, 2, 74, 

80, 81 
Endicott & Co., 184 
Endicott & Swett, 184, 194 
English influence, in book-plates, 
292-293 ; in caricature, 4, 249, 
251, 274; in illustration, 5, 207, 
221 ; in wood-engraving, 146, 

I 5 I 
Engraving, Line (copper and 

steel), 36, in, 122, 124; 18th 
century, chapter iii, 51-74; 19th 
century, chapter iv, 75-106, 118, 
128, 129; crude tools of early 
engravers, 92-93 ; mechanical de- 
vices, 96; in combination with 



etching, 3, 4, 90, 91, — with stip- 
ple-engraving, 78 ; influence on 
wood-engraving, 142, 145, 146, 
150, 209; colored, 56, 62, 63, 78; 
used for book-plates, 291-295, 
299, 302, 304, — for illustration, 
54, 64, 72-74, 80-82, 97-192. 105, 
205, 206 ; as a " painter-art," 
105. See also Bank-note engrav- 
ing; "Mixed manner." 

Engraving on wood. See Wood 

Envelopes, Civil War, 259 

Estes & Lauriat, 9 

Etching, in, 119, 121, chapter i, 
1-37, chapter ii, 38-50 (painter- 
etching is emphasized throughout 
these chapters ; reproductive etch- 
ing, 3, 17-18, 19, 31-35, .132) ; 
as a basis for line-engraving, 3, 
4, 90, 91; aids (roulette, aqua- 
tint, etc.), 20, 21, 133; color in, 
21, 45, 47, 132, 250; on glass, 
3 ; soft-ground, 2, 21, 41, 45, 
47, 81, 132; used for book-plates, 
302, 304, 305, — in caricature, 249, 
250, 251, 253, 263-264, — for il- 
lustration, 3, 5, 29, 207 

Etching classes, 12, 13, 38, 41 

Etching Clubs. See Boston Etch- 
ing Club; Cincinnati Etchers' 
Club; New York Etching Club; 
Philadelphia Society of Etchers; 
Scratchers' Club, Brooklyn. 

European influence, 58. See also 
English influence; French influ- 

Evans, Joe, 306 

Evans, John W., 161 

Evans, William T., 166, 169 

" Evening Mail," New York, cari- 
catures, 285 

" Evening Post," New York, cari- 
catures, 248, 286; cited, 136, 285, 
286-287, 313, 34i 

" Evening Telegram," New York, 
caricatures, 284 

" Every Saturday," 219 

Exilious, John, 80, 84 

" Ex-Libran," 309 

" Ex-Libris," 306, 309, 322 

Ex-libris. See Book-plates. 

Extra-illustrating, 101 

Eytinge, Sol, Jr., 215, 219, 283 

F., G. F., 266 

Faber, Herman, 13, 39 

Fabronius, D., 188 
Fagan, James, 17, 29, 34 
Fairchild, wood-engraver, 144 
Fairman, Gideon, 80, 81, 83, 91, 

93. 95, 295 
Fairmount Park Art Association, 

Philadelphia, 10 
"Fakes," 68, 139, 217 
Falconer, J. M., 1, 7, 13 
" Family Magazine," 206 
Fanning, J. B., 78 
Farny, Henry F., etchings, 12; 

pen drawings, 221, 227; posters, 

Farrand, Charles D., 332 
Farrer, Henry, etchings, 8, 10, 13, 

16, 27; soft-ground etchings, 21 
Fasel, George W., 186 
" Father Abraham's Almanac," 

Fawcett, W. W., 334 
Federal Hall, New York, 64 
Female artists. See Women ar- 
Fenderich, Charles, 188 
Fenn, Harry, 151, 218 
Fenner & Sears, 82 
Fenollosa, Ernest F., cited, 175 
Ferris, Jean Leon Gerome, 27 
Ferris, Stephen J., 8, 10, 13, 21, 

,27, 32-33 
Field, Edward Loyal, 28 
Field, Robert, 72 
Fielding, Mantle, 71 
" Fifth Avenue Journal," 272 
Filmer, John, 150 
Fincham, Henry W., cited, 308 
Fincken, James H., 299, 304, 306 
Fisher, A., 128 
Fisher, William Edgar, 300, 301, 

Fiske, W., 268, 269 
Flagg, James Montgomery, 233, 

276, 280 
Flameng, Leopold, 33 
Flohri, 276 

Flower-pieces, in mezzotint, 120 
Fluoric acid used in etching on 

glass, 3 
Fogarty, Thomas, 237 
Folingsby, 266 
Foote, Mary Hallock, 214, 219, 

Forain, Jean Louis, influence of, 

Forbes, Edwin, 1, 7, 9, 10, 218 
Forbes Co., 196, 319, 320 



Ford, Paul Leicester, cited, 72, 92, 
243 _ 

"Foreign Semi-Monthly," 115 

"Forester, Frank" (H. W. Her- 
bert), 213 

Forrest, Ion B., 77 

Forster (Kimmel & Forster), 191 

Fortuny, influence of, 25, 226 ; 
paintings reproduced, 32 

Fossette, H., 82 

Foster, John, 138 

Foul biting, 133 

Fourdrinier, P., 53 

Fowler, Frank, 33 

Fox, F., 288 

Fox, Gilbert, 2 

Framing prints, 87, 88, 147, 211 

Francis, J. G., 272 

" Frank Leslie's Weekly." See 
Leslie, Frank. 

Franklin, Benjamin, as a carica- 
turist, 139, 243-244; portraits of, 
30, 66, 67, 68, 70, 78, 89, 90, 
109, no, in 

Franklin Institute, 181 

Franks, Sir Augustus Wollaston, 


Franquinet, W., 6 
Fraser, C, 126 
Fraser, W. Lewis, 222 
Fredericks, Alfred, 221, 227, 340, 

" Freeman's Journal," 59 

Freer, Frederick W., 17, 27, 341 

French, Edwin Davis, 105 ; book- 
plates, 104, 299, 300, 303, 304, 
306, 308, 309, 310 

French, Frank, 161, 171, 173, 214 

French influence, in etching, 7, 8 ; 
in lithography, 186; in posters, 
320-321, 337 

Frenzeny, Paul, 219 

Fritsch, F. J., 185 

Frizzell, S. S., 197 

Frost, Arthur Burdett, caricatures, 
216, 271, 282, 283 ; illustrations, 

Frost, Mrs. Marguerite Scribner, 

Fuller, George, 150, 163-164 

" Fun," London, 271 

Furnass, J. M., 291 

G, N., designer, 64 
Gade, John A., cited, 293 
Galland, John, 71 
Gallaudet, Edward, 87, 100 

Gallaudet, Elisha, 57, 291, 294 

Gardner, Miles C, 327 

Garneray, 129 

Garrett, Edmund Henry, book- 
plates, 300, 301, 304, 308; etch- 
ings, 12, 27; illustrations, 227; 
posters, 327 

Gaugengigl, Ignaz Marcel, card, 
341; etchings, 17, 27; paintings 
reproduced, 159 

Gaul, Gilbert, 225 

Gavit, John E., 126 

Gay, Henry B., 6 

" Gazette des Beaux- Arts," cited, 

Gerrymander, 246 
Getchell, Edith Loring Pierce, 15, 

22, 48 
Gibbons, Lucy, 219 
Gibbs, George, 214, 306 
Gibson, Charles Dana, 232-233, 

279; posters, 325, 331 
Gibson, William Hamilton, 163, 

214, 225, 228 
Gies & Co., 335 
Gifford, R. Swain, 218; etchings, 

10, 13, 14, 19, 27; his paint- 
ings reproduced, 164 
Gifford, Sandford R., 85 
" Gift books," 99-100 
Gihon, G. H., 305 
Gilbert, wood-engraver, 144 
Gilbert, C. Allan, 237 
Gilbert, Sir John, 148 ; influence 

of, 221 
Gildemeister, Charles, 185-186 
Gillam, Alfred, 279 
Gillam, F. Victor, 274, 276, 278 
Gillam, T. Bernard, 274, 276, 277, 

Gillray, James, 241 ; influence of, 

249, 251 
Gimber, Stephen H., 82, 127, 128 

Gimbrede, J. N., 77 
Gimbrede, Thomas, 75, 77 t 

Girsch, F., 103 
Girardet, P., 129 
Glackens, L. M., 275 
Glackens, William J., 42, 203, 

220, 237 
Glasgow, David, 191 
Glass, J. W., 90 
Glass, etching on, 3 
Gleason, Charles K., 47 
" Gleason's Pictorial," 215 
Glennie, 84 



Glenny, Alice R., 328 

Goater, John H., 215, 257, 268 

Gobrecht, Christian, 77, 80 

" Godey's Lady's Book," 98, 196, 

Godwin, Abraham, 57, 74, 291 
Goldbeck, Walter Dean, 47 
Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor, 331 
Goodman, Charles (Goodman & 

Piggot), 76 
Goodwin, James S., 280 
Gotham Art Students, New York, 

26-27, 332 
Gottschalk, Otto H. von, 28, 

Gould, J. J., Jr., 327 
Gould, R. E., Co., 334 
Coupil & Co., 192 
Graetz, F., 272, 274 
Graham, Charles, 227, 316 
Graham, George, 77, 113 
" Graham's Magazine," 92, 98, 

114, 115 
Grant, C. R., 34 
Grant, Gordon H., 237, 275 
"Graphic, Daily." See "Daily 

" Graphic Arts, The," 339 
Graphotype, 261, 268, 273 
Grasset, Eugene, 324 
Greatorex, Eliza, 22 
Green, Elizabeth Shippen, 220, 

Green, Samuel Abbott, cited, 58, 

108, 138 
Green, Valentine, in 
Greenough, Walter C, 339 
Greenwood, John, no 
Gregory, Frank M., 17, 27, 227 
Gregson, Herbert, 308 
Grevedon, Henri, influence of, 

Gribayedoff, Valerian, 216, 284 
Griffin, Syd B., 274 
Grimm, Constantin de, 284 
Grolier Club, New York City, 6, 

52, 57, 66, 90, 128, 167, 227, 241, 

3!°, 324 
Grosch, Oscar, 105, 172 
Gross, J., 77 
Grozelier, Leopold, 189 
" Grundy, Mrs.," 268 
Gude, O. J., Co., 334 
Guerin, Jules, 237, 238 
Gunn, Archie, 323, 336 
Gunn, Thomas Butler, 213, 266 
Guy, Seymour Joseph, 34, 197 

Haas, M. F. H. de, etchings, 16, 
27 ; painting reproduced, 97 

Haden, Sir Francis Seymour, lec- 
tures in the United States, 13; 
etchings copied, 35; cited, 25 

Haid, J. C, 67 

Haider, M., 161 

Haines, D., 80, 315 

Haines, W., 77 

Half-tone process, 37, 171, 172, 
216, 217, 229, 230 

Hall, Henry Bryan, 30, 68, 102; 
lithographs, 191 

Hall, John H., 142 

Halliwell, 150 

Hallock, Mary A. See Foote, Mary 

Hallowell, Miss, 307 

Halm, George R., 28, 305 

Halpin, Frederick, 68, 79 

Hals, Frans, paintings reproduced, 
33, 109, 119, 164, 166 

Halsey, Frederick Robert, cited, 

Halsey, R. T. Haines, 53, 131, 
240, 241 

Hambidge, Jay, 237 

Hamerton, Philip Gilbert, cited, 
15, 26 

Hamilton, Grant E., 271, 276, 278, 

Hamilton, Hamilton, 27, 34 

Hamilton, James, 101, 206 

Hamlin, William, aquatints, 124; 
book-plates, 292; line-engrav- 
ings, 57, 75, 80, 316; mezzo- 
tints, IIO-III 

Hardie, Martin, cited, 44 

Harding, Charlotte, 220 

Harding, Chester, paintings repro- 
duced, 183 

Hardtmuth, 186 

Harley, 150 

Harlow, Louis K., 28 

Harper, William St. John, 27, 
230, 341 

Harper Brothers, Family Bible, 
144, 145, 146, 209 ; influence on 
illustration, 147, 192, 214, 219; 
posters, 324, 330; wood-engrav- 
ings, 167 

" Harper's Magazine," covers and 
posters, 312, 329, 330; illustra- 
tions, 40, 212-213; cited, 208, 

" Harper's Popular Cyclopedia of 
United States History," cited, 248 



"Harper's Weekly," cartoons, 272, 
274, 282, — by Nast, 260, 269-270, 
271; illustrations, 215; wood- 
engravings, 154; cited, 221, 223 

Harral, Alfred, 151 

Harris, I., 55 

Harris, Samuel, 7, 292, 295 

Harrison, William, Jr., 72 

Hart, Charles Henry, cited, 1, 58, 
64, 66, 67, 70, 102, 109, 113 

Hart, James M., 85 

Hart, Thomas, in 

Hart, William, 85, 147 

Hartgers view of New York, 52 

Haskell, Ernest, covers, 339; etch- 
ings, 47, 48; lithographs, 194, 
202-203; monotypes, 135; post- 
ers, 327, 328, 336 

Hassam, Childe, 228, 230 

Hassmann, Carl, 275 

Hatch, George W., 82, 95, 100 

Havell, Robert, 128-129 

Hawthorne, Julian, cited, 229 

Hayes, wood-engraver, 147, 150 

Hayward, George, 194 

Healy, George Peter Alexander, 

Hearn, George A., 166 

Heath, Charles, 95 

Heath, J., 76 

Heine, W., 129, 192 

Heinemann, Ernst, 164, 171 

Heliotype, 37 

Helleu, Paul, influence of, 39, 42 

Helmick, H., 268 

Hennessy, William J., 219 

Herbert, Henry William ("Frank 
Forester"), 213 

Herford, Oliver, 236, 279, 325 

Herkomer, Hubert von, 134 

Herrick, Henry W., 145, 147, 148, 

Herring, James, 76, 78, 91, 102 

Hess, Emma Kipling, 306 

Hewitt, 84 

Hiatt, Charles, cited, 321 

Hicks, Thomas, 118 

Higbee, William Troyon, cited, 

Higgins, Eugene, 47 

Hildeburn, C. R., cited, 243 

Hill, J., illustrator, 218 

Hill, John, 84, 125, 126, 127 

Hill, John Henry, 14, 19, 121, 125, 

Hill, John William, 19, 125, 127, 
129, 184 

Hill, Samuel, 72, 83, 292 
Hiller, Joseph, Jr., 1 
Himely, Sigmund, 129 
Hingston, 317 
Hinsdale, 212 
Hinshaw, Glenn, 203 
Hinshelwood, Robert, 4, 85, 86, 87, 

89, 97. 99, 101, 103 
Hitchcock, De Witt C, 148, 212, 

215, 267 
Hitchcock, J. Ripley W., cited, 1, 

4, 9, 10, 11, 14, 27, 36 
Hitchcock, Lucius Wolcott, 237 
Hoas, P., 185 
Hoen, A., & Co., 320 
Hoffy, A., 185 
Hogan, Thomas, 218 
Holcomb, 266 
Holden, E. B., sale, in, 124, 127, 

Hollyer, Samuel, 29, 30, 101, 304 
Holme, Charles, cited, 16 
Homer, Winslow, book-plates, 306; 

etchings, 17; illustrations, 219; 

lithographs, 197, 198, 199; his 

paintings reproduced, 33 
Homer-Lee Bank-Note Co., 95 
Hood, Thomas, cited, 22 
Hoogland, William, 92, 184 
Hooper, Mrs. Annie, 307 
Hooper, Edward (Bobbett & 

Hooper), 148 
Hooper, Will P., 325 
Hopkins, George E., 24 
Hopkins, Livingston, 213, 272 
Hoppin, Augustus, 147, 213, 214, 

215; caricatures, 266, 269 
Hoppin, Thomas F., 5 
Hopson, William Fowler, 105, 132, 

178; book-plates, 104, 300, 303, 

Horgan, S. H., 216, 284 
Hornby, Lester G, 44-45, 48, 

Horner, T., 126 
Horton, 144 
Hoskin, Robert, 151 
Houdon, Jean Antoine, sculpture 

reproduced, no 
Hough, 260 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 168, 207 
" Hour, The," 272 
Houston, H., 72 
Hovenden, Thomas, etchings, 17- 

18, 34; paintings reproduced, 34, 

Howard, Charles M., 327 



Howard, Justin H., 212, 263, 266, 

Howarth, F. M., 280 
Howdell, 52 
Howe, E. R. J. Gambier, cited, 

Howell, 215 

Howland, W., 145, 148 
Hows, John A., 218 
Hubard, 185 

Hubbard, Elbert, cited, 322 
Hubbard, Rev. W., 138 
Huber, Konrad, 192 
Hudson, Frederic, cited, 254, 270, 

272-273, 288 
Hudson River Portfolio, 123, 126 
" Hudson River School," 85 
Humphrey, Lizbeth B., 220, 340, 


Humphreys, Maud, 220 

Huneker, James Gibbon, cited, 20, 
21, 45, 166, 168 

Hunt, Leigh, etcher, 29 

Hunt, Richard M., 340 

Hunt, Samuel Valentine, 86 

Hunt, William Morris, litho- 
graphs, 197-198; paintings re- 
produced, 33, 97, 197 

Hunter, F. Leo, 28 

Huntington, Daniel, paintings re- 
produced, 33, 85, 89, 90, 97, 

Hurd, Nathaniel, 57, 103, 109, 
243; book-plates, 291, 292; por- 
trait of, 108 

Hurley, Edward Timothy, 41, 

Hutchins, F. M., 320 

Hutt, Henry, 234, 338 

Hyde, Helen, 47, 131-132, 176 

Hyde, William Henry, 279 

Hyneman, Herman N., 17 

Iconographic Society (Boston), 104 

Iconophiles, Society of (New 
York), 52, 104, 131, 135, 171, 

Illman, Thomas, 118 

"Illustrated American News," 215, 

"Illustrated News," 215 

Illustration, chapter xi, 205-239; 
in aquatint, 122, 123, 127; in 
etching, 3, 5, 29, 207; in line-en- 
graving, 54, 64, 72-74, 80-82, 97- 
102, 105, 205, 206 ; in lithog- 
raphy, 192, 193, 208; in mezzo- 

tint, 114-116, 206; in stipple, 75- 

77, 82 ; in wood-engraving, 

chapters vii-ix. 
Imbert, Anthony, 83, 182, 183, 185, 

186, 190, 253 
" Impartial History," 59 
Impressionism in etching, 15, 

Indian portraits, 112, 194 
Indian subjects, 192, 194, 208, 226, 

Ink, in mezzotints, 117 
" Inland Printer," cited, 284 
Inman, Henry, lithographs, 181, 
182, 183, 187; his paintings re- 
produced, 81, 84, 87, 115, 127, 
185, 186 
Inness, George, etching, 13 ; paint- 
ing reproduced, 198 
Intaglio & Grapbotype Co., 261 
" International Monthly," 212 
" International Studio," cited, 41, 

Ipsen, Ludwig Sandoe, 305 
Irwin, Wallace, cited, 289 
Isham, Samuel, cited, 70, 113, 231, 

Ivanowski, Sigismund de, 336 
Ives, James M., 258. See also 
Currier & Ives. 

Jaccaci, August F., 214, 306 

Jackson, John Edwin, 237 

Jacobs, William L., 237 

Jacobsen, T. Arthur, 335 

Jacque, Charles, paintings re- 
produced, 33 

James, Henry, cited, 221, 223 

Japanese influence, 132, 174, 176, 

Jaques, Mrs. Bertha E., 47, 306, 

Jarvis, John Wesley, caricature, 
248; engravings, 70, 112; paint- 
ing reproduced, 71 

Jefferson, Joseph, 134 

Jefferson, Thomas, portraits of, 
30, 66, no 

Jenkins, Will, cited, 16 

Jennys, Richard, 108-109 

Jerome, Irene E., 220 

Jewett, William, 103 

Jocelyn, wood-engraver, 147 ; Joce- 
lyn & Annin, 148 

Jocelyn, Nathaniel, 85 

" John Donkey," 267 

Johnson, David, 85 



Johnson, Eastman, as lithographer, 
198; his paintings reproduced, 

Johnson, Thomas, book-plate, 304; 
etchings, 30, 171 ; wood-engrav- 
ings, 162 
Johnson, Thomas, of London, 108 
Johnson, William Martin, 229, 


Johnson, Fry & Co., 207 

Johnston, David Claypoole, cari- 
catures, 4, 251, 253; etchings, 2, 
6; illustrations, 209; lithographs, 

Johnston, Elizabeth B., cited, 66 

Johnston, Thomas, 55, 57, 108, 291 

" Jolly Joker," 268 

Jones, Alfred, 88, 89, 90, 91, 96, 
97, 106 

Jones, Benjamin, 57 

Jones, E., 185 

Jones, Hugh Bolton, 28 

Jones, John Paul, 112 

Jones, W. R., 76, 77, 78 

Jongers, Alphonse, painting re- 
produced, 166 

Jordan, William. See Triptych, 

Joste, Robert, 317 

" Journal," New York, caricatures, 

"Judge," 193, 276, 277, 279 

Juengling, Frank, 161 

Juengling, Frederick, 152, 154, 155, 
156, 158, 159, 161, 162, 168, 169, 

Julien, S., influence of, 189 

Kappes, Alfred, 219 

Karst, John, 144 

Kearny, Francis, aquatints, 124; 
book-plates, 292, 295; etchings, 
2; line-engravings, 83, 95; litho- 
graphs, 187, 194 

" Keepsakes." See Annuals. 

Keith, Dora Wheeler, 340, 341 

Keller, Arthur I., 203, 236 

Kellogg, D. W., 195 

Kellogg, E. B. & E. C, 260 

Kelly, James Edward, 154, 155, 
221, 306 

Kelly, Thomas, 91, 92 

Kelly, W., 185 

Kemble, Edward Windsor, carica- 
tures, 216, 239, 271, 279, 282; 
illustrations, 225, 228; poster, 

Kemble, Fanny, 127 

Kendall, Sergeant, 327 

Kendrick, Charles, 277, 279 

Kennedy, Edward G., cited, 6 

Kennedy & Lucas, 194 

Kensett, John F., 85, 86 

Keppler, Joseph, 197, 271, 272, 
273, 274, 275-276, 277 

Keppler, Joseph, the younger, 275, 

Ketten, Maurice, 288 

Kidder, J., 123 

Kilburn, S. S., 143, 150, 161 

Kimball, Katherine, 47 

Kimmel & Co., 126 

Kimmel & Forster, 191 

King, C. B., 47 

King, Francis Scott, etching, 30; 
line-engraving, 104, 171; wood- 
engraving, 163, 168 

King, Frank, 327 

King, James S., 27, 33, 120, 132 

King, Solomon, publisher, 145 

Kingdon & Boyd, 148 

Kingsley, Elbridge, 164, 167, 169, 

Kinnersley, Henry, 145, 147, 148 

Kinneys, The (Troy & Margaret 
West Kinney), 237 

Kirby, Rollin, 285 

Kirby, Valentine, 305 

Kit-Kat Club, 342 

Klackner, C, publisher, 28, 103 

Klepper, Max F., 336 

Knapp, Joseph F. (Major & 
Knapp), 318; (Sarony, Major & 
Knapp), 192. 

Knaus, Ludwig, paintings repro- 
duced, 32 

Kneass, William, 124 

Knickerbocker, J., 217 

Knoedler, publisher, 103 

Koehler, Sylvester Rosa, cited, 7, 
8, 9, 13, 16, 18, 22, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 32, 33, 34, 36, 90, 92, loo, 
134, 146, 151, 152, 154, 158, 159, 
160, 161, 165 

Kollner, A., 192 

Koopman, Augustus, 42, 47, 135 

Koppel, C, 186 

Kotz, Daniel, 28 

Kramer, Peter, 193, 318 

Krimmel, John Lewis, 87 

Kruell, Gustav, 30, 162-163, 167, 

Kruseman van Elten, Hendrick 
Dirk, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 27 



Kuenstlerbund, Karlsruhe, 313 
Kummer, J., 129 
Kuntze, Edward J., 5 

Lacour, Peter, 64 

" Ladies' Companion," 98 

"Ladies' National Magazine," 98 

" Ladies' Repository," 97, 98 

La Farge, John, 153, 220, 340 

Lafayette, portraits of, 66, 71, 83, 

Laffan, William Mackay, 214 

Lamb, Charles Rollinson, 306 

Lamb, Ella Condie, 334 

Lambdin, J. R., 183 

Lander, Benjamin, 12, 19 

Landscape, in aquatint, 123, 125, 
126, 129, 130, 132; etching, 8, 9, 
15, 16, 18, 19, 25, 40, 41, 42, 46; 
line-engraving, 84-86, 90, 100, 
129; lithography, 129, 184, 190, 
191, 198, 201, 203 ; mezzotint, 
no, 120, 121; stipple, 72, 78; 
wood-engraving, 150, 151, 152, 
164, 166, 168, 173, 175, 218 

Lanfil, Walter F., 16 

Langridge, wood-engraver, 150 

Lansing, Garret, 142, 317 

" Lantern, The," 210, 267 

Lathes, in bank-note work, 94, 96 

Lathrop, William Langson, 14 

Latimer, R. R., cited, 322 

Lauber, Joseph, 17, 199, 306 

Laurvik, J. N., cited, 313 

Lawrence, H. M., 326 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, paintings 
reproduced, 182; portrait of, 115 

Lawson, Alexander, 2, 80, 82, 83, 
87, 113 

Learned, Arthur G., 42, 327 

Ledyard, Addie, 219, 272 

Lee, Homer, 95 

Lee, T., 294 

Leech, John, influence of, 42, 207 

Le Fevre, W. J., 13 

Legros, Alphonse, influence of, 39, 

Lehman, G., 128, 185 

Lehman & Duval, 187, 194 

Le Moyne, Jacques, 51 

Lemperly, Paul, cited, 309 

Leney, William Satchwell, 71, 76, 

Lenox Library, 86 

Lesley, Margaret W., 22 

Leslie, Charles Robert, paintings 
reproduced, 90, 92, 100 

Leslie, Frank (Robert Carter), 146, 
149, 215, 218 

"Leslie's Weekly," 269, 271, 273, 

Leutze, Emanuel, etchings, 5 ; 
paintings reproduced, 90, 117 

Levering, Albert, 275 

Levin, Katherine, 27 

Levis, Howard C, 140-141 

Lewis, Arthur Allen, etchings, 
42; wood-engravings, 177, 178, 

Lewis, J. O., 194 

Lexington, Battle of, 63 

Leyendecker, Frank X., 314 

Leyendecker, Joseph Christian, 326, 

Lichtenstein, R. C, cited, 309 

Liebler, Theodore, 320 

"Life," 279-280; cited, 17 

Lincoln, Abraham, portraits of, 30, 
42, 67, 68, 89, 97, 163, 177, 193; 
in caricature, 257, 258, 259, 260- 
261, 262, 263, 264; cited, 260 

Linson, Corwin Knapp, 237 

Linton, Henry, 151 

Linton, William James, 151, 152, 
168, 219, 304; cited, 139, 143, 
J44, 145, 146, 147, 150, 152, 156, 
,157, 158, i59» 160, 163, 164, 317 

Lion, J., 189 

Lipman, M. de, 327 

Lippincott, William Henry, 34, 

Lithography, 80, 119, 128, 129, 
chapter x, 180-204; in carica- 
ture, 252-253, 255-257, 258, 259, 
260, 261, 262, 264-265, 273, 274, 
283; color in, 185, 193, 195, 196, 
273-274, 279; in illustration, 192, 
193, 208; as a "painter-art," 
178, 181, 197-204; for posters, 
i78,_ 318-337 

Lithotint, 185 

Livingston, John, 79 

Locke, David R. ("P. V. Nasby"), 
cited, 270 

Loeb, Louis, 135, 203, 237 

Long (Butler & Long), 126 

Longacre, James Barton, 76, 77, 
78, 81, 91, 102 

"Longfellow Portfolio" (wood- 
engravings), 168 

Loomis, Chester, 334 

Lopez, 194 

Lord, Caroline, 12 

Lossing, Benson John, cited, 140, 



142, 143-144, 210, 213, 244, 245, 
248, 250, 317 

Lossing, Helen Rosa, 220 
Lossing & Barritt, 148, 213 
Lotos Club, New York, 169 
Louisville " Times," 288 
Low, Will Hicok, 104, 327; card, 

341; cover, 332; illustrations, 

219, 229 ; poster, 327 
Lowell, Orson, 237, 335 
Lucas (Kennedy & Lucas), 194 
Lumley, Arthur, 215, 217 
Lungren, Fernand Harvey, 226 
Lynn Public Library, 310 

M., J. L. (J. L. Magee), 261 

Macauley, Charles R., 284, 288 

McCarter, Henry, 324, 326, 327 

McCarthy, Daniel, 284 

McCormick, Howard, 177 

McCutcheon, John Tinney, 286 

McDermott, Jessie, 220 

McDonald, A. N., 304 

McDonough, 215 

McDougall, Walter H., 214, 284 

McEntee, Jervis, 85 

Mcllhenney, Charles Morgan, 28 

MacLaughlan, Donald Shaw, 43, 

McLaughlin, Mary Louise, 12 

McLenan, John, 214, 263, 266, 267 

Maclise, Daniel, copied, 298 

McMaster, John Bach, cited, 139 

McNevin, J., 219 

McRae, John C, 118 

McVickar, Henry W., 279, 331 

Magazine covers, 177, 337, 338 

Magazine illustration. See Illus- 

Magazine posters, 321, 324, 326- 
327, 328, 329, 330, 337 

Magee, John L., illustrations, 215, 
266; lithographs, 193, 261 

Magrath, William, paintings re- 
produced, 161 

Mahogany, used in wood-engrav- 
ing, 317 

Main, William, 79, 91 

Major, Richard (Major & Knapp), 
318; (Sarony & Major), 184, 
1 9 r » 255; (Sarony, Major & 
Knapp), 192 

Makart, Hans, paintings repro- 
duced, 34 

Mallory, 143, 150 

Manet, Edouard, painting repro- 
duced, 166 

Manley, Thomas R., 16, 41. 
Mansfield, Howard, cited, 6, 323- 


Maps and plans, in line-engrav- 
ing. 55. 65, 69, 73 ; in wood- 
engraving, 138 

Marin, John, 47 

Marine subjects, in aquatint, 124, 
127; in etching, 15, 16; in illus- 
tration, 225 ; in line-engraving, 
97; in lithography, 192; in mez- 
zotint, in; in wood-engraving, 
151, 218 

Marks, Montague, 199 

Marsh, Henry, 150, 153, 163 

Marshall, William Edgar, 97 

Marsiglia, Girlando, 183 

Martin, David, painting repro- 
duced, 70, no 

Martin, Homer, painting repro- 
duced, 166 

Martin, J. B., 190 

Mason, Abraham J., 144 

Mason, William, 144 

" Massachusetts Magazine," 72, 


Masson, 215 

Mather, Frank Jewett, Jr., cited, 
44, 46, 228, 314 

Mather, Increase, portrait of, 54 

Matteson, T. H., 101, 309 

Matthews, Arthur F., 306 

Matthews, Albert, cited, 139, 244 

Maurer, Louis, caricatures and 
other lithographs, 193, 257, 258; 
cited, 318, 320 

Maurice, Arthur Bartlett, cited, 
277, 287 

Mauve, Anton, paintings repro- 
duced, 35 

Maverick, A., 79, 126 

Maverick, Peter, book-plates, 292; 
etchings, 2; line-engravings, 57, 
79, 80, 81, 83, 91, 98, 103, 104, 
316; lithographs, 182, 190; stip- 
ple, 72 

Maverick, Peter Rushton, book- 
plates, 292, 294, 295; line-en- 
gravings, 57, 80, 83, 84; stipple, 

Maverick, Samuel, 83 

Mayer, Ferd., & Sons, 318 

Mayer, Frank Blackwell, 198, 

Mayer, Henry, 285, 306, 327, 336 

Measom, 151 

Megarey, Henry I., 126 



Melville, Francis, 47 

Menpes, Mortimer, cited, 6 

Menus, 103, 342 

" Mercury," 216 

Merrill, Frank Thayer, 12, 227, 

269, 302 
Merrill, Katherine, 47 
Merritt, Anna Lea, 22, 27, 29 
Meryon, Charles, influence of, 39, 

43, 44 

" Meryon of Philadelphia, The." 
See Pennell, Joseph. 

Mesier, 183 

Metcalf, Willard Leroy, 228 

Meteyard, Thomas Buford, 325 

Methfessel, 338 

Metivet, Lucien, 324 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 104, 1 66 

Metropolitan Print Co., 317 

Metropolitan Printing Co., 336 

Mexican War, 88, 217; in carica- 
ture, 254-255 

Meyner, Walter, 335 

Mezzotint, 19, 56, 91, chapter v, 
107-121 ; in caricature, 241 ; 
color, no, 119, 120; in illustra- 
tion, 114-116, 206 

Mezzotint, Sandpaper, 131, 133 

Middleton, Stanley, 12 

Middleton, Thomas, 3 

Mielatz, Charles Frederick Will- 
iam, aquatints, 130-131, 132, 133; 
book-plate, 304; etchings, 8, 
16, 20, 21, 27, 41, 48; litho- 
graphs, 200; monotypes, 135-136; 
as printer, 9, 21, 50; as teacher, 
38; cited, 120-121 

Milbert, J., 192 

Military subjects, in illustration, 
225, 226 

Millar, Addison Thomas, 41, 46- 

47, 132 

Miller, Dr. Charles Henry, etch- 
ings, 7, 14, 15; paintings re- 
produced, 35; cited, 134 

Miller, E. F., 28 

Miller, W. R., 215 

Miller, William, 161, 171, 304 

Millet, Francis Davis, 214 

H. C. Miner-Springer Litho Co., 

Minneapolis " Journal," 286 

Minor, Robert C, etchings, 28 ; 
paintings reproduced, 35 

Mirall, 271 

Miranda, Fernando, 216, 271 

Mitchell, J., 109 

Mitchell, John Ames, caricatures, 

269, 279-280; etchings, 17; cited, 

279, 280, 284 
Mitchell, Dr. Samuel Latham, 180 
"Mixed manner," 79, 91, 115, n6, 

Molthrop, painting reproduced, 

Momberger, William, 219 
" Momus," 268 
Money, engraved. See Bank-Note 

Monks, John Austin Sands, 14, 18, 

Monotype, 121, 133-136 
Montanus view of New York, 


Montgomery, 56 

Monticelli, A., painting repro- 
duced, 159 

Moore, E. C, 340 

Moore, Guernsey, 338 

Moore, T., 194 

Moores, 326 

Mora, F. Luis, 237 

Moran, Leon, 17, 34, 341 

Moran, Mary Nimmo, 13, 15, 20, 
22, 23, 27, 29 

Moran, Percy, 341 

Moran, Peter, 10, 13, 14, 15, 18, 

27, 32-33, 134 

Moran, Thomas, card, 341 ; etch- 
ings, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 
27, 34; illustrations, 151, 153, 
168, 218; lithographs, 198; as 
printer, 21 

Moreau, C. L., 140 

Morgan, Fred, 286 

Morgan, Matthew Somerville 
("Matt"), caricatures, 271; 
posters, 193, 197, 319, 320 

Morgan, W. J., & Co., 194, 320 

Morgan, William, 142 

Morghen, Raphael, influence of, 

Morris, William, 238 
Morse, Anna G., 340 
Morse, Joseph W., 317 
Morse, Nathaniel, 57 
Morse, William H., 150, 161 
Morton, John Ludlow, 124, 209 
Mottram, C, 129 
Mount, William Sidney, paintings 

reproduced, 86, 87, 88 
Mount Holyoke College, 169 
Mourgeon, Peter, 1, 316 



Mueller (Brueckner & Mueller), 

Miiller, Richard Alexander, 161, 

Mullen, E. F., 313, 214, 267, 268, 

Municipal Art Society of New 
York, 224 

Munkacsy, M., painting repro- 
duced, 196 

Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co., 

83, 95 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, ex- 
hibition of etchings (1881), 6, 
13, 16, 28, — of etchings by wom- 
en (1887), 22, — of early line- 
engravings, 58, 109, no, 316, — 
others, 100, 167, 168, 175, 279, 

Music cover, 194 

Music titles, 57 

Mygatt, Robertson K., 29 

Nagel & Weingartner, 186, 189 

Nahl, A., 197 

Nankivell, Frank A., 275, 321, 
328, 331, 337 

"Nasby, Petroleum V." (D. R. 
Locke), cited, 270 

Nast, Thomas, caricatures, 260, 
268, 269-271, 272, 284, 319; il- 
lustrations, 215, 219; Lincoln 
cited in regard to, 260 

National Academy of Design, New 
York, 134, 283; engravers mem- 
bers, 91, 142, 144; etching class, 
38, 41; etchings exhibited at, 
11; posters used, 331, 332 

National Arts Club, New York, 
310, 313, 334, 335 

National Gallery, Washington, 

" National Gallery of American 
Landscape," 86 

" National Intelligencer," cited, 

" National Magazine," 212 

"National Portrait Gallery of 
Distinguished Americans," 76, 
78, 91, 102, 207 

Neagle, John, paintings reproduced, 
68, 92, 113, 187 

Neagle, John B., 79, 81, 85, 91, 

Neal, David D„ 197 

Neale, John, printer, 126 

Neale, William, printer, 126 

Neely, J., Jr., 13 

Negro subjects, 34, 193, 219, 225; 
in caricature, 256, 259, 261, 262; 
the negro figured also in the 
paintings of Mount, Woodville 
and others, noted on pages 86-88 

Nehlig, Victor, 7 

Nelan, Charles, 284 

" New Mirror," 127 

New Orleans, Battle of, 2 

New York City, views, in aquatint, 
124, 126, 127, 129, 130, 131; in 
etching, 7, 8, 10, 20, 21, 22, 29, 
39, 40, 41, 42; in line-engrav- 
ing, 52-53, 55, 56, 58, 64, 69, 82, 
83, 84, 97, 104, 172; in lithog- 
raphy, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 
191, 192, 193, 200; in mono- 
type, ^S, i n wood-engraving, 
173, 177 

" New York American," 286 

New York Etching Club, 1, 10, 12, 
13, 21, 22, 28, 29, 35, 41 

" New York Herald," caricatures, 
276, 284; illustrations, 148, 216, 
217, 326 

New York Historical Society, 55, 
104, 117 

" New York Illustrated News," 
215, 269 

" New York Magazine," 72, 83 

" New York Mirror," 98, 146, 206. 
See also " New Mirror." 

" New York Press," 284 

New York Public Library, collec- 
tion of book-plates, 310, 311, — 
of etchings, 11, 15, 26, 27, — of 
line-engravings, 89, 96, 102, — of 
wood-engravings, 140, 149, 167, 
168; exhibitions of New York 
City views, 53 ; Franklin list, 66 

New York " Recorder," 284 

" New York Times," caricatures, 
285; cited, 239, 289, 330 

" New York Tribune," caricatures, 
285; cited, 227, 229 

New York "World." See "World." 

Newark, N. J., Public Library, 

Newell, Peter, 282, 325 

Newsan, Albert, 186-187 

Newspapers, illustrated, 148, 216, 
217, 326; caricatures, 216, 252, 
284-290, 333 

Newton, Gilbert Stuart, painting 
reproduced, 188 

Nichols, George Ward, 198 



Nicoll, James Craig, 14, 16, 21, 27, 

Niemeyer, John Henry, 28 
Noel, Leon, 88, 189 
Noll, Arthur H., 305, 306 
Norman, John, 57, 58, 59-60, 63, 

64, 65, 67, 72, 73, 79 
Nourse, Elizabeth, 12 

Oakes, William, 191 

Oakford, Ellen, 22 

Oakley, Violet, 220 

O'Brien, Robert, 161 

O'Callaghan, E. B., cited, 73 

Oertel, Johannes Adam, 85, 212 

Ogden, H. A., 193, 225, 320; cited, 

Okey, Samuel, 65, 109 

Olsson-Nordfeldt, Bror J., 40, 43, 
48, 176 

O'Neill, Rose, 220 

Opper, Frederick Burr, 272, 274, 

Ormsby, Waterman Lilly, 94 

Orr, John William, 148 

Orr, Nathaniel, 148, 150 

Orr & Andrews, 148 

Osborne, Milo, 101 

Osgood, Frances Sargent, cited, 92 

Osgood, Harry Haviland, 40, 43 

Osgood, James A., publisher, 144, 

Ostertag, Blanche, 220 

Otis, Bas,s, aquatints, 123 ; litho- 
graphs, 180; mezzotints, 112; 
paintings reproduced, 112 

Ottmann, 328 

" Our Young Folks," 219 

Outcault, Richard Felton, 327 

Page, William, 116 

Paine, Albert Bigelow, cited, 260, 

Palmer, wood-engraver, 151 
Palmer, Frances F., 191 
Palmer, F. & S., 191 
Pape, Eric, 228 
Papprill, Henry, 129 
Paradise, John Wesley, 91 
Parker, C. Gray, 279 
Parker, G. C, 327 
Parker, George, 77 
Parrish, Maxfield, covers, 338; 

posters, 314, 326, 333; influence 

of, 329 
Parrish, Stephen, 13, 15, 16, 18, 

20, 21, 27, 35 

Parsons, Charles, lithographs, 191, 

192, 193; as art editor, 192, 222 
Parte sculp, 68 
Parton, James, cited, 244, 253 
Pasini, A., paintings reproduced, 

Pate, William, 126; Pate, W., & 

Co., 86 
Patterson, F. B., print publisher, 

Paxton, William M., 327 
Peale, Charles Willson, 69, 109 
Peale, Rembrandt, 118, 181 
Pearson, Ralph M., 47 
Pease, Bessie, 307 
Pease, Joseph Ives, 79, 86, 87, 88, 

Pease, R. H., 194-195 
Peckwell, Henry W., 161 
" Peintres Lithographes, Les," 202 
Peixotto, Ernest C, 135, 237 
Pekenino, Michele, 68 
Pelham, Henry, 62 
Pelham, Peter, 107-108 
Pen-and-ink drawing, 221, 222- 

224, 225, 226, 227, 232, 233, 234, 

236; in caricature, 274, 276; in 

etching, 25 
Pendleton, John, 181, 182, 184, 

185, 186, 192, 194 
Pendleton, W. S., 190 
Pendleton, Kearny & Childs, 187, 

Penfield, Edward, covers, 312, 

339; posters, 314, 326, 329-330, 

33i, 333 
Penman, Edith, 34 
Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, cited, 6 
Pennell, Joseph, etchings, 8, 13, 15, 

16, 20, 27, 41; illustrations, 222; 

lithographs, 200, 201 ; as printer, 

9, 21, 49; sandpaper mezzo- 
tints, 133; cited, 6, 221, 222, 

226, 227, 228, 232 
Pennimann, J. R., 184, 185 
" Pennsylvania Gazette," 244 
"Pennsylvania Journal," 244 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, 

82, 187 
" Pennsylvania Magazine," 57, 72 
Perard, Victor Semon, 237, 306, 

326, 338, 339 
Perine, George E., 118 
Perkins, Charles C., 5, 213 
Perkins, Granville, 151, 218 
Perkins, Jacob, 94, 95 
Perkins & Co., 95 



Perkins & Heath, 95 

Pfau, Gustavus, 186 

Philadelphia, in caricature, 243 ; 
views in aquatint, 131, — in 
etching, 2, — in line-engraving, 
84, 87, 252, — in lithography, 191, 
195, 196, — in stipple, 78 

"Philadelphia Gazette," 57 

Philadelphia " Inquirer," 286, 326 

Philadelphia "Press," 326 

Philadelphia " Record," 286 

Philadelphia Sketch Club, 13 

Philadelphia Society of Etchers, 
12, 13, 16, 28, 134 

Phiz. See Browne, Hablot Knight. 

"Phoenix, John" (George H. Der- 
by), 213 

Photographs re-drawn for illustra- 
tion, 227 

Photography used directly for il- 
lustration, 208; used to place 
design on wood-block for the 
engraver, 152, 153, 157, 159, 230; 
influence of, 106, 238 

Photogravure, 37, 135 

Photo-lithography, 216 

Photo-mechanical processes, use 
and influence of, 37, 106, 171, 
238; for book-plates, 302, 304- 


"Phunny Phellow," 268 

Physionotrace, 128 

Piazzoni, G., 47 

Picart, B., 246 

" Picayune," 267 

" Picture Gallery," 206 

"Picturesque America," 86, 150, 
152, 218 

"Picturesque Europe," 152, 218 

" Picturesque Palestine," 218 

Pierce, Edith Loring. See Getch- 
ell, Mrs. E. L. Pierce. 

Pierce, H. Winthrop, 341 

Pigalle, 2 

Piggot, Robert (Goodman & Pig- 
got), 76 

Pilbrow (Illman & Pilbrow), 118 

Pine wood, in wood-engraving, 
for posters, 317 

" Pittsburgh Telegraph," 216 

"Plain Dealer," 286 

Plank, George Wolfe, 178, 304, 

Plans. See Maps. 

Plastic Club, Philadelphia, 308 

Plate printers. See Printers. 

Plates, changed, 67-68 

Plates, private, 102 

Piatt, Charles Adams, 15, 16, 27, 

Players, The, 267 

Plumb, Henry G, cited, 318 

Plympton, W. E., 12 

" Polyanthos, The," 75, 123 

Politics, caricature in, chapters xii 
and xiii; the poster in, 333- 

Pollard, Percival, cited, 329 

Poore, Henry Rankin, 13 

Pope, Mrs. Marion Holden, 47 

"Porte Crayon" (D. H. Strother), 

Porter, Edward G, 63 

" Port-Folio," Philadelphia, 71, 
75, 84, 123, 124, 141 

Portraiture, in aquatint, 123, 124, 
125, 127, 128 ; in line-engraving, 
54-55, 58, 59-6i, 65-69, 73, 91- 
92, 93, 102, 103, 171, 207; in 
etching, 3, 29, 30, 42, 119, 171; 
in illustration, 227 ; in lithog- 
raphy, 119, 181, 183, 184, 185, 
186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 
197, 202, 203, 251; in mezzotint, 
106-119; in stipple, 69-72, 75-78, 
91, 93, 102, 251; in wood-en- 
graving, 68, 139, 141, 162, 163, 
176, 203 

" Poster, The," London, cited, 321, 
322, 329 

"Poster, The," New York, cited, 
322, 333 

Posters, 178, 193, 195, 313, 315, 
317-338; collectors, 322; exhibi- 
tions, 322-323 

Pottery, Staffordshire, views on, 

Potthast, Edward Henry, 203, 320, 

Poupard, James, 57, 72, 79 

Poussin, Nicholas, drawings re- 
produced, 3 

Powell, Caroline A., 161 

Prang, Louis, Prang & Co., 196, 
*97i I 98, 199; holiday cards, 
340-342 _ 

Pranischnikoff, I., 219 

Pre-Raphaelites in the United 
States, 184 

Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 325 

Preston, May Wilson, 220 

Prevost, B. L., 66 

Price, William, publisher, 56 

Prindiville, Mary L., 306 



"Print Collector's Quarterly," 
cited, 46 

Print dealers and publishers, 10, 
28, 32, 33, 36, 39, 48, 103, 109, 

Printers, plate, 1, 80, 109, 126, 366 

Printers' ornaments, 56, 138 

Printing, of etchings, 7, 9, n, 12, 
19, 21-22, 46, 49-50; of mezzo- 
tints, 117; of wood-engravings, 

" Printing Art," 339 

Probst, John Michael, 67 

Prud'homme, John Francis Eugene, 
77, 78, 91. 100 

"Puck" (New York), 193, 271, 
272, 273-276, 277, 279, 280 

"Puck" (St. Louis), 273 

"Punch" (London), 264; copied, 
267, 273 

" Punchinello," 269 

"Punster, The," 268 

Purcell, E., 215 

Pursell, Henry, 53 

Putnam, F. W., 161 

Putnam, G. P., publisher, 147 

Putnam, Stephen Greeley, 161, 167, 

"Putnam's Magazine," cited, 237 

Pyatt, J. O., 187 

Pyle, Howard, book-plates, 306; 
caricatures, 272; illustrations, 
231-232, 236; influence of, 220 

Quartley, F. O., 151 
Quinlan, Will J., 40 

R., H. See Reinagle, Hugh. 
Rajon, Paul, 9 
"Ram's Horn," 281 
Ranger, Henry Ward, 199 
Ranney, William, 86, 87, 88, 89 
Raubichek, Frank, 34 
Rawdon, Ralph, 57, 295 
Rawdon, Clark & Co., 82 
Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Smillie, 

95, 100 
Rayner, R. J., 185 
Reade, Christia M., 306 
Redding, wood-engraver, 148 
Redwood, Allen C, 214 
Reed, Abner, 54, 71, 124 
Reed, Earl H., 47, 48 
Reed, Ethel, 325, 327, 331 
Reed, Thomas C, cited, 70 
Reevs, George M., 327 
Reich, Jacques, 30 

Reinagle, Hugh, 83, 182 

Reinhart, Charles Stanley, carica- 
tures, 271, 283; etchings, 10; il- 
lustrations, 154, 222, 223, 327; 
lithographs, 214 

Remarques, 27, 36 

Rembrandt, etchings copied, 3 ; 
paintings reproduced, 33, 120 

Remington, Frederic, 214, 226, 

Renault, J. F., 64 

" Repository of the Lives and Por- 
traits of Distinguished Ameri- 
can Characters," 76, 91 

Restrikes, 56, 62 

Retroussage, 9 

Reuterdahl, Henry, 237 

Revere, Paul, 57, 58, 72, 105; bill- 
heads, 317; book-plates, 291; 
cards, 316; caricatures, 242-243; 
certificates, 56; portraits, 65, 67, 
79; his "Boston Massacre" 
plate, 62, 63, 104 

" Review of Reviews," cited, 272 

Revolutionary War, in caricature, 
240-244; in line-engraving, 59, 
60, 61, 62-66; in illustration, 
154, 213, 225, 231; in mezzotint, 
109, 111-112; in portraiture, 65, 
66-67, 7°, 73, 79, 109, 111-112 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, paintings re- 
produced, 100, no, 112 

Rhead, Frederick, 230 

Rhead, George W., 230 

Rhead, Louis J., book-plates, 305, 
308; illustrations, 230; posters, 
326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 333 

" Rhode Island Literary Reposi- 
tory," js r 

Ribot, Theodule, painting repro- 
duced, 164 

Rice, Richard A., cited, 15 

Richards, John H., 195 

Richards, Thomas Addison, 100, 

Richardson, Fred, 286 

Richardson, James H., 147, 150 

Richardson & Co., 148 

Richardson & Cox, 148 

Rico, Martin, influence of, 226 

Ridinger, Johann Elias, work re- 
produced, 141 

Rimmer, William, drawing repro- 
duced, 163 

Riordan, Roger, 214 

Ritchie, Alexander Hay, 4, 68, 89, 
91, 117 

3 66 


Ritchie, George Wistar Hodge, 13 

"Riverside Magazine," 219 

" Rivington's Royal Gazette," 

cited, 244 
Roberts, B., publisher, 53 
Roberts, Charles, 187 
Roberts, J. M., 184 
Roberts, John, 113 
Roberts, William, 148 
Robertson, Alexander, 84 
Robertson, Archibald, 113, 183 
Robinson, Boardman, 285, 337 
Robinson, H. D., 246 
Robinson, H. R., 253, 254 
Rodgers, painting reproduced, 91 
Rogers, W. S., cited, 321, 331 
Rogers, William Allen, 227, 279, 

Rollinson, William, aquatints, 124; 
book-plates, 292; a chaser of 
buttons, 53-54, 93 ; line-engrav- 
ings, 71, 74, 80, 81, 93, 103 
Romans, Bernard, 55, 57, 63, 65 
Rondel, Frederic, 198 
Rood, Roland, 28 
Rorker, Edwin E., 12 
"Rosa, H." (H. R. Lossing), 220 
Rosenberg, G. G., 268 
Rosenberg, H., 24 
Rosenberg, Henry M., 28, 326 
Rosenkrantz, Arild, Baron, 326 
Rosenmeyer, Bernard Jacob, 194 
Rosenthal, Albert, 30 
Rosenthal, L. N., 188, 195 
Rosenthal, Max, etchings, 30; 
lithographs, 189, 195 ; mezzo- 
tints, 119 
Rost, C., 101 

Roth, Ernest David, 45-46 
Rothermel, Peter F., 89, 117, 206 
Roulette, in aquatint, 128, 132; in 
etching, 20, 21 ; in line-engrav- 
ing, 79, 91; in mezzotint, 115, 
Roush, L. L., 326 
Rousseau, Th., paintings repro- 
duced, 164 
Rowlandson, Thomas, influence of, 

125, 241, 249 
Rowse, Samuel Worcester, 97 
" Royal American Magazine," 62, 

72, 243 _ 
Royal Society of Painter Etchers, 

London, 13 
Ruggles, E., Jr., 291 
Ruling machine, 5, 79, 91, 94, 95, 

Ruzicka, Rud., 177, 304 
Ryland, W. W., 61 

Sabin, J. Percy, 109 

Sabin, Joseph F., 27 

S acker, Amy, 339 

S?.dd, H. S., 101, 117 

St. Memin, Charles Balthazar 

Julien Fevret de, i, 66, 125, 128, 

" Saint Nicholas," 168, 272, 326 
Saintin, Jules Emile, 190 
Salmagundi Club, New York, 310, 

" Sam, the Scaramouch," 281 
Sandham, Henry, 29, 227, 299, 302, 

306, 341 
Sandler, Alexander, 340 
Sandpaper mezzotint, 131, 133 
Sanford, Isaac, 57 
Sargent, Henry, 112 
Sargent, John Singer, lithographs, 

Sarony, Napoleon, 197, 254, 318 
Sarony & Major, 184, 191, 255 
Sarony, Major & Knapp, 192 
Sartain, John, 8, 119; mezzotints, 

109, 113-116, 117 
Sartain, Samuel, 117 
Sartain, William, etchings, 28, 29; 

mezzotints, 119 
Satin, impressions on, 69 
Satterlee, Walter, 27, 340 
Savage, Edward, aquatints, 123 ; 

line and stipple engravings, 64, 

69, 70; mezzotints, no, 112; 

paintings reproduced, 118, 124 
Scacki, Francis, 2 
Scharf, T., cited, 251, 253 
Schell, F. B., 217 
Schell, Frank H., 218 
Schelling, R., 168 
Schilling, Alexander, 16, 41, 48 
Schladitz, Ernst, 161 
Schlecht, Charles, 103, 104 
Schneider, Otto J., 42 
Sdioff, Stephen Alonzo, etchings, 

27, 30, 33"34» 35; line-engrav- 
ings, 97, 101 
School book illustration, 220-221 
Schreyvogel, Charles, 203 
Schussele, Christian, illustrations, 

206, 217; lithographs, 196; 

paintings reproduced, 89, 117, 

Schwarzmann, Adolf, 275 
Schweinfurth, Julius A., 331 



Scoles, John, 72, 73 

Scot, Robert, 57, 80 

Scot & Allardice, 81 

Scotch stone, in etching, 20, 133 

Scratchers' Club, Brooklyn, 12 

Scribner's, Charles, Sons, 168 

" Scribner's Monthly," caricatures, 
272; illustrations, 199, 219; il- 
lustrations by the " new school " 
of wood-engravers, 154, 155, 
163, 165, 168, 221; posters, 324, 
326-327; cited, 279 

Scudder, Horace E., cited, 225 

Sears (Fenner & Sears), 82 

Sebron, H., 129 

Seer, Alfred S., 194, 317, 319, 320 

Seiter & Kappes, 335 

Seitz, Emil, publisher, 5, 10, 186 

Senat, Prosper L., 16 

Senefelder Co., 190 

Senseney, George, 38, 45, 132 

Sewell, Robert van Vorst, 28 

Seymour, Joseph H., 59, 73, 80, 81, 

Seymour, Ralph Fletcher, 306, 308 

Seymour, Samuel, 80 

Shakespeare illustrations, 90, 141, 
207, 209, 2U, 222-223 

Shallus, Francis, 124, 292, 294- 

Share, H. Pruett, 34 

Sharp, William, English engraver, 
106; copied, 55 

Sharp, W., & Co., 194 

Shattuck, Aaron Draper, paint- 
ings reproduced, 85 

Shaver, J. R., 237 

Shaw, Albert, cited, 286 

Shaw, Howard Van Dusen, 306 

Shaw, Joshua, 79, 126 

Shaw, Robert, 29 

Sheldon, Rufus, 134, 135 

Shelton, William Henry, 17, 27, 
214, 225 

Shepherd, Jessie Curtis, 219 

Sheppard, William L., 218, 267, 
269, 282 

Sherwin, J. H., 186 

Sherwood, Rosina Emmet, 340, 

" Shinn, Earl" (Edward Strahan), 

Shinn, Everett, 135 

Shirlaw, Walter, bank-note vi- 
gnettes, 96 ; an engraver, 85 ; 
etchings, 26-27, 34 > illustrations, 

Sill, Howard, 305 

Silversmiths, 53, 138 

Simon, 112 

Simond, L., 295 

Sinclair, T. S., 192, 194 

Sindelar, Thomas A., 342 

" Sketch Book," Chicago, cited, 306 

Slade, D. R., cited, 108 

Slader, wood-engraver, 151 

Sloan, John, etchings, 42, 43, 208; 
lithographs, 203; posters, 325- 
326, 327, 331 

Smedley, William Thomas, illus- 
trations, 222, 223, 224, 228, 236; 
posters, 327 

Smillie, George Henry, 28 

Smillie, James, line-engravings, 82, 
85, 89, 90, 91, 93, 95, 97, 100, 
101, 106; etchings, 4; litho- 
graphs, 190 

Smillie, James David, aquatints, 
130; book-plates, 301, 304; line- 
engravings, 86, 96, 97, 101 ; 
etchings, 9, 10, n., 13, 15, 19, 
20, 27, 33-34, 35; soft-ground 
etchings, 21; lithographs, 194; 
mezzotints, 120-121 ; as printer, 
21; as teacher, 38, 41; cited, 36, 

Smirke, Robert, designs reproduced, 

Smith, B. E., 84 

Smith, Dan, 320, 1 328 

Smith, F. Berkeley, 325, 326, 331 

Smith, Francis Hopkinson, litho- 
graphs, 199; cited, 224, 225, 227, 
231, 237 

Smith, George Girdler, 78; (An- 
nin & Smith), 128, 190, 292 

Smith, Hezekiah Wright, 102, 118 

Smith, J. Andre, 40, 43 

Smith, J. H., 276 

Smith, Jessie Willcox, 220, 333, 

Smith, John Raphael, 112 

Smith, John Rubens, 124, 183; 
aquatints, 123; etchings, 2; litho- 
graphs, 190; mezzotints, 112; 
stipple, 77, 79 

Smith, Pamela Colman, 307 

Smith, Sidney L., book-plates, 300, 
303; etchings, 30, 34, 35; line- 
engravings, 62, 63, 104, 105 ; 
cited, 9 

Smith, William D., 82 

Smith, W. Granville, 228, 327 

Smither, J., 55, 57, 65, 72, 292 

3 68 


Smithwick, John G., 154, 155, 161 
Snyder, H. W., 75 
Society of American Artists, 332 
Society of American Etchers, 29 
Society of American Fakirs, 332 
Society of American Wood-En- 
gravers, 164, 167, 168 
Society of Colonial Dames, 310 
Society of Iconophiles, 52, 104, 131, 

!35> I7 1 , 200 
Soft-ground etching. See Etching. 
" Soft metal process," 216 
Sonntag, VVm. Louis, paintings re- 
produced, 85 
Sons of the Revolution, 29 
" Southern Illustrated News," 215 
Spanish-American War in carica- 
ture, 255, 278-279, 284; in lithog- 
raphy, 193 
Sparks, Will, 47 
Sparrow, Thomas, 54, 138, 291, 


Spear, Gil, 335 

Spenceley, Frederick, 304, 306 

Spenceley, J. Winfred, 104; book- 
plates, 300, 302, 303, 306, 308, 
309, 310 

Spencer, Lily Martin, works repro- 
duced, 206 

Spier (Davis & Spier), 152 

Spongotype, 134 

Sprague, Isaac, 191 

Springfield, Mass., Public Library, 

Squire, Maud Hunt, 47 

Staffordshire pottery, views on, 

Stamp Act, 241, 243, 244 

" Stanlaws, Penrhyn " (P. S. 
Adamson), 276 

Stansbury, A. I., 82 

Staudenbaur, R., 168 

Stauffer, David McNeely, book- 
plates, 305, 306, 308; caricatures, 
259; cited, 1, 54, 55, 57, 58, 62, 
63, 65, 68, 69, 95, 97, 100, 107, 
108, 109, 112, 113, 115, 116, 124, 
126, 128, 139, 187, 190, 243, 251, 
294, 310, 316 

Steel, James W., 92 

Steel, engraving on, 206, 207, and 
chapter iv in general 

Steel plates, 94, 95 

Steele, Frederic Dorr, 237, 238, 

Steeper, John, 56, 57 
Stephens, Alice Barber, 220 

Stephens, Henry L., caricatures, 
268, 269; illustrations, 193, 206, 
213, 214 

Sterner, Albert, illustrations, 228, 
237, 279; lithographs, 202; mon- 
otypes, 135, 136 

Stetson, Charles Walter, 34 

Stevens, Thomas Wood and Helen 
B., 47 

Stevens, William Dodge, 237 

Stipple engraving, 59, 64, 69-72, 
in, 113, 124; 19th century, 75- 
79, 82, 91, 93, 116, 118, 128, 252; 
in etching, 21 ; in illustration, 
75-77, 82 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, cited, 

Stokes, I. N. Phelps, cited, 52 

Stone, Wilbur Macey, 305, 333; 
cited, 307, 308. See also Trip- 
tych, The. 

Story, Thomas C. (Story & At- 
wood), 68 

Stothard, Thomas, designs en- 
graved, 81 

Strahan, Edward ("Earl Shinn"), 

Strang, William, influence of, 39 

Strickland, William, 124, 125 

Strobridge Lithographic Co., 193- 
194, 320 

Strong, Thomas W., wood-engraver, 
148, 162, 215; publisher, 144, 
3*7, — of lithographs, 255, 256, 
— of periodicals, 215, 266, — of 
wood-engravings, 257, 263 

Strother, David Hunter ("Porte 
Crayon"), 213 

Stuart, Gilbert, and the "gerry- 
mander," 246 ; paintings repro- 
duced, 69, 71, 72, 75, 119, 185 

"Studio" London, cited, 330 

" Studio," New York, cited, 12, 


Stur, Karl Edler von, 273 

Sturgis, Russell, 306 

Sugden, Thomas D., 154, 162, 218, 

Sullivant, T. S., 280, 286 

Sully, Thomas, lithographs, 181, 
183; his paintings reproduced, 
76, 77, 83, 92, 115, 116, 186 

Sulphur, in etching, 133 

" Sun, The," New York, illustra- 
tions, 217; cited, 31 

" Sunset," 338 ; cited, 47 

Sweett, Moses. See Swett. 



Swett, Moses, 184, 194 (Endicott 

& Swett). 
Sydney " Bulletin," 272 

Taber, Florence, 340 

Tail pieces, 105 

Tanner, Benjamin, 64, 70, 71-72, 

75, 80, 81, 83 
Tanner, Henry, 94 
Tanner, Vallance, Kearny & Co., 


Tarbell, Edmund C, painting re- 
produced, 166 

Taylor, Charles Jay, 274-275 

Taylor, William Ladd, 230, 327 

Teague, Darwin, 335 

Teniers, David, painting repro- 
duced, 141 

Tennant, W., 56 

Tenniel, Sir John, 264; influence 
of, 274 

" Texas Siftings," 283 

Thackara, James, 2, 80, 81, 292 

Thayer, Abbott Handerson, paint- 
ings reproduced, 33 

Thayer, B. W., & Co., 191, 194 

Thomas, George, 317 

Thomas, George H., 146 

Thomas, Henry A., 194, 318 

Thomas, Isaiah, publisher, 59, 73 

Thomas & Wylie, 320, 332 

Thompson, E. Seton, 214 

Thompson, John, 141, 146 

Thorpe, Thomas Bangs, 213 

Thulstrup, Thure de, 225, 226, 

Thurston, John, designs repro- 
duced, 81, 141 ; influence of, 209 

Thurwanger, Martin, 188-189 

Thwaites, William H., 213 

Tickets, engraved, 57 

Tiebout, Cornelius, 63, 69, 72, 74, 
78, 80, 81, 82, 83 

Tietze, Richard George, 161, 168 

Tiffany, Louis C, 340 

Tinkey, John, 150, 162 

Tint blocks, in wood-engraving, 

Tisdale, Elkanah, 63, 72, 73, 80, 
81, 244 

Titles, title-pages, engraved in 
line, 57, 81, 105; engraved on 
wood, 138, 139; etched, 2; maga- 
zines 210; music, 57 

Tobin, George F., 338 

" Tomahawk," London, 271 

Tomkins, P. W., 71 

Toms, W. H., 53 
Toppan, Charles, 184 
Toppan, Robert Noxon, cited, 95 
Totten, Emma J., 305 
Transfer press, 94 
Trenchard, James, 72, 292 
Triptych, The (W. M. Stone, Jay 
Chambers, William Jordan), 
305, 307, 308 
Trollope, Mrs. Frances Milton, 99 
Troutsdale Press, cited, 308 
Trowbridge, Vaughan, 45, 132 
Truesdell, W. Porter, cited, 308 
Trumble, Alfred, cited, 281-282 
Trumbull, John, paintings repro- 
duced, 63, 90, 91, 102 
" Truth," New York, 216 
Tryon, Dwight William, paintings 

reproduced, 164 
Tucker, William E., 98 
Turner, A. M., 341 
Turner, Charles Yardley, 34 
Turner, James, 54, 55, 56, 57; 

book-plates, 291 
Turner, James Mallord William, 
a " Liber Studiorum " plate 
copied, 121 ; paintings repro- 
duced, 125 
Twachtman, John H., 25 
Twachtman, Mrs. John H., 22 
Type-metal, engravings on, 57, 
61, 62, 138, 139, 140, 142 

Uhle, Bernhard, 13 
Underwood, Abby E., 325 
" United States Magazine," 212 
Union League Club, New York 

City, exhibition of etchings by 

women, 22 
University of California, 310, 311 

Vallance, John, line-engravings, 2, 
57, 81, 95; stipple, 77; book- 
plates, 292 

Vanderhoof, Charles A., etchings, 
13, 15, 16; soft-ground etchings, 
21, 41; illustrations, 227; litho- 
graphs, 199 

Vanderlyn, John, paintings repro- 
duced, 77, 90, 97 

Van Elten, H. D. Kruseman. See 
Kruseman van Elten. 

"Vanity Fair" (London), 272 

"Vanity Fair" (New York), 268 

Van Ness, I. M., 161 

Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold 
(Schuyler), cited, 18, 22, 226 



Van Schaick, Steph. W., 279 
Vedder, Elihu, book-plate, 306; 

card, 340; caricatures, 268; 

cover, 338; illustrations, 229; 

cited, 212-213 
" Vehrae, Die," 273 
Velasquez, paintings reproduced, 

"Verdict, The," 281 
Verger, P. C, 64 

Vermeer, paintings reproduced, 166 
"Victor, F." (Victor Gillam), 276 
Vierge, Daniel, poster, 325 ; influ- 
ence of, 226 
Vinci, Leonardo da, 119; "Last 

Supper " reproduced, 79 
Vinton, Frederic Porter, paintings 

reproduced, 33 
Visscher view of New York, 53 
Volk, Douglas, 341 
Volkmar, Charles, 10, 28 
Vondrous, John C, 40, 43 

W., J., 263 
Wagner, R., 333 
Walcott, Jessie McDermott, 220 
Waldo, Samuel Lovett, 103 
Wales, James Albert, 272, 274, 276 
Walker, Charles A., 35, 134 
Walker, Horatio, painting repro- 
duced, 166 
Walker, William H., 280, 286 
Wall, William G, 84, 126 
Wallace, W. H., 29 
Waller, Frank, 28 
Wallin, Samuel, 212, 215 
Walter, Adam B., 118 
Walters, William Thompson, 196 
"War Cry," 215, 280 
War of 1812, illustrated, 83, 125; 

in caricature, 246-250 
Ward, Townsend, cited, 82 
Waring, J. D., publisher, 29, 34 
Warner, Everett Longley, 304; 

etchings, 43 
Warner, William, 116 
Warren, A. Coolidge, 218 
Warren, A. W., 1, 8, 9 
Washburn, Cadwallader, 40, 46 

Washington, George, portraits of, 
if 30, 54-55, 60, 61, 66, 67, 69, 
70, 71. 89, 92, 93, 97, 102, 109, 
no, in, 113, 118, 119, 124, 140; 
caricatures of, 245 ; portraits in 
lithography, 181, 182, 183, 185, 
195; caricatures of, 245; crossing 

the Delaware, 3 ; inauguration, 
64; book on engraving in his 
library, 2 

Washington " Star," 286 

"Wasp," 193, 277 

Watson, Henry Sumner, 327 

Watson, M. L. D., 219-220 

Watt, William G., 173 

Wattles, 266 

Waud, Alfred R., 215, 217 

Waud, William, 217 

Way, Thomas R., 200 

Webb, Margaret Ely, 305 

Weber, Otto, 13 

Weber, Sarah S. Stilwell, 220 

Webster, Herman Armour, 40, 43- 

44, 48 
Wedmore, Frederick, cited, 43 
Weeks, W. W., 6 
Wegner, A. D., 194 
Wegner, Brueckner & Mueller, 194 
Weingartner (Nagel & Wein- 

gartner), 186, 189 
Weir, Julian Alden, card, 341; 
etchings, 25 ; line-engraving, 
105; lithographs, 199; paintings 
reproduced, 166 
Weir, Robert Walter, 3, 6, 32, 98 
Welch, Thomas B., 77, 78, 117-118 
Weldon, Charles Dater, 216, 341 
Wellington, Frank H., 161, 171, 

Wellmore, E., 77 
Wells, Newton A., 47 
Wellstood, John Geikie, 94 
Wellstood, William, 84, 86, 88 
Wenban, S. L., 24 
Wendel, Theodore M., 24 
Wenzell, Albert Beck, 233 
West, Benjamin, etchings, 3; lith- 
ographs, 180; paintings repro- 
duced, 117 
West, Raphael, 180 
Westall, Richard, designs repro- 
duced, 81 
Westcott, Thomas, cited, 243 
Western Art Union, 88 
Western Methodist Book Concern, 

Wheelan, Albertine Randall, 301, 

305, 307, 310 
Wheeler, Dora. See Keith, D. W. 
Whelpley, P. M., 117 
Whistler, James Abbott McNeill, 
etchings, 6, 23, 24, 161; litho- 
graphs, 200-201, 202; as printer, 
9, 21, 49; paintings reproduced, 



166, 168; influence of, 25, 39, 46; 

cited, 173, 201 
White, Charles Henry, 9, 38, 39- 

40, 48 
White, Edwin, 6, 198 
White, George G., 206, 213, 221 
White, Gleeson, cited, 330, 341 
White, John, 51 
White, John Blake, 117 
" White line " in wood-engraving, 

140, 141, 142, 145, 163 
Whitechurch, Robert, 89, 117 
Whitefield, E., 191 
Whitraore, Wra. Henry, cited, 108, 

Whitney, Elias J., 147, 148, 211 
Whitney, J. H. E., 161 
Whitney, Mrs. O. E., 340 
Wickenden, Robert J., 202 
Wiederseim, Grace Gebbie, 315 
Wiggins, Carleton, 12 
Wilcox, John A. J., 103 
Wild, J. C, 191 
Wildhack, Robert J., 335 
Wiles, Irving Ramsay, 227, 228; 

posters, 325, 326 
Will, August, 212 
Willcox, Joseph, cited, 95 
Williams, R. F., 47, 304 
Williams, Virgil, 13 
Williamson, Charters, 12 
Willing, Thomson, 306 
Wilmer, W. A., 77 
Wilson, Alexander, 82 
Wilson, Rose O'Neill, 220 
Wilson, William, 6 
Winslow, Henry, 40, 43 
Winters, 56 
Wolf, Henry, 165, 166, 167, 169, 

I7 1 , !73 

Women artists: book-plate design- 
ers, 301, 305, 307, 310; card de- 
signers, 340, 341 ; cover design- 
ers, 338, 339; etchers, 13, 15, 
20, 21, 22-23 ; illustrators, 219- 
220; poster designers, 315, 325, 
328, 331, 333, 334; wood-engrav- 
ers, 142, 176 
Wood, Joseph, paintings repro- 
duced, 75, 77, 124 
Wood, Robert W., 267 
Wood, Samuel, publisher, 140, 145 
Wood, Thomas Waterman, 18, 28 
Wood-engraving, 36-37, 53, 62, 68, 
118, chapter vii, 137-153; the 
"new school," 97, 151, chapter 
viii, 154-170, 221 ; painter-wood- 

engraving, chapter ix, 171-179; 
advertisements, 140, 315, 316, 
317, 318; book-plates, 293, 302, 
304; caricatures, 247, 248, 257, 
258, 263, 266-271, 273; illustra- 
tion, 205, 208-216; paper-money, 
1 3%, 139; posters, 317, 318, 320, 
332. 337 5 color-work, 148, 173, 
174, 175, 176, 177, 273-274, 317; 
printing, 146 ; tones <vs. lines, 
221, chapter viii ; instruction, 
144, 161 ; durability of wood- 
blocks, 141, 142, 172; British in- 
fluence, 146, 151; imitation of 
copper-plate engraving, 142, 145, 
146, 150, 209; designs photo- 
graphed on the block, 152, 153, 
I 57> J 59> 230; influence of 
photography, 106, 238 
Woodbury, Charles Herbert, 28, 

326, 331 
Woodville, R. Caton, 86, 88 
Woodward, John D., 151, 218 
Woolf, Michael Angelo, carica- 
tures, 267, 272, 283 ; painting 
reproduced, 169 
Worcester, Albert, 44 
"World, The," New York, 216, 

284; cited, 229 
"World To-Day, The," cited, 287 
"World's Work," cited, 284 
Worth, Thomas, 193, 259, 265, 

267, 283 
Wray, Henry Russell, cited, 8, 10, 

13. 32, 36 
Wright, wood-engraver, 145 
Wright, Charles Cushing, 91, 95, 

Wright, Charles Hubbard, 328 
Wright, George Hand, 237 
Wright, Joseph, 1 
Wust, Theodore, 28, 271 
Wylie (Thomas & Wylie), 320 
Wylie, Robert, 268 

Yale, Dr. Leroy Milton, 9, 10, 11, 
15, 21, 28, 304 

"Yankee Doodle," 266 

" Yankee Notions," 144, 266, 267 

Yeager, Joseph, 4, 5, 207 

Yegel, W. J., 327 

Yohn, Frederick C., 237 

Yonghe, De, 328 

Young, Arthur, 275 

" Young America," 144, 267 

Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, Orange, N. J., 169 

372 INDEX 

"Zeitschrift fiir Bildende Kunst," Ziramermann, W., 168 

cited, 233 Zinc, used in lithography, 318 

Ziegfeld, Hugo, 320 Zinc etching, 217, 337 

Zimmerman, Eugene (" Zim "), 274, Zogbaum, Rufus Fairchild, 225 

276 Zorn, Anders, influence of, 39 

3 ^Dflfl 0020=16^ 5 

npg NE505.W43 
American graphic art,